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Smithsonian year 


Smithsonian Year • 1975 

Visitors to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in June not only 
saw Aristide Maillol's Nymph but also this wild mallard duck, proudly swim- 
ming with her young. A pair of mallards surprisingly had made the garden 
their home. 

Smithsonian Year • 7975 




JUNE 30, 1975 

Smithsonian Institution Press * City of Washington • 1975 

Smithsonian Publication 6111 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price $8.30 (paper cover) Stock Number: 047-000-00335-1 

Smithsonian Year • 1975 


The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men." After receiving the property and accept- 
ing the trust. Congress incorporated the Institution in an "establish- 
ment," whose statutory members are the President, the Vice 
President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust in the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State 

William E. Simon, Secretary of Treasury 

James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense 

Edward H. Levi, Attorney General 

Stanley K. Hathaway, Secretary of Interior 

Earl L. Butz, Secretary of Agriculture 

Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary of Commerce 

John T. Dunlop, Secretary of Labor 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare 

Carla A. Hills, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

William T. Coleman, Jr., Secretary of Transportation 

Board of Regents and Secretary • June 30, 1975 

REGENTS OF THE Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 
INSTITUTION Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Frank E. Moss, Member of the Senate 
Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 
Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 
Sidney R. Yates, Member of the House of Representatives 
John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 
William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 
Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 
Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 
Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 
James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

EXECUTIVE Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of Regents) 

COMMITTEE William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb (Chairman) 





David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 
Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 
Julian T. Euell, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 
T. Ames Wheeler 
Peter G. Powers 

Smithsonian Year '1975 






66 Center for the Study of Man 

74 Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

81 Fort Pierce Bureau 

82 National Air and Space Museum 

92 National Museum of Natural History 

119 National Zoological Park 

130 Office of International Programs 

132 Radiation Biology Laboratory 

142 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

152 Smithsonian Science Information Exhange, Inc. 

156 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


171 Archives of American Art 

173 Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

177 Freer Gallery of Art 

181 Hilhvood 

181 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

188 Joseph Henry Papers 

189 National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

190 National Collection of Fine Arts 

195 National Museum of History and Technology 

215 National Portrait Gallery 

218 Office of Academic Studies 

220 Office of American Studies 



227 Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 

230 National Museum Act Program 

232 Office of Exhibits Central 

234 Office of Museum Programs 

238 Office of the Registrar 

239 Smithsonian Institution Archives 

240 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

243 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


251 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

255 Division of Performing Arts 

257 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

260 Office of Public Affairs 

265 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

269 Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

273 Smithsonian Associates 

283 Smithsonian Magazine 

285 Smithsonian Institution Press 


289 Support Activities 

303 Financial Services 

310 Office of Audits 

310 Smithsonian Women's Council 





Smithsonian Year • 7975 


Nineteenth-century lithograph of the original Smithsonian Building, frequently 
referred to as the "Castle." 

Limits to Growth? 


It is appropriate these days to attempt to guess what amount of 
growth is prudent in an organization. In the United States growth 
and development have been synonymous with "good" for lo these 
many years. "Growth" stocks, corporate "growth/' "growth" in- 
dustry — all have been phrases on the side of the angels. And indeed 
growth is natural, a symbol of animate being. "Growth is the only 
evidence of life," as a Dr. Scott said to Cardinal Newman a cen- 
tury or so ago. 

If then growth of some sort is natural — a condition of being — 
how can it be measured? At what level is it healthy as in arithmetic 
growth? At what stage does it become out of control, raging, and 
cancerous, as in exponential growth? A few years ago all growth 
was said to be good, but with discussions on natural resources re- 
flecting our new environmental consciousness frame of mind, peo- 
ple the world over have been made aware of the finite quality of 
certain stores of natural objects, such as oil or minerals, on the one 
hand, and of the worldwide problem of human population growth 
on the other. The book. Limits to Growth, presaged a levelling off 
and decline of standards of living based on development, growth, 
and concomitant expectations within a hundred years, accompanied 
along the way by a series of small crashes as various raw materials 
became nonexistent or economically unexploitable. Given these 
prospects, no matter how much debate centers around the details or 
the time schedule, the planners of the world, taking stock of the 
wars and oil embargoes in the Middle East, have grown in- 
creasingly uncertain of the future, and hesitate nowadays to sub- 
scribe to the prognoses of pre-October 1973. 

In this uncertain climate it seems appropriate to take stock and 
measure our own Smithsonian growth over the past decade. In 
approximate terms the annual federal budget for salaries and ex- 
penses (nearly 80 percent of our total federal budget each year is 
for operations) has increased from a bit over $17 million in fiscal 
year 1965 to nearly $71 million in fiscal year 1975. At first glance 
this addition of about $53.5 million over the period seems a striking 
proportional increase, especially looking back over the previous 
ten years. 

However, roughly $23.5 million of the $53.5 million net increase 
in the period, or about 44 percent of the total increase, is for un- 
avoidable costs. For example, nearly $20 million of the net increase 
in the period is for unavoidable payroll costs, such as legislated pay 
increases, applying both to staff employed in fiscal year 1965, and 
for additional employees subsequently authorized by the Congress. 
(Even if applied just to fiscal year 1965 employment alone, the 
cumulative effect of these pay increases would have raised our 
operating costs by more than $15 million; since fiscal year 1965, pay 
raises alone have raised the pay of salaried employees nearly 70 
percent and wage employees an estimated 83 percent.) During this 
same period, inflationary increases for items such as utilities, sup- 
plies, travel, etc., have further increased costs to the Institution by 
$3 to $4 million. Thus, well over 40 percent of the "growth" of the 
Smithsonian in the past ten years has been due simply to rises in 
the cost of living. 

If this is so, then what of the roughly $30-million increase that 
makes up the rest of our total of $53.5 million? Where has this 
been spent and how? Of this real increase nearly $4 million has 
been for major national events in celebration of the American 
Revolution Bicentennial, a program which is temporary in nature 
and which will phase out gradually over the next two years. The 
other $26 million was authorized for the establishment of new 
activities and for the growth of existing bureaux and offices, in- 
cluding new staff, in the past ten years, but exclusive of their 
legislated pay increases. Of this $26 million, more than $6 million 
has been for new activities such as the Hirshhorn Museum, the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, the National Museum Act, the 
Office of Computer Services, and some fifteen other new bureaux 
and offices. The remaining $20 million has gone to strengthening 

4 / Smithsonian Year 1975 





Night at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

irr •■*-. 

i"*""'""*" IBSfci- 

existing activities and programs in order to keep up with ap- 
propriate standards for the museums and laboratories in our care. 
A highly visible and representative illustration is the Air and Space 
Museum, which has experienced large increases in staffing and 
funding as it has prepared for operations in its new building au- 
thorized by Congress. Less conspicuous has been a concerted effort 
to make our vast natural history collections more accessible for 
research by the application of computer technology and the de- 
velopment of a more adequate level of technician support. 

With the growth of state and federally supported university 
laboratories, as well as the newer support for museums across the 
land, it ill behooves the Smithsonian to fail to keep up, either in 
salaries or in support activities. Otherwise our national obligations 
would be severely jeopardized. Skilled and specialized people in 
the museum and laboratory world are at a premium. There is 
intense competition for their services, just as there is high demand 
for particularly skilled teachers in the academic marketplace. 

It is perhaps worthwhile to cast a glance at the directions toward 
which our $6 million for new activities has been steered. In the 
museum field, new activities cover a broad range. In art, the In- 
stitution has added an entire new museum, the Hirshhorn, filling a 
recognized gap in the Smithsonian's offerings for public exhibit, a 
need which had been identified since as far back as 1938 but never 
previously acted upon. Thus, by acquiring the Hirshhorn collection 
and the museum to house it, the Institution took one giant step 
forward in a tangible intellectual sort of growth by adding a new 
dimension of aesthetic appreciation to the Nation's Capital. Al- 
ready in the first nine months of its existence, the Hirshhorn has 
lived up to its promise by receiving 1,620,540 visitors, making it 
one of our most popular museums in Washington. 

The Cooper-Hewitt collections of decorative arts in New York, a 
most significant and growing department, has been added to our 
art-related collections. The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, a 
new experiment in community relations and the fostering of tech- 
nical museum training and art appreciation in a largely black 
community, has been extremely successful and is now the recipient 
of nearly a half-million dollars of annual federal operating funds. 
The Archives of American Art is a new responsibility of the art 
curatorship of the Institution, bringing to the Smithsonian a com- 

6 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

prehensive documentation of the papers and life histories of 
American artists. Finally, the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition 
Service now receives federal support enabling it to present, in 1975, 
498 exhibitions in forty-five states and seen by approximately four 
million visitors. 

In the realm of the sciences, environmental study receives sup- 
port through the newly created Chesapeake Bay Center as well as 
through the Environmental Sciences Program which, together with 
the Research Awards Program, represent annual expenses of more 
than $1 million. Additionally, the social sciences are represented 
for the first time in the field of social anthropology through the 
Center for the Study of Man. (History in the Museum of History 
and Technology includes, of course, research in what could be 
described as humanistic study as part of the social sciences.) 

Finally, international programs, public information and orienta- 
tion services, and equal opportunity and other important adminis- 
trative services make up the rest. Thus of our $6 million for new 
activities, 36 percent has gone to the arts, 20 percent to the sci- 
ences, and about 33 percent to administering various services. The 
remainder, nearly 11 percent, is accounted for by the technical 
training grants program of the National Museum Act. This pro- 
gram serves other museums and perhaps should not thus be re- 
garded as support for the Smithsonian itself. 

The private funds of the Institution have also grown sub- 
stantially during this ten-year period, from a budget of $12.1 million 
in fiscal year 1965 to $35.9 million in fiscal year 1975. As with our 
federal appropriations, however, inflation of approximately 70 
percent in the past ten years has cut heavily into the purchasing 
power of the 1975 dollars, and again our real growth here has been 
far less than it would seem. In 1965, for example, the Smithsonian 
spent $9.1 million of federal grant and contract awards on various 
research projects; in 1975 federal grant and contract expenditures, 
once again exclusive of administrative expenses, were approxi- 
mately $10.1 million. Deflated to 1965 dollars, however, it appears, 
in real terms, the Smithsonian this year had available $3.2 million 
less from these sources than ten years ago. 

Aside from these grants and contracts, the private funds budget 
has grown from $3.0 million to $25.7 million. This growth, al- 
though also substantially diminished by inflation, does reflect the 

Statement by the Secretary I 7 

greater flexibility of private funds to begin new activities as op- 
portunities arise — specifically it has allowed the expansion of the 
Institution's education "out reach" program through the National 
Associates, spreading the values of our knowledge, research, ex- 
hibits, and collections to citizens throughout the Nation. It has 
allowed improvements also in services to area residents and to our 
visitors to the Nation's Capital. Included in these improvements are 
a first experiment in a neighborhood museum, an enormously suc- 
cessful annual Festival of American Folklife on the Mall, as well 
as fully financed activities in oceanographies and the acquisition 
of major collections. 

In all of this we feel that our growth has been a logical outcome 
of expressed needs of the Institution for further appropriate sup- 
port, and for the addition of new activities to supplement and 
buttress what we are already trying to do. Fortunately, as the 
critic Hilton Kramer has pointed out in the Neiv York Times (May 
25, 1975), where we have added museum collections of real magni- 
tude or differing theme, we have been able to house them in 
separate buildings rather than having to expand an ever-growing 
single roof, or balloon out on a single ever more vast building. In 
my own opinion the days of combining all the world's spectrum 
of art — produced in all the continents from pre-classical to con- 
temporary times, ranging in style from the Old Masters to "ethno- 
art" or tribal arts — under a single roof in a multicellular building 
are over. Museum fatigue can be akin to twisting the dial too 
rapidly on a television set. A kaleidoscope of impressions in- 
evitably brings on premature symptoms of brain damage. In a 
vast collection like the Metropolitan Museum of Art, only rigorous 
discipline will allow the practiced museum-goer or guided student 
to focus on a single exhibit or period of time in cultural history on 
a single visit, presumably one of many. The average museum-goer 
has no such opportunity. A single visit can only produce a kind of 
cosmorama or phantasmagoria so that the etiology of museumitis 
is assured. 

But if we attempt to make the Institution's growth selective, 
how do we select? In the past two years the Smithsonian has em- 
barked on a series of priorities studies, using our administrative 
resources to marshal bureau directors, our distinguished Smithson- 
ian Council, our National Associates Board, and our Development 

8 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Office, to focus on where our real needs remain. A seminar among 
our science bureaux last February at Front Royal, Virginia, was 
another example of our reassessment of our own progress. 

It is quite clear from all these discussions that the future growth 
of the Institution should consist of two parallel and distinct types 
of activity. Physically, as far as existing needs are concerned, we 
have reached a sort of plateau of new growth. We need desperately 
a consolidated Museum Support Facility to house, curate, and con- 
serve collections, in an off-campus setting, away from the Mall. 
The public exhibition facilities on the Mall should not be further 
cramped by the increasing pressures of storage and curation. 

We already possess the land and some of the facilities at Suit- 
land, Maryland, to expand appropriately. We need to create a new 
way of looking at collections, working with them, and training 
conservators as a prototype for a national conservation school. 
Surely the Smithsonian must accept the responsibility for conserva- 
tion of objects. We curate and store hundreds of thousands of 
objects made by man, just as the Library of Congress and the 
National Archives curate and store millions of documents, records, 
manuscripts, and books. Only recently has it been realized that the 
legacy of man-made objects is just as valuable historically and 
philosophically as the testament of the written word. Present 
efforts to conserve these objects are still in their infancy, carried 
on spottily throughout museums and historical collections all over 
the country by about two hundred trained persons. The training of 
conservationists and the study of conservation techniques are of 
the highest priority. Unless the Smithsonian can develop a Museum 
Support Facility^ outside the District of Columbia but still available 
for curation and training, we shall be shirking our national re- 
sponsibility, the outline of which was laid down in our original 
charter of 1846 to be the "keeper of the national collections." 

Additionally, of course, we must renovate, repair, and refurbish 
our old buildings and their surroundings. This task of keeping level 
with decay and over-use is a fearsome one which never ceases. It 
is a task occasioned not so much by growth as by the need to main- 
tain our installations at many levels — physical, aesthetic, and in- 
tellectual. Lack of attention to these concerns brings more expense 
and trouble. Our surroundings directly affect their own mainte- 
nance. It is easy enough to note that run-down lawns, neglected 

Statement by the Secretary I 9 

bushes or flower beds have just as direct an effect in increasing 
untidyness and litter, as do shabby interiors, torn rugs, or broken 

One of the sadnesses of some contemporary architecture today 
is contrived drabness. I recall sitting on an austere stone bench 
(very new and stark) in the lower lobby of a brand new building 
at Yale University, whose extruded aggregate wall and studied 
terrazzo and cement floors conveyed all the style of a World War II 
European concentration camp. A graduate student having finished 
a soft drink bottle taken from a vending machine near the door to 
the library, simply hurled it into the corner to smash and add to 
the litter rather than place it in the handy rack for empties. This 
was not an isolated gesture but rather a symbolic act. When in 
Bedlam or in Belsen by all means behave like the other inmates — 
or the guards? 

The positive aspect of maintenance may be summed up: to 
preserve is also to improve. And so the tasks of conservation, 
curation, and storage go hand-in-hand with the tasks of keeping up, 
of refurbishing, and of redoing our exhibits — whether in the Na- 
tional Zoo, or the museums — and of refining our laboratory 
facilities. These tasks are not those having to do with growth but 
rather those pertaining to prudent management. 

The final, most important task which involves taking care of 
what we already have is how to utilize the objects. With the in- 
crease in collected objects comes an increasing responsibility for 
growth in depth. Communication between bureaux and between 
museums concerning collections, understanding what it is that we 
possess, where it is, and how to retrieve the pertinent data, becomes 
a new priority. Like libraries, museums suffer from bigness. Often 
one department does not know what another has or where it is or 
how to find it. Cataloguing and retrieval of museum information 
are still miles behind the universality of present library techniques. 

Here is an area where the Smithsonian has an opportunity to 
provide national and international leadership in handling the trans- 
mittal of information on collections; where they are, who knows 
about them, and what more remains to be found out? We still have 
no mechanism to correlate our cataloguing information with the 
records of our registrar, who is concerned with logging objects in 
or logging them out. We have no compatibility in systems, no 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

agreed-upon vocabulary, no way of meshing in objects data with 
Ubrary data, even though we know the basic principles for carrying 
out these procedures. Thus the work of finding out how to use and 
how to exchange information on our objects is in its prehistoric 
stages. And yet as we are the caretakers of a finite set of things 
for posterity, we must not only conserve them but we must pro- 
vide the memory bank to let our successors know that we even 
knew we had them and, as well, what we thought about them. 

Finally, the second parallel and distinct type of activity of an 
institution such as ours is indeed growth. "Ah ha," the gentle reader 
will say, "truth will out. We always suspected the worst"! 

It is true that museums as such are concerned with growth. I 
often think that today's museums are the only legitimate growth 
industry left. It is the nature of a museum to acquire objects, al- 
though today the acquisition process is highly refined. As I noted 
earlier, the Club of Rome study intimated that certain natural re- 
sources, oil or copper for example, are finite in quantity in the 
world and may run out. In the same way, museum keepers know 
that the supply of objects, whether made by man, or great natural 
objects, such as whales or pandas, are finite in number and will 
inevitably run out in due course. So endangered man-made objects 
must be preserved and collected with the same zeal and care needed 
for endangered living species, end-products of the miracles of 
evolution, that they may be preserved alive in some manner for 
the future. How curious that a museum or zoo ends up being both 
a growth industry and an instrument of conservation? What a 
paradox to find a growth industry which is not at the same time a 
consumer of resources? 

Equally, for better or worse, the Smithsonian is constantly in- 
volved in turning down potential gifts. Such gifts may range from 
buildings to vast or small things. Thus we recently have turned 
down the San Francisco Mint, the Saint Louis Post Office, and the 
liner S.S. United States. Additionally we have politely rejected the 
largest collection of ceramics from Thailand ever offered to any 
museum in the United States (because we could not prove they 
were legally imported). 

But of course the Smithsonian accepts things especially where 
the things in some way interdigitate with other things we already 
have, or represent lacks in closely related subjects. For example, the 

Statement by the Secretary I 11 

Institution possesses a good deal of basic railroading material and 
documentation of the history of railroad evolution in the United 
States, but we lack a "donkey," a particular small shunting engine 
of a type long since dismantled and now only rarely found in the 
Southern States used as a power take-off for temporary logging or 
lumber mills set up in pine forests. But how to find one? How to 
seek out that rarity, that sadly unrecognized relic, beneath whose 
dirt and greasy squalor lies the "impassioned beauty of a great 
machine." Oh Georgia-Pacific, Oh Weyerhauser, where is thy 
benison? Where in some neglected forest glade lies maundering 
that rusting hulk? 

Another area in which our collections have strength is in the 
history of porcelain-making in Europe. Oriental hard-paste por- 
celains were greatly admired in the West, but it was not until the 
early eighteenth century, under the aegis of Augustus the Strong, 
Elector of Saxony, that hard-paste porcelain was successfully pro- 
duced in Europe at Augustus's Meissen factory. Through the 
benefactions of a few donors, notably Dr. Hans Syz, our Museum 
of History and Technology possesses an important collection of 
European hard-paste porcelains as well as a fascinating exhibit of 
many Oriental prototypes in design and pattern. 

But of the equally significant soft-paste porcelains, especially 
from French factories of the late seventeenth and the early eight- 
eenth centuries, such as Rouen, Saint Cloud, Mennecy, Chantilly, 
and Sevres, we are woefully deficient. To demonstrate the develop- 
ments in ceramic history and technology in Europe and the United 
States, gaps such as this must be filled. And so, collectors, know 
that the Smithsonian would indeed welcome gifts, not only of 
French soft-paste porcelain, but of many other types of European 
and American ceramics dating from about 1700 to the present. For 
this is only prudence on our part. If we are to preserve such objects, 
they must be en suite, to make the collection comprehensive and 
historically more worthwhile for study. In this pursuit there should 
be no impediment. 

But the question of collecting is fraught with complication. As 
I have pointed out, the objects are finite in number, like rare natural 
resources. They may be fought over by rival directors or keepers 
with ferocious or Machiavellian zeal. Or again they may be already 
possessed by one institution or other and unavailable for further 

12 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

acquisition. This is all right if the objects are well taken care of, 
docun\ented, or conserved. It is also all right if they are available 
for outside study or loan. Here the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
in New York has recently been pioneering most farsightedly in 
loan collections exchange so that objects of great rarity, not other- 
wise available for collecting nor thus for viewing or studying, 
may be exchanged temporarily or for a longer term, to benefit 

In such cases of higher need or high policy, the broad vision of a 
director or a group of trustees may well exceed the imagination and 
vision of a particular curator. Some curators are objective and full 
of vision, ample in their comprehension of the needs of museums 
in general as well as of the possibilities of education for the public, 
but others may still have a long way to go in the area of posses- 
sions. Like members of a family trying to divide up a parent's 
possessions after the funeral, curators sometimes let their human- 
ness show. They may not always be willing to lend, exchange 
where possible, or otherwise make objects available for study. 

Perhaps this is where the attic image for museums makes its 
appearance. People are possessive but not for scholarship. They 
want to own things but not for posterity. They are proud of pos- 
sessions, but not careful of their provenance or thoughtful of their 
future. After a time they have possessed, as they have loved, and, 
the embers growing cold, they could not care less what happens to 
the objects. So send them up to the attic or send them to the local 
historical society or museum! What's left anyway? And that's how 
museums often inherit their collections. No wonder then that the 
curator, mindful of how this careless largesse has been acquired, 
becomes jealous, or secretive or unsharing, bound that his superior 
knowledge and his possessions will carry their secrets with them 
to the grave. Such is the very antithesis of rational curation, con- 
servation, and care for posterity. Surely no curator worth his salt 
can fail to admit that some of these unworthy thoughts have passed 
through his own head. 

Thus museums are a growth industry give or take a few years. 
Selective as they may be, "growth is the only evidence of life." 
But such growth is difficult to plan, notwithstanding established 
priorities. Maybe we will never get a shunting engine or a perfect 
collection of "soft-paste" china, but there are other targets of 

Statement by the Secretary I 13 

opportunity along the trail. If an opportunity should come for the 
Institution to acquire a collection of portraits of native Americans 
similar in quality to those secured in the late 1870s painted by 
George Catlin, should we say no because such an unexpected event 
is not listed among our priorities? Fortunately, museum curators, 
knowing that no one really cares about posterity except themselves 
and librarians, would not be so pedantic. At such a moment a 
proper curator throws caution to the winds and acts as decisively 
and coolly as James Bond with one minute to solve the fate of the 
world. The curator knows as surely as "007" that in acquiring 
certain things from time to time, there is no priority. There is only 
the urgent necessity. Equipped with such powers of discretion, 
sureness, and authority, curators may act as coolly and shrewedly 
as any great intelligence operative, knowing that what they are 
after may represent one of the world's only legacies for the future. 

Thus the Smithsonian will continue to grow, and to conserve 
prudently and to refurbish what it possesses, mindful of the keen- 
ness of perception and judgment required along the way. It is an 
honorable task, and an onerous one, not easy, for the world finds 
such skills difficult to understand, their worth hard to evaluate, 
and there is no school in which to learn except that of experience. 
And yet this is a task of high priority, for collectors remain one of 
the only means we have to help the long train of understanding, 
of communication between generations which is the very stuff of 
history. If history is transmitted in an institution such as ours 
then this reinforces and instructs the present and casts a glimmer 
of light into the murky shades shrouding the future. 

I have referred in the past to a museum as a social planetarium 
where past may be delineated, present experienced, and future 
postulated, the latter deriving from both the others. We hope that 
an additional natural development for the Smithsonian will be the 
creation of a flexible area adjacent to the National Air and Space 
Museum, where some presentiment of the future may be exhibited. 
We would show some of the results of our known technologies, 
both newly acquired, as well as re-use of old, for solar energy, 
water conservation, food resources — in general, all that we know 
or can perceive about life support systems. As we near the end of 
our Bicentennial it is well to look ahead to our Tricentennial, and 
in the process demonstrate to our citizens some of the implications 
contained in the concept limits to growth. 

14 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Limits to growth in this sense is not a real phrase. It is merely 
symboUc and in proposing it the authors of the Club of Rome 
study were suggesting a riddle. Mankind cannot exist without 
growth but we would be wise to accustom ourselves to an outlook 
which stresses the interdependence of our existence as humans on 
the planet. While nationalism and independence are taken for 
granted today, the world economy, the use of resources, the inter- 
locking systems by which we live are inevitably becoming supra- 

Paradoxically, just as events in the world at large having to do 
with available resources, food, and overpopulation should be re- 
minding the statesmen of the world of our interdependence, our in- 
ternational political institutions such as those associated with the 
United Nations are increasingly threatened by neo-nationalism, 
tribal and ethnic factionalism, and irrational social behavior. Per- 
haps we need some practical demonstrations, such as those related 
to how we are going to have to share in the future in order to exist 
at all, to remind us that we should impose societal discipline upon 
ourselves rather than have it superimposed upon us by events be- 
yond our control. 

As the Institution looks back over the past year one priority 
clearly emerges. Along with evaluation of our procedures and our 
growth should come an examination of ways to make ourselves 
more self-reliant. Only in this fashion can we carry through our 
objectives in a businesslike and timely fashion. I have always felt 
that the Congress encourages us to act in such a responsible fashion 
and indeed they have. The fact that we are filling in the West Court 
of the Museum of Natural History using funds that the Institution 
has raised privately so as to improve the facilities for our visitors, 
school classes, tourists, and Associates alike, as well as to produce 
restaurant accommodations for their comfort, has reminded our 
Congressional committees that we have an obligation to do this. 
We can act independently and prudently as we are chartered to do, 
using private support to achieve goals related to the education and 
convenience of our visitors. This is a facility which would have 
taken far longer to achieve using the normal budget review and 
Congressional appropriations procedures and would, therefore, 
have been inevitably far more expensive. We can be thankful that 
our charter gives us such flexibility. 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

Such a development could not have come about without the 
support the Associates have given us. At every level, locally and 
nationally, there is a new awareness of the Smithsonian abroad. 
This has come about largely because of Associates' activities which 
bring them a new understanding of our work and concerns. The 
local programs of the Associates in Washington now involve some 
70,000 people. Our national membership now stands at over 
900,000. This means that for the first time Americans in a measur- 
able proportion across the land have a feeling of belonging to the 
Smithsonian and are in the process of understanding more clearly 
their own heritage. For in this awareness they will realize that 
the Smithsonian belongs to them. 

This past year has seen the birth of two additional forms of 
Institution outreach, one popular and of questionable impact from 
our own point of view, the other of more immediate educational 
interest to ourselves. The first was an apparently highly successful 
series of three television hour specials on prime time, on the 
Columbia Broadcasting System network, produced by David 
Wolper, the celebrated independent producer, and sponsored by 
du Pont. The three programs were light, somewhat frothy, and 
varied from sensational to charming and nostalgic. I enjoyed them 
as entertainment, as nearly fifty million Americans seemed to do, 
and I hope they will be produced again. As entertainment they can 
remind the public that the Smithsonian is fun and not merely "good 
for one," like castor oil or blackstrap molasses. Of course the more 
we can remind people that learning is fun, and that the Smith- 
sonian is fun, the better. 

The second event has been the release of the first of our Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica filmstrips for schools. We hope these will spread 
across the land and increase the accessibility of our collections to 
everyone in the same way that we hope to enlarge our Traveling 
Exhibition Service of objects ranging from prints and pictures to 
decorative objects or historic objects illustrating crafts and tech- 

This past year has included several important appointments. Mr. 
Stephen Weil has come to us from the Whitney Museum of Ameri- 
can Art in New York to assume the post of Deputy Director of the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Dr. James Billington has 
become Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Scholars after a trial year's leave from Princeton. Dr. Forrest C. 
Pogue was appointed Director of the Eisenhower Institute for His- 
torical Research in the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. Mr. Lawrence Laybourne has joined the Smithsonian as 
Coordinator, Office of Membership and Development, after work- 
ing as a Vice President for Government Affairs of Time Incorpor- 
ated for a number of years in Washington. Mr. Howard Toy has 
come to us as Director of Personnel from the Office of Economic 
Opportunity. We are honored and pleased with these significant 
additions to our staff, and honored also that Francis 5. L. William- 
son, Director of the Smithsonian's Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies, has taken a year's leave of absence to serve 
as Commissioner of Public Health and Social Services in the 
Cabinet of Governor Jay S. Hammond in the state of Alaska. 

Two retirements after many years' service of particular im- 
portance this year were those of Dr. George S. Switzer and Mr. 
Jeremiah Collins. Dr. Switzer was in the Department of Geology 
from 1948, and in the Department of Mineral Sciences from 1963, 
and Chairman of that Department from 1968 until his retirement. 
Mr. Collins has retired after nineteen years of service with the 
Smithsonian's International Exchange Service during seventeen of 
which he was head of that Service, which each year on behalf of 
the Library of Congress and government agencies ships many 
tons of published works from the United States to libraries abroad. 

Death claimed several of our men in the Smithsonian service in- 
cluding the untimely loss of Mr. L. Wardlaw Hamilton of the Gen- 
eral Counsel's office in a motor accident and Mr. Jesse E. Merida, 
a museum specialist in geology, of a heart attack. Howard I. 
Chapelle, an internationally known marine historian and author, 
who was Historian of Marine Architecture on the staff of the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology until 1971, died on 
June 30, 1975. He had been a prominent member of the Smith- 
sonian staff since 1957. 

For a mere nine months of the past year, our visitors to the 
Smithsonian buildings in Washington, excluding the Zoo, comprised 
13,128,000 people, a considerable increase over the preceding year. 
However, among our problems with this continual growth of visitor 
interest has been the limited space for circulation, as well as our 
pitifully limited funds for renovation of the space we possess. 

Statement by the Secretary I 17 

Among the six major museums of natural history in the United 
States from the West Coast to the East, the Smithsonian's Natural 
History Museum ranks last in space for exhibits, 166,000 square 
feet, close to a third in size of the largest of those museums (the 
Field Museum in Chicago), but with visitor attendance three times 
as large as that of the larger museums. The resulting wear and 
tear makes critical our need for renovation funds as well as for a 
new support facility for research, conservation, and off-Mall 
curation of collections. We are doing our best, as I have noted 
earlier in this report, to match federal funds with private support 
in renovation in that particular museum, but the obligation to 
serve the public subsumes a similar obligation for help from the 
public sources that support our museums for the public good. 

Our labors would be incomplete without the many gifts which 
the Institution has received over the year in funds or in kind. The 
principal acquisition during the year has been the formal decision 
by Mr. Bern Dibner to transfer to us his extraordinary library and 
collection of artifacts in the history of science. This collection has 
been referred to elsewhere in our annual report of this year and 
last, but it helps to place our departmental work in the history of 
science and technology in a new context. I could say with some 
confidence, primus inter pares. 

Gifts to the Institution are also listed elsewhere, but among them 
of special note are the two outstanding Bicentennial donations of 
a million dollars each from American Airlines and General Foods 
for support of our Festivals of American Folklife of 1975 and 1976, 
and the gift of the Summa Corporation of funds for the Howard 
Hughes "Racer" plane and its exhibit in the National Air and Space 
Museum. We are most grateful to the Eppley Foundation for sup- 
port of fellowships at the Radiation Biology Laboratory and its 
work on ozone concentration. Finally we should not overlook the 
gift from eight third-grade boys at the Ohate Elementary School 
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, who set up a research project on 
mythology and organized a classroom museum exhibit, charging 
one cent in admission. From this they donated their entire pro- 
ceeds to the Smithsonian, $6.08. We are grateful indeed for their 
wholehearted enterprise. 

For the first time an ad hoc committee of members of the 
National Board of the Smithsonian Associates worked together in 

18 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

the review of a Smithsonian project. The Chancellor appointed 
two members of the Board of Regents and two members of the 
National Board whose interest in oceanography and the environ- 
ment were germane to the review of the Fort Pierce Bureau. It is 
expected that in the future similar projects will be reviewed by 
such ad hoc combined efforts. 

Board of Regents 

The board of regents held its customary three meetings in fiscal 
year 1975. 

At the Fall Meeting of September 24, 1974, the Board welcomed 
Dr. Gell-Mann as a recently appointed Regent. It was noted with 
great satisfaction that Mr. Burden and Dr. Haskins had been re- 
appointed, by acts of Congress. 

The financial report was summarized for the Board and the 
Board congratulated the Secretary for the good financial position of 
the Institution. In the Financial Report presented in this report, 
there will be found a full discussion of the finances of the Institu- 
tion, including comment on the market value of current funds, en- 
dowment funds, and plant funds. 

The Board accepted with pleasure the gift of Mr. Bern Dibner 
consisting of the major resources of the Dibner Library of the His- 
tory of Science and Technology. 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum was discussed at some length and 
the Board resolved to continue all efforts to bring the Museum into 
active operation. 

Hillwood Museum was found to continue in financial distress, 
due to the investment market, and will remain in a holding status. 
A public opening will depend on a satisfactory long-term solution 
to financing of operating expenses. 

The agreement with the Marriott Corporation for construction of 
a three-story building to contain a restaurant, office space, and 

Statement by the Secretary I 19 

public education areas in the West Court of the National History 
Building was ratified. This is a joint venture using Marriott funds 
and Smithsonian private funds. 

The Congress reauthorized the National Museum Act in accord- 
ance with the recommendation of the Regents. It was noted that 
the construction programs for the National Air and Space Museum 
and the National Zoological Park were progressing satisfactorily. 
It was further noted that additional steps should be taken by the 
National Park Service and the D.C. Department of Highways and 
Traffic to provide automobile parking for traffic, especially during 
the Bicentennial year. 

The Regents were assured that the Comptroller General had 
examined a number of legal questions raised by a Senator and had 
found no evidence that the Hirshhorn matter had been illegally 
consumated in any particular. 

The Regents complimented the Secretary on being appointed as 
an Officer of the Ordre Francais des Arts et des Lettres. The meet- 
ing was followed by a pre-opening tour of the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden. 

The traditional Annual Meeting of the Board was held on January 
24, 1975. 

The financial report was summarized and presented. The new 
federal fiscal year beginning on October 1 and ending on Sep- 
tember 30 was adopted by the Board. 

After hearing an explanation by the Treasurer of the need for 
additional costs for the projected three-story building for the West 
Court of the National Museum of Natural History, together with 
an urgent plea from Director Porter Kier for the improvement, the 
Regents approved proceeding with the project. 

On the basis of an historical review of some six years of ocean- 
ographic research based at Fort Pierce, Florida, the Secretary pro- 
posed and the Regents agreed to a review for future guidance of 
the corporate and program relationship with the donors, J. Seward 
Johnson and Edwin A. Link. A Smithsonian ad hoc committee com- 
prising several Regents and members of the Smithsonian's Board 
of National Associates was proposed. Mr. Johnson and Mr. Link 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown, Chairman of the National Armed 
Forces Museum Advisory Board, reviewed for the Regents the long 

20 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

history of the unsuccessful actions taken to establish an outdoor 
niilitary museum. The combined difficulties of acquiring a riparian 
site to accommodate naval as well as land-based exhibits and the 
acquisition of a site with automobile access without disrupting the 
adjoining residential subdivisions had defeated our numerous 
efforts. The Regents recognized these barriers to an outdoor 
museum in the environs of Washington. They received with favor 
the description of the potential of the Eisenhower Institute in the 
National Museum of History and Technology to develop future 
programs to portray the historic contributions of the Armed 
Forces of the United States. The Regents then directed that the 
report of the Advisory Board be transmitted to the Congress 
pursuant to the provisions of Public Law 87-186. 

The Regents considered the six-year history of efforts to obtain 
Congressional authorization of a museum support facility to 
relieve the crowding of objects of historical, scientific, and artistic 
significance into corridors and exhibition space. The Regents re- 
solved to request the Congressional Members to reintroduce legisla- 
tion to authorize planning of the support facilities, to be located off 
the Mall but in a location as near as possible. 

The Regents considered favorably a proposal for legislation to 
reserve for the Smithsonian's public service purposes the last re- 
maining building site on the Mall, between Third and Fourth 
Streets, Maryland and Independence Avenues, and Jefferson Drive. 

The Board considered and approved the actions taken by the 
National Collection of Fine Arts Commission, primarily the ac- 
ceptance of works presented for accessions. 

To assist the National Portrait Gallery in carrying out its basic 
functions, the Board authorized the Secretary to request the Con- 
gress to amend the founding act of April 27, 1962, so as to add to its 
programs the collection and display of prints and photographs. 
The Regents approved the actions of the National Portrait Gallery 
Commission at its meetings on May 8 and November 11, 1974, 
primarily relating to accessions. 

The Regents were given further status reports on construction 
projects at the National Air and Space Museum, the National Zoo- 
logical Park, and the Arts and Industries Building, and accepted with 
great pleasure the gift of Mr. William A. M. Burden of ballooning 
artifacts, including books and furniture with a ballooning motif. 

Statement by the Secretary I 21 

A motion was adopted to designate the education building at the 
Chesapeake Bay Center as the Jean C. Schmidt Environmental 
Education Building in honor of Miss Schmidt's development of an 
environmental awareness program before her untimely death. 

The Spring Meeting of the Board was held on May 14, 1975. 

The Chancellor warmly welcomed Vice President Rockefeller and 
Senator Frank E. Moss, who were attending their first meeting of 
the Board. Senator Moss of Utah succeeds Senator J. William Ful- 
bright. It was noted that on January 28, 1975, the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives had reappointed Congressman George 
H. Mahon as a member of the Board, and had appointed Repre- 
sentative Elford A. Cederberg and Representative Sidney R. Yates, 
each for a term of two years. 

The Regents were presented a summary of the Federal Budget of 
$79,408,000 for operations and $17,892,000 for other special 
projects including construction, and the reconstruction of the 
Egyptian Temple at Philae. The status of the nonfederal funds of 
the Institution were presented in detail. The Board approved the 
budget of the private funds for fiscal year 1976. 

The Investment Policy Committee Report was presented on be- 
half of the Chairman, Mr. Burden. 

In accordance with the governing statute, the Board submitted 
recommendations to the President for appointment to the National 
Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board. 

The Regents received the report from the ad hoc committee on 
Fort Pierce, Florida. The study included a tour of the facilities and 
talks by members of the scientific staff. The principal programs 
are the Indian River Study, the Life Histories Studies, and the 
Submarine Exploration of the East Florida Continental Shelf. These 
and other research programs were considered by the Smithsonian 
staff to be worthwhile and should be continued. Dr. Murray Gell- 
Mann of the review committee concluded in its report that the 
present arrangements for accomplishing the scientific objectives at 
Fort Pierce should be continued on substantially the same lines, 
with a yearly review of objectives. The Regents approved. 

Several bills introduced by Congressional Regents had been 
favorably reported by the Subcommittee on Library and Memorials 
of the Committee on House Administration. Included were a bill to 
authorize planning of a museum support facility in Suitland, 

22 / Smithsonian Year 1975 



From left to right: Mrs. John Nicholas Brown, Secretary and Mrs. S. Dillon 
Ripley, and the Honorable John Nicholas Brown, Regent and Chairman of the 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, Smithsonian Institution, in 
the Great Hall, Smithsonian Institution Building, evening of May 14, 1975, at 
the conclusion of a reception and dinner given by the Board of Regents and the 
NAFMAB in Mr. Brown's honor, on the occasion of the dedication of the 
Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research. The Board of Regents 
bestowed the Henry Medal on Mr. Brown on this occasion. 

Maryland; a bill to reserve the last remaining building site on the 
Mall for the Institution's use; and bills for the reappointment of 
Regents Brown and Watson. 

The Board expressed its continued support for the position that 
automobile parking at R. F. K. Stadium is not an adequate alterna- 
tive to the present parking on the Mall and the additional visitor 
parking expected in 1976. The Smithsonian has proposed parking 
at the Jefferson Memorial, Tidal Basin, West Independence Avenue, 
and the old Polo Grounds. No action has been taken by the National 
Park Service. 

The current status of various construction projects was given; 
details will be found in Appendix 4 of this report. 

After discussion with several art curators and architects, artists 
Richard Lippold and Charles Perry were given study contracts to 
develop scale models for the entrance to the National Air and Space 
Museum. Outside financial support would be most welcome. 

The agreement with the Summa Corporation regarding the giant 
aircraft "HK-1" was reviewed by the Secretary for the information 
of the Regents. Because of the substantial costs involved in provid- 
ing a suitable building, transporting the aircraft, and maintaining 
so exceptionally large a museum display, it has been agreed that 
Summa will continue to maintain the craft for one year. If it is 
decided to dismantle the plane rather than to attempt to donate the 
craft for display, the Smithsonian will have the right to take por- 
tions of the plane. 

The Secretary called attention to the comprehensive appraisal 
by Dr. Crawford Greenewalt of the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute (stri) in Panama, circulated to the Board. 

Mr. Goheen stated that he would like to know periodically the 
progress of the Institution in equal employment opportunity. The 
Secretary referred to a report which was given to the Regents on 
the Civil Service Commission's survey of 1973. 

The Regents then joined their wives and guests for a reception 
and dinner honoring Dr. John Nicholas Brown on the occasion of 
the dedication of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical 
Research, at which Dr. Caryl Haskins presented the Henry Medal 
to Regent John Nicholas Brown for his devoted service to the In- 
stitution and the Nation. 

The Board of Regents have encouragingly expressed their in- 

24 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

terest and concern for our measured growth, our assessment of 
priorities consonant with that, and at the same time the growth 
of our own awareness of staff and personnel problems. They 
realize our concern for equal employment opportunity, for upward 
progress in jobs, for the consensus of opinion on ratios in employ- 
ment, minority representation, and equal employment opportunities 
for women. 

With this we welcome their support of the appropriate training 
help to nourish our resolve to make museum careers attractive to 
people in this country who before might have been quite unaware 
of such opportunities. If we can raise the consciousness of people 
in general about museum work, and its opportunities for self-en- 
lightenment, for jobs, and for the fascination and fun involved, we 
will have justified many times over the conviction that here is 
indeed a legitimate growth industry. 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

The Commons Restaurant in the Smithsonian "Castle" serves a buffet luncheon 
to visiting Smithsonian Associates and to the Smithsonian staff. 

Smithsonian Year '1975 


Smithsonian's fiscal year 1975 may be summarized as one of con- 
tinued sound financial progress, even though financial needs con- 
tinued to increase. In part, this need was to meet further large 
inflation-bred increases in salaries and wages, utilities, and other 
operating costs. In addition, new activities, including the opening on 
October 1, 1974, of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
and the continued step-up in preparations for the 1976 Bicentennial 
and next year's scheduled opening of the new National Air and 
Space Museum, required further substantial support. Fortunately, 
the Smithsonian received federally appropriated funds to cover a 
large part of these added needs. Federal appropriations also pro- 
vided a major increase in funding for construction at the National 
Zoological Park at a rate designed to achieve completion of its 
master plan renovation over a ten-year period. Despite the generous 
increase in appropriations, however, tight budgeting of these funds 
and curtailment or postponement of a number of worthwhile 
projects was necessary. Formal management reviews of the In- 
stitution's priorities have been beneficial in directing our efforts 
toward the best uses of these available resources. 

At the same time, our private trust funds were strengthened 
further during the year, despite the need to meet from our own 
resources the same types of inflationary cost increases as affected 
federally funded expenses. Private fund income derived from in- 
vestments, gifts, the Smithsonian Associates programs, museum 
shops, concession fees, and other revenue-producing activities in- 
creased substantially in fiscal year 1975. Gifts, largely for specific 


projects, such as Air and Space exhibits and the Bicentennial 
Festival of American Folklife, more than doubled those of the 
previous year. 

These private trust funds have normally been used principally 
to take care of administrative expenses, to fund programs specified 
by donors, and to assist in a modest way a variety of our Bureaux' 
endeavors, such as small research efforts, publications, or the 
acquisition of collection items for which federal funds have not 
been available. In fiscal year 1975, larger private revenues made it 
possible to initiate a long-sought program of adding to the In- 
stitution's present meager unrestricted-purpose endowment funds. 
Increased private fund resources also made it possible to finance 
improvements to our Museum Shops and, assisted by foundation 
grants and other donations, construct a new training building for 
the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies and start the 
renovation of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's new quarters (toward 
which we are still seeking another $1,000,000 of outside support). 
Continued success of the Institution's self-help efforts, which 
also play a major role in bringing the Institution's educational 
values to a wider audience throughout the Nation, will enable us 
to continue the strengthening of our endowment funds, the alloca- 
tion of additional support to our bureaux in areas not covered by 
federal funding, and the construction of improved facilities for our 
visiting public and Smithsonian Associates already underway in 
the West Court of the National Museum of Natural History. 

Overall Sources and Application of Funds 

In Table 1 there is shown a comparative listing of all of the In- 
stitution's sources of financial support for the past four years. 
Federal appropriations totaling $74,511,000 provided 76.3 percent 
of the $97,623,000 of overall operating funds in fiscal year 1975. 
Grants and contracts at $12,292,000 equaled 12.6 percent, and 
nonfederal (private trust funds) sources accounted for 11.1 per- 
cent of the total; the proportions provided by both of these sources 
rose in the past year, gains which are in line with the Institution's 

28 / Smithsonian Year 1975 










Table 1. Overall Sources of Financial Support 

Sources FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 FY 1975 


Federal appropriation: 

Salaries and expenses $44,701 

Smithsonian Science 

Information Exchange .... 1,600 

Special Foreign Currency 

Program 3,500 

Subtotal $49,801 $56,733 $65,063 $74,511 

Research grants and contracts . . 8,088 8,996 9,996 12,292 

Nonfederal funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to 


Restricted purpose 1,598 

Unrestricted purpose 26* 

Income from endowment and 

current funds investment 

Restricted purpose 1,573 

Unrestricted purpose 334 

Revenue -producing activities 

(net) (141) 

Miscellaneous 482 

Total nonfederal funds . . 3,872 

Total Operating Support $61,761 


Federal Construction Funds: 

National Zoological Park ... $ 200 
National Air & Space Museum 1,900 

Hirshhorn Museum 3,697 

Restoration & Renovation of 

Buildings , 550 

Total Federal Construction 

Funds $ 6,347 

Private Plant & Land Acquisition 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum .... $ 700 

Hirshhorn Museum - 

Chesapeake Bay Center .... 386 

Anacostia Neighborhood 

Museum - 

Total Private Plant and 
Acquisition Funds $ 1,086 

























$ 675 

$ 3,790 

$ 9,420 













$ 106 

$ 262 

$ 162 










$ 255 

$ 1,332 

$ 187 

* Excluding gifts to Associates (included under Revenue- Producing Activities). 
** Includes $225,000 of fiscal year 1973 income transferred from Endowment Fund 
No. 3 for this purpose in fiscal year 1972. 

Financial Report I 29 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds for 

Year Ended June 30, 1975 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds, and Endowments) 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal funds 




















Cen- con- 






eral tracts 


1 July 1974 $ -0- $ 6,792 $3,477 $ -0- $ 460 $2,802 $ 53 


Federal Appropriations . . . $72,511 

Investment Income $ 2,677 $ 950 $ - $ 3 $1,724 $ 

Grants and Contracts 12,344 - _ _ - 12,344 

Gifts 4,577 46 147 207 4,177 

Sales and Revenue 18,866 - 18,655 211 

Other 1,194 228 - 330 636 

Total Provided $72,511 $39,658 $1,224 $18,802 $ 751 $6,537 $12,344 

Total Available $72,511 $46,450 $4,701 $18,802 $1,211 $9,339 $12,397 



Environmental Science ... $ 1,277 $ 371 $ 30 $ - $ 5 $ 46 $ 290 

Natl. Museum of Nat. 

History 9,260 1,338 84 - 44 216 994 

Natl. Zoological Park 5,429 87 39 - 1 40 7 

Fort Pierce Bureau - 648 - - 1 647 

Science Info. Exchange* . . 1,805 11 - - - - 

Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory 3,501 7,918 65 - 28 119 7,706 

Radiation Biology Lab 1,727 87 - - 3 7 77 

Smithsonian Tropical 

Research Institute 1,205 110 1 - 87 22 

Interdisciplinary Communi- 
cations Program - 1,244 23 - - 15 1,206 

Natl. Air and Space 

Museum 3,947 366 4 - 88 142 132 

Other Science 1,272 1,079 8 - 15 110 946 

Total 29,423 13,249 255 - 272 1,364 11,358 

History and Art: 

Natl. Portrait Gallery .... 1,499 244 10 - 16 180 38 

Natl. Collection of 

Fine Arts 2,046 66 10 - 43 11 2 

Freer Gallery 380 1,088 _ _ _ i,088 

Natl. Museum of History 

and Technology 4,992 660 50 - 82 467 61 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum . . 209 482 2 - - 298 182 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating funds for 

Year Ended June 30, 1975 — continued 

[In $l,000's] 


Nonfederal funds 



















Gen- con- 






eral tracts 


17,507 164 16,494 

Archives of American 

Art 279 214 

Bicentennial of the 

American Revolution . . . 3,855 

Millwood - 

Hirshhorn Museum 1,541 

Other History and Art . . . 363 

Total 15,164 

Public Service: 

Revenue-Producing Activities 

Smithsonian Press 586 361 

Performing Arts 482 1,205 

Other - 15,600 

Anacostia Museum 403 42 

Other Public Service 862 299 

Total 2,333 

Museu^n Programs: 

Libraries 1,564 

Exhibits 936 

Natl. Museum Act Pgms. . . 802 

Other Museum Programs . . 1,867 

Total 5,169 

Buildings Management and 

Protection Services 15,840 

Administration 4,582 

Overhead Recovered ... - 
Transfers for Designated 

Purposes — Out or (In) . . - 

Total Funds Applied $72,511 


30 June 1975 $ -0- $ 9,317 $3,767 $ 












































































$18,802 $ 




$37,133 $ 


$1,071 $4,374 $ 105 

* Figures do not include revenues to SSIE from other sources of approximately $800,000. 

Table 3. Application of Federal Appropriations 

Fiscal Year 1972 through Fiscal Year 1975 

(Excluding Special Foreign Currency Program) 

[In $l,000's] 

Area FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 FY 1975 

Science $18,365 $20,329 $24,884 $29,423 

History and Art 6,285 8,022 12,130 15,164 

Public Service 2,093 2,253 2,696 2,333 

Museum Programs 5,881 6,660 4,321 5,169 

Administration 3,235 3,987 4,693 4,582 

Building Maintenance and 

Protection 10,442 11,982 11,839 15,840 

Total $46,301 $53,233 $60,563 $72,511 

goal of restoring a better balance between federal and nonfederal 
support. Construction funds totaling just over $18,000,000 in fiscal 
year 1975 continue to be provided almost exclusively by federal 

The application in fiscal year 1975 of all of these funds (exclud- 
ing Special Foreign Currency funds. Plant funds and Endowment 
funds) to Smithsonian's diverse activities is set forth in Table 2. 
Detailed discussion of the various types of income and their uses 

For fiscal year 1975, Congress provided $70,706,000 of appropriated 
funds for the Smithsonian's normal operating purposes ("salaries 
and expenses"), a generous increase of $11,838,000 over the pre- 
ceding year. 

Of this increase, $6,500,000 was devoted primarily to furthering 
the three high-priority program objectives followed in fiscal year 
1974, namely: (1) continued preparation for opening of the new 
National Air and Space Museum in July 1976; (2) development of 
Bicentennial activities; and (3) further strengthening of the many 
services needed for the protection, care, and cataloguing of col- 
lections and support for related research. The remaining 45 percent. 

32 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Table 4. Special Foreign Currency Program 

Fiscal Year 1975 Obligations 

[In $i,ooo's] 


atic & 


& Earth 



Country ology Biology Sciences Programs tration Total 

India $ 196,206 $ 69,740 $ 34,900 $ 48,472 $ 96,631 $ 445,949 

Egypt 1,322,685 16,796 10,125 17,900 1,800 1,369,306 

Pakistan 101,901 94,390 - 3,948 435 200,674 

Poland 4,826 68,497 165,449 185,728 - 424,500 

Tunisia 326,175 459,231 2,431 622 1,473 789,932 

Burma - - - 36 - 36 

Total $1,951,793 $708,654 $212,905 $256,706 $100,339 $3,230,397 

or about $5,300,000, plus an estimated $2,000,000 more used for 
other purposes last year, was required to meet the costs of 
legislated and other uncontrollable increases in federal salaries, 
severe increases in utility and rental rates, and the inflationary rise 
in prices of other materials and services. An additional $1,805,000 
was provided for the work of the Smithsonian Science Information 
Exchange, a separately incorporated organization, engaged in re- 
cording, classifying and furnishing information on a wide variety 
of on-going research projects in such fields as water resources and 
medical and environmental studies. Its scope and usefulness has 
been expanding rapidly in recent years. The allocation of these 
federal operating funds among major categories of Institutional 
endeavor may be found in Table 3. 

Additional appropriated funds for Smithsonian's Foreign Cur- 
rency Program were greatly reduced in fiscal year 1975 to 
$2,000,000, of which $1,000,000 was reserved for the second of 
four equal payments to cover the United States' participation in 
UNESCO's international campaign to preserve archeological monu- 
ments on the Island of Philae in Egypt. Remaining amounts of these 
blocked foreign currencies allocated to the Smithsonian are awarded 
to universities and similar United States organizations to conduct 
research studies in a number of foreign countries (see Table 4). 

Financial Report I 33 

Federal appropriations for construction purposes in fiscal year 1975 
amounted to $10,910,000 plus $7,000,000 more toward continued 
payments for the new National Air and Space Museum under con- 
tract authority provided in fiscal year 1973. The advisability of 
completing, over about a ten-year period, the phased renovation of 
the National Zoo in accordance with its approved master plan was 
given strong recognition in the boost to $9.4 million in funds for 
this purpose. This fiscal year 1975 allotment will go toward con- 
struction of the new elephant and bird house environs and an 
education and administration building. The $1.5 million granted 
toward restoration and renovation of buildings will, among other 
things, provide for installation of fire control systems, repairs to 
the old Arts and Industries Building, and improvements to the 
unsightly grounds south of the "Old Castle" Building. 


In recent years a major portion of the research projects of the In- 
stitution have been funded by grants and contracts from federal 
agencies, and in fiscal year 1975 this contribution increased signif- 
icantly to more than $12 million. As detailed in Table 2, the sci- 
ence programs of the Institution benefited in largest measure; the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory accounted for more than 
one-half of these funds, receiving support from the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration for such projects as a Dop- 
pler tracking experiment for the ApoUo-Soyuz project, meteor 
studies, and the satellite tracking program. Other awards to the 
Smithsonian covered such diverse programs as investigations on 
endangered plant species and a study of international oil spills to 
research on the ethnic origins of man in America and abroad, and 
a compilation of the papers of the artist Charles Willson Peale. A 
breakdown of the major granting agencies to the Smithsonian, 
together with the funds expended over the past four years, is shown 
in Table 5. 


From 1846, the year in which Congress passed legislation establish- 
ing the Smithsonian Institution, until 1858, when the first federal 

34 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Table 5. Grants and Contracts 
[In $l,000's] 

Federal Agencies FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 FY 1975 

Atomic Energy Commission $ 73 $ 76 $ 71 $ 84 

Department of Commerce 392 203 

Department of Defense 916 969 

Department of Health, Education 

and Welfare 411 306 

Department of Interior 247 230 

Department of Labor 11 51 

Department of State 195 593 

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 4,605 4,923 

National Endowments for the Arts 

and Humanities 35 58 

National Science Foundation 560 957 

Other 643 630 





















Total $8,088 $8,996 $9,996 $12,292 

operating funds were appropriated for the use of the Institution 
($4,000), the current needs of the Smithsonian were met from the 
investment income of James Smithson's bequest to the American 
people. As Congress entrusted additional responsibilities to the 
Smithsonian, however, together with the annual appropriations to 
fulfill them, the federal portion of the Institution's budget grew, 
exceeding $1,000,000 in 1927 and $10,000,000 in 1963. While the 
private resources have also grown substantially since these early 
days, the maintenance of the uniquely federal-private nature of the 
Smithsonian requires constant efforts to increase our private 
sources of income. 

In fiscal year 1975, these efforts again met with success, and the 
total private funds income to the Institution from gifts, investment 
income, revenue-producing activities, fees, and other revenues 
totaled $11,007,000 compared to the prior year's level of 
$8,954,000. The private trust funds provided 11 percent of the 
total operating support of the Institution, up from 9 percent last 
year. In addition, gifts and fund-raising efforts provided $187,000 
for plant improvements, principally for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
(see Table 6). 

financial Report I 35 

Table 6. Total Private Funds Income Fiscal Year 1975 
[In $l,000's] 

Unrestricted Purposes 

General & 

Revenue- Special Restricted 

Revenue Sources producing purposes* purposes 


Investments $ 950 $ 3 $1,724 

Gifts 46** 207 4,177 

Revenue-Producing Activities 2,308 - - 

Concessions and Miscellaneous 228 541 636 

Total Operating Funds $3,532 $751 $6,537 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum . . $ - $ - $ 10 

Chesapeake Bay Center - - 15 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum - - 51 

Total Gifts $ - $ - $ 76 

Miscellaneous — 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum $ - $- $ HI 

Total Plant $ - $ - $ 187 

Grand Total $3,532 $751 $6,724 


$ 2,677 




$ 111 
$ 187 

* Represents unrestricted income designated by management to be used only for specific 
** Excluding $145,000 gifts to Associates and $2,000 gifts to Press (included under Revenue- 
Producing Activities). 

Unrestricted Private Funds 

In fiscal year 1975 the Institution was able to continue last year's 
pattern of generating unrestricted income excess to its immediate 
operating needs. While administrative expenses grew, along with 
the number of research and museum projects dependent on these 
unrestricted funds, it was nevertheless possible to take a major step 
toward our goal of building the Institution's endowments by a 
transfer of $1,442,000 from current into unrestricted endowment 
funds. It is our intention to make similar transfers annually to the 

36 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

extent compatible with current needs, in order to strengthen the 
Institution's private resources for the future. 

As shown in Table 7 , total unrestricted income rose 20 percent 
this past year to a record level of $3,532,000. Despite a propor- 
tionately large rise in administrative expense due to salary in- 

Table 7. Unrestricted. Private Funds 

General and Revenue-Producing Activities 

(Excluding Special Purpose Funds and Gifts to Endowment) 

[In $l,000's] 

Item FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 FY 1975 


General Income: 

Investments $ 334 $ 436 $ 744 $ 950 

Gifts 26 33 151 46 

Concessions and Miscellaneous . . 197 374 284 228 

Total General Income 557 843 1,179 1,224 

Revenue-Producing Activities : 

Associates 76 287 1,590 1,968 

Shops 19 47 226 417 

Press (Ill) (109) (89) (96) 

Performing Arts (50) (65) 104 (79) 

Product Development - 69 37 218 

Other Activities (75) (59) (98) (120) 

Total Activities (141) 170 1,770 2,308 

Total Income 416 1,013 2,949 3,532 


Administrative Expense 2,956 3,097 3,957 4,780 

Less Administrative Recovery 2,639 2,772 3,345 3,644 

Net Administrative Expense .... 317 325 612 1,136 

Net Gain (Loss) Before Transfers . . 99 688 2,337 2,396 

Less Transfers: 

To Plant - - 1,134 97 

To Endowment 21 21 121 1,463 

Other (Net) 17 124 307 546 

Net Gain (Loss) After Transfers ... 61 543 775 290 

Ending Balance $1,781 $2,292*- $3,477* $3,767 

Adjusted to reflect reclassification to Plant Funds of $32,000 net investment in 
capitalized equipment in fiscal year 1974 and $410,000 reclassification from Plant 
Funds to Current Funds in fiscal year 1975. 

Financial Report I 37 

creases, other inflationary pressures, and a greater number of 
allotments to Smithsonian bureaux for special needs, the net gain 
before transfers for special purposes was nevertheless higher than 
last year. These transfers, described below, also exceeded those of 
the prior year, but left some $290,000 to be added to the un- 
restricted fund balance at year's end, raising it to $3,767,000, a 
level more compatible with the Institution's working capital needs. 

Investment income, partly from unrestricted endowment and 
partly from short-term investment of current funds, increased to 
$950,000 this past year; of this income, however, approximately 
$190,000 was transferred to Smithsonian bureaux as interest on 
their restricted-purpose fund balances. Unrestricted gift income 
decreased, indicating once again the difficulty of obtaining support 
for general purposes. As has been the case in the prior two years, 
the major contributors to the Institution's unrestricted budget were 
the educational and revenue-producing activities, which have 
proven able, not only to cover their costs in extending Smithsonian 
programs beyond the geographical limits of Washington, but also 
to generate funds to supplement other research and museum pro- 
grams of the Institution. 

The Associates program, now ten years old, offers its various 
categories of members such benefits as tours, lectures, exhibit 
openings, special restaurant facilities, courses of study, discounts 
on Museum Shop merchandise, and, of course, the Smithsonian 
magazine. This program, with a membership in excess of 900,000 
at year's end, is enabling the Smithsonian to subsidize important 
research projects for which funds would not otherwise be available, 
as well as to improve our educational services to the public. Due 
in large measure to the success of this program, the Institution will 
be able to construct special facilities in Washington during the 
Bicentennial year to welcome the ever-increasing number of visitors 
to our museums. 

Substantial investments of time and money in the Museum 
Shops, to improve the quality and relevance of the merchandise as 
well as the physical design of the shops themselves, has resulted 
in a further gain in net income, to a level of $417,000. One-third of 
these gains ($139,000) was transferred directly back to the in- 
dividual museums in which the shops are located for public educa- 
tion programs and purchases for the collections. The Product 

38 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Development Program received net royalties of $218,000 from the 
sale by outside manufacturers of licensed products developed in 
concert with Smithsonian staff and related to the national collec- 
tions. As with Museum Shops' gains, distributions were made to 
participating bureaux totaling $83,000. Detail on these and other 
activities is shown in Table 8. 

From the net gain of $2,396,000, transfers were made as noted 
above to Endowment ($1,442,000 to Unrestricted, and $21,000 to 
Restricted Endowment), and to the Bureaux from Revenue-Pro- 
ducing Activities ($222,000). In addition, transfers were made for 
land acquisition at the Chesapeake Bay Center ($97,000), operation 
of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum ($34,000), special research grants 
to Smithsonian scientists ($102,000), payment of interest to bureaux 
on their restricted and special purpose funds ($194,000), and 
miscellaneous incoming transfers of $6,000. 

Table 8. Revenue-Producing Activities for Fiscal Year 1975 

[In $l,000's] 


Mu- Smith- sonian Per- Product 

seum sonian Asso- forming Devel- 

Item Total Shops Press* dates Arts opment Other** 

Sales and Revenues . . $18,459 $3,211 $189 $13,524 $436 $302 $797 

Less Cost of Sales . . . 8,310 1,802 169 5,977 68 - 294 

Gross Income . 10,149 1,409 20 7,547 368 302 503 

Gifts 147 - 2 145 - - - 

Other Income 196 10 74 41 43 - 28 

Total Income . 10,492 1,419 96 7,733 411 302 531 

Expenses 7,563 902 180 5,352 442 79 608 

Administrative Costs 621 100 12 413 48 5 43 

Income (Loss) Before 

Transfers 2,308 417 (96) 1,968 (79) 218 (120) 

Less Transfers 219 139*** - - - 83*** (3) 

Net Income (Loss) . . $ 2,089 $278 $(96) $ 1,968 $(79) $135 $(117) 

* The privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally supported publica- 
tion of research papers. 

** Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, Photo Sales, "Commons" 

Restaurant, Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Special Publications and Television 
*** Allocations to the Smithsonian bureaux participating in this program. 

Financial Report I 39 

Special Purpose funds are set out separately in Table 6 as well 
as in Table 2. These moneys include unrestricted gifts to particular 
bureaux ($207,000) and receipts from various bureau enterprises 
($541,000), such as parking at the National Zoological Park or sale 
of commemorative envelopes at the National Air and Space 
Museum, which are then reserved for improvement of facilities or 
exhibits. The balance of these funds at June 30, 1975, was 
$1,071,000, compared with $460,000 in 1974. This substantial in- 
crease, despite the use of more than $500,000 of such funds for 
numerous bureaux as shown in Table 2, reflects both the income 
noted above as well as the transfers from Revenue-Producing 
Activities and the payment of interest on fund balances. 

Restricted Private Funds 

The Institution also received $6,537,000 in fiscal year 1975 for a 
wide variety of specified, or "restricted," operating purposes, as 
compared to $4,266,000 in fiscal year 1974. This total includes 
gifts and grants of $4,177,000, endowment income of $1,724,000, 
and miscellaneous revenues of $636,000; a partial breakdown show- 
ing the principal recipients appears in Table 9. 

Endowment income provided the major operating support for 
the Freer Gallery of Art and the Fort Pierce Bureau, with the re- 
mainder of the endowment funds (outlined below) benefiting 
projects throughout the Institution. The gifts and grants to the 
Institution are far too numerous to describe fully, although a 
partial listing of donors follows this report. Their support to the 
restricted funds, however, provided the greater portion of the 
operating budgets of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative 
Arts and Design and Hillwood, the former estate of Mrs. Marjorie 
Merriweather Post. Major support was provided to the National 
Air and Space Museum by gifts from the Summa Corporation for 
general exhibits purposes and from the German Federal Republic 
for construction and equipping of its new Spacearium; these gifts 
are of immense value to the Institution in its commitment to open 
this museum on July 4, 1976. Another Bicentennial project which 
received important funding was the Division of Performing Arts 

40 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Table 9. Restricted Operating Private Funds,* Fiscal Year 1975 

[In $i,ooo's] 



Archives of American Art . . . . 
National Museum of History 

and Technology: 

American Banking Exhibit . . 

American Maritime Hall . . . . 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum: 


Funds for Collections 

and other 

Special Purpose Funds 

Division of Performing Arts . . 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

Freer Gallery 


National Air & Space Museum 
Woodrow Wilson Center** . . . 

Total Restricted Funds . 

Net in- Fund 
Trans- crease balance 
Miscel- Total Deduc- fers in (de- end of 


ment Gifts laneous income tions (out) crease) 

4 $ 22 $263 $ 289 $ 212 $39 $ 116 $ 321 




























































































■ Excluding Grants and Contracts shown in Table 5 and also Restricted Plant Funds included in Table 6. 
Included herein even though federal funds of the Center are not a part of this report, since the Smith- 
sonian is by legislative act the official recipient and custodian. 

which plans an extended Festival of American Folklife in the 
summer of 1976; grants from General Foods Corporation and 
American Airlines are reflected in Table 9, with further payments 
from these corporations expected in fiscal year 1976. Generous 
support received from inland waterways transportation firms is 
making possible further progress toward the building of an 
exciting new American Maritime Hall in the National Museum of 
History and Technology. 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars re- 
ceived substantial grants both for on-going projects as well as for 
the establishment of the new Institute for Advanced Russian 
Studies, announced during this past year. 

Miscellaneous receipts from the Freer Gallery sales desk and 

Financial Report I 41 

special fund-raising activities of the Archives of American Art 
gave significant assistance to those programs. 

As mentioned on page 35, another $187,000 of restricted funds 
was also received for plant construction purposes, principally for 
renovation of the Carnegie Mansion, new home of the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum. An additional $1,000,000 for this purpose is still 
being sought. 

Endowment Funds 

The Smithsonian endowment funds had a market value on June 
30, 1975, of $41,939,000. They consist of the Freer Fund, whose 
income is used solely by the Freer Gallery of Art; Endowment 
Fund No. 3, which supports oceanographic research at the Fort 
Pierce Bureau in Florida; other restricted funds, maintaining a 
large number of research projects; and unrestricted funds. As of 
July 1, 1974, all Smithsonian endowment funds, exclusive of 
$1,000,000 held in perpetuity in the U. S. Treasury, and some 
$72,700 of miscellaneous securities, were pooled into the Con- 
solidated Endowment Fund in order to facilitate investment man- 
agement; separate accounting and administration continues, how- 
ever, to be maintained on each fund in this pool. Table 10 shows 
the market values of these funds since 1971, reflecting additions 
from donations and reinvestment of income, limited withdrawals, 
and changes in securities valuations. 

The investment of the endowment funds of the Institution is 
managed by three professional advisory firms, under the close 

Table 10. Market Value of Endowment Funds 
[In $l,000's] 

Fund 6/30/71 6/30/72 6/30/73 6/30/74 6/30/75 

Freer $18,805 $21,973 $18,279 $14,250 $15,744 

Endowment No. 3 12,331 14,641 13,196 11,128 12,321 

Unrestricted funds 4,404 5,102 4,759 3,906 5,654 

Restricted funds 7,066 8,185 7,634 6,266 7,148 

Total $42,606 $49,901 $43,868 $35,550 $40,867 

42 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

surveillance of the Investment Policy Committee and the Treasurer, 
and subject to policy guidelines set by the Smithsonian's Board of 
Regents. In 1972 the Board of Regents adopted the total return 
policy, under which the income paid to each endowment fund in 
the subsequent fiscal year is determined each March 31 by com- 
puting 4V2 percent of the running five-year average of market 
values, adjusted for additions or withdrawals of capital. By select- 
ing a fixed rate of return, regardless of what the actual yield may 
be, the investment advisors may select securities for growth as 
well as present yield, without being limited by the need to achieve 
a specified dividend and interest income level. 

One of the goals of the Smithsonian administration has been to 
increase our endowment funds, particularly those for unrestricted 
uses, which are still minimal in relation to the size of the Institu- 
tion, providing only a small fraction of one percent of the total 
operating income. Due to the unrestricted current funds surplus 
achieved for fiscal year 1975, it was possible, as described above, to 
transfer $1,422,000 into the unrestricted endowment funds, and 
further such transfers will be a major priority in future years. 
Table 11 reflects the changes in the endowment funds this past 
year due to this transfer, reinvestment of income in certain re- 
stricted funds, donations, and stock market action. The substantial 
increase in market values over the year of $3,930,000 is attribu- 

Table 11. Changes in Endowment Funds for Fiscal Year 1975 

[In $l,000's] 

Gifts Interest Increase 

Market and and Income in Market 

value trans- divi- paid Sub- market value 

Fund 6/30/74 fers dends* out total value 6/30/75 

Freer Fund $14,250 $ - $ 663 $ 839 $14,074 $1,670 $15,744 


No. 3 11,128 68 539 525 11,210 1,111 12,321 


funds 3,906 1,442 186 203 5,331 323 5,654 


funds 6,266 84 316 344 6,322 826 7,148 

Total $35,550** $1,594 $1,704 $1,911 $36,937 $3,930 $40,867** 

* Income earned less managers' fees. 
** Not including Endowment Funds of $1,000,000 held in U.S. Treasury, carrying 6 percent 
interest, nor minor amount of miscellaneous securities treated separately. 

Financial Report I 43 

Table 12. Consolidated Endowment Funds 
June 30, 1975 




Funds participating in pool Book value value 

FREER $15,324,967 $15,743,612 

ENDOWMENT NO. 3 12,249,146 12,320,695 

UNRESTRICTED FUNDS 5,848,197 5,654,142 


Abbott, William L 201,567 207,532 

Archives of American Art* 

Armstrong, Edwin James 4,129 3,678 

Arthur, James 58,605 77,876 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 176,767 161,967 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 53,885 69,613 

Barney, Alice Pike 42,032 55,806 

Barstow, Frederic D 1,932 1,987 

Batchelor, Emma E 64,533 57,725 

Beauregard, Catherine 

Memorial Fund 73,964 77,552 

Becker, George F 303,620 280,334 

Brown, Roland W 48,642 53,224 

Canfield, Frederick A 55,035 85,801 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 24,241 25,001 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 41,269 54,794 

Cooper, G. Arthur, Curator's Fund 3,144 3,003 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 152,251 134,564 

Desautels, Paul E 11,645 12,627 

Div. of Mammals Curator Fund. . . 3,205 3,182 

Div. of Reptiles Curator Fund . . . 959 941 

Drake, Carl J 277,202 262,355 

Dykes, Charles 83,258 85,827 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort . . . 15,930 21,142 

Guggenheim, David and Florence . . 228,910 199,823 
Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline Runice 17,192 17,722 

Henderson, Edward P., 

Meteorite Fund 590 692 

Hillyer, Virgil 12,711 13,111 

Hitchcock, Albert S 2,308 3,119 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 90,934 96,952 

Hughes, Bruce 28,046 37,288 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 15,706 13,121 

Kellogg, Remington, Memorial . . . 46,668 38,189 

Lindsey, Jessie H 560 548 

Loeb, Morris 168,848 175,769 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C. . . . 794 1,085 

Lyons, Marcus Ward 8,424 7,084 

Maxwell, Mary E 28,741 38,205 

Myer, Catherine Walden 39,074 40,283 




Net income 


$ 839,354 


















































































44 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Table 12. Consolidated Endowment Funds 
June 30, 1975 — continued 




Market 1975 pended 

Funds participating in pool Book value value Net income balance 

Nelson, Edward William 35,153 43,264 2,089 2,089 

Noyes, Frank B 1,874 2,030 98 1,335 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston 14,349 14,871 718 3,067 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial 10,858 14,491 700 7,883 

Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. 

DeVVitt Clinton 507,359 430,685 20,759 26,237 

Rathbun, Richard, Memorial 20,584 21,308 1,029 11,785 

Reid, Addison T 34,396 35,456 1,712 2,323 

Roebling Collection 176,974 233,713 11,284 

Roebling Solar Research 47,677 45,813 2,212 

Rollins, Miriam and William .... 290,173 337,235 16,078 956 

Ruef, Bertha M 61,253 51,136 2,469 3,599 

Smithsonian Agency Account .... 200,933 173,087 7,891 - 

Sprague, Joseph White 2,128,377 2,028,893 96,734 25,405 

Springer, Frank 26,282 34,875 1,684 21,810 

Stevenson, John A 9,052 9,475 458 458 

Strong, Julia D 19,348 20,023 967 4,726 

T.F.H. Publications, Inc 16,793 16,213 715 7,894 

Walcott, Charles D 185,976 210,940 10,057 5,149 

Walcott, Charles D. and 

Mary Vaux 674,384 894,812 43,205 11,417 

Walcott Botanical Publications . . . 85,193 108,546 5,241 2,643 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle 1,392 1,833 89 1,807 

Total Restricted Funds $ 6,935,901 $ 7,148,221 $ 343,437 $312,296 

Total Consolidated 

Endowment Funds $40,358,211 $40,866,670 $1,911,278 $435,927 

* Transferred to Current Funds 6/30/75; Book Value $20,925, Market Value $21,106. 

table primarily to the sharp upswing in the stock market, and the 
Smithsonian funds performed somewhat better during this period 
than the generally accepted market indexes. 

Income of $1,911,000, net of managers and custodial fees, was 
paid out during the year under the total return policy, which was 
$207,000 in excess of actual dividend and interest yield. A break- 
down of the income to the various funds participating in the Con- 
solidated Endowment Funds is shown in Table 12, together with 

Financial Report I 45 

the book and market values of those funds. Table 13 provides 
detail on the types of securities held by the Institution. A listing 
of the individual investraents held in the Consolidated Endowment 
Funds at June 30, 1975, may be obtained upon request to the 
Treasurer of the Institution. 

Table 13. Endowment and Similar Funds Summary of Investments 

Book value Market value 

Accounts 6/30/75 6/30/75 


Consolidated Endowment Funds: 

Cash and Equivalents $ 1,108,888 $ 1,108,888 

Bonds 8,072,361 7,717,817 

Convertible Bonds 2,579,706 2,446,265 

Stocks 28,597,256 29,593,700 

Total $40,358,211 $40,866,670 

Miscellaneous : 

Cash $ 731 $ 731 

Bonds 9,769 9,600 

Common Stocks 3,572 13,987 

Total $ 14,072 $ 24,318 

Total Investments Accounts $40,372,283 $40,890,988 

Other Accounts: 

Notes Receivable $ 48,354 $ 48,354 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in Perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total Other Accounts $ 1,048,354 $ 1,048,354 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances $41,420,637 $41,939,342 

Accounting and Auditing 

The Private Trust Funds of the Institution, as well as the accounts 
of Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc., the Smith- 
sonian Research Foundation, and Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., are 
audited annually by independent public accountants. Their report 
for fiscal year 1975 on the Smithsonian is contained in the fol- 
lowing pages, including a comparative balance sheet and a state- 
ment of changes in the various fund balances. 

46 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The Defense Contract Audit Agency annually performs an audit 
on grant and contract moneys received from federal agencies. In 
addition, the federally appropriated funds of the Institution are 
subject to audit by the General Accounting Office. The internal 
audit staff continues to conduct audits throughout the wide range 
of Smithsonian activities and contributes greatly to smooth ad- 
ministrative and financial management. 

Gifts and Bequests to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and 
bequests received during fiscal year 1975 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

American Bankers Association 

American Airlines, Incorporated 


Federal Republic of Germany 

General Foods Corporation 

Millwood Trust 

S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 

Mobil Foundation, Inc. 

The Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Foundation of D. C. 
Summa Corporation 

$10,000 or more: 

American Commercial Barge Line 

American Telephone and Telegraph 

The Arcadia Foundation 
Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
The Brown Foundation 
The Morris & Gwendolyn Cafritz 

CBS Foundation, Inc. 
Charron Foundation 
Continental Grain Company 
Mrs. David Craven 
Crowley Maritime Corporation 
Doubleday & Company, Inc. 
The Henry L. and Grace Doherty 

Charitable Foundation, Inc. 
The Charles Engelhard Foundation 
The Eppley Foundation for Research 
The T. M. Evans Foundation 

Exxon Corporation 

Firestone Foundation 

The Ford Foundation 

The General Electric Foundation 

Mary L. Griggs and Mary G. Burke 

The Hillman Foundation, Inc. 
Interdisciplinary Communication 

Associates, Inc. 
The J. M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. 
Lake Carriers' Associations 
The Robert Lehman Foundation 
Howard and Jean Lipman 

Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Vasco McCoy, Jr. 
State of Mississippi 
Mobil Oil Corporation 
National Geographic Society 
New York State Council on the Arts 
Edward John Noble Foundation 

Financial Report I 47 

$10,000 or more — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. David Packard 
Pepsi Cola Company Foundation, Inc. 
Phelps-Dodge Corporation 
Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Foundation u/a dated July 20, 1956 
The Relm Foundation 
Rockefeller Brothers Fund 
Estate of Gertrude Sampson 
Sears, Roebuck and Company 
St. Lawrence Seaway Commission 

Surdna Foundation, Inc. 

The Allie L. Sylvester Fund, Inc. 

The Tobacco Institute, Inc. 

United Seamen's Service 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremy P. Waletsky 

Matilda R. Wilson Fund 

The Women's Committee of the 

Smithsonian Associates 
World Wildlife Fund 
Xerox Corporation 

$1,000 or more: 

The Ahmanson Foundation 
Alcoa Foundation 

American Can Company Foundation 
Allied Chemical Foundation 
American Express Foundation 
American College of Dentistry 
American Institute of Marine 

American Institute of Merchant 

American Law Institute 
American Metal Climax 

Foundation, Inc. 
American National Standard Institute 
American Studies Association 
Amoco Foundation, Inc. 
The Annenberg School of 


Miss Amelia E. Anthony 
Arthur-Smith Corporation 
Ashland Oil, Inc. 
AVCO Corporation 
The Barra Foundation, Inc. 
Mrs. Frederic C. Bartlett 
The Bass Foundation 
Bath Iron Works Corporation 
Battelle Laboratories 
The Bedminster Fund, Inc. 
Beneficial Foundation 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation 
Miss Helen Bissell 
Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Bloom 
Mrs. Beulah Boyd 
Mr. Daniel J. Boorstin 
The Boswell Oil Company 

The Bundy Foundation 

Dr. and Mrs. I. F. Burton 

Canal Barge Company, Inc. 

Cargo Carriers, Inc. 

Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. 

Caterpillar Tractor Company 

Mrs. David Challinor 

Chase Manhattan Bank 

Mr. Peter B. Clark 

The Coca Cola Company 

Community Funds, Inc. 

Continental Oil Company 

Mrs. Adolph Coors III 

Copernicus Society 

Corning Glass Works 

Dr. William H. Crocker 

Dr. and Mrs. Burrill Crohn 

Dana Corporation Foundation 

Mr. Paul L. Davies 

Deere & Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Dewar 

Dow Chemical U.S.A. 

Elsie DeWolfe Foundation 

Dixie Carriers, Inc. 

Mr. Joseph W. Donner 

Ms. Ann Dreyfuss 

Mr. John A. Dreyfuss 

Earhart Foundation 

The Ferdinand Eberstadt Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Joel S. Ehrenkranz 

Miss Edith Ehrman 

El Paso Natural Gas Company 

Mr. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 

Milton 5. Erlanger, Trust 

Esso Middle East 

Farrell Lines, Inc. 

48 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

$1,000 or more — continued 

Fieldcrest Mills, Inc. 

First National Bank in Palm Beach 

Mr. and Mrs. Benson Ford 

Mrs. Edsel Ford 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Ford II 

Ford Motor Company Fund 

General Telephone & Electronics 

Sumner Gerard Foundation 
The Gilman Foundation 
Gladders Barge Line, Inc. 
Mr. Alfred C. J. Glassell, Jr. 
Josephine Graf Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph F. Greiser 
Mr. Chaim Gross 
Mr. M. D. Guiness 
Hallmark Educational Foundation 
Mrs. Anne B. Harrison 
Mr. and Mrs. John Davis Hatch 
Mrs. Enid A. Haupt 
The Hecht Company 
Mr. Henry J. Heinz II 
Mr. C. Heurich, Jr. 
Mr. Louis W. Hill, Jr. 
Hiram Walker & Sons, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. James Stewart Hooker 
Imperial Embassy of Iran 
The Institute for Intercultural 

Studies, Inc. 
Institute of Psychiatry & Foreign 

Interstate Oil Transport Company 
International Association of Plant 

International Council for Bird 

Preservation Pan American Section 
Mr. James E. Jarnagin 
Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Justman 
Edgar J. Kaufmann Charitable 

Mrs. Harold J. Kersten 
Samuel H. Kress Foundation 
Mrs. Morris A. Levy 
Mr. Harold F. Linder 
The Link Foundation 
Mrs. Kathleen S. Louchheim 
S. C. Loveland, Co., Inc. 
Mrs. Percy C. Madeira, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Maffitt 

Maritime Overseas Corporation 
Mr. Lawrence K. Marshall 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Marsteller 
Chauncey and Marion Deering 

McCormick Foundation 
Honorable and Mrs. George McGhee 
McGraw Hill, Inc. 
Mrs. Nancy M. McNeil 
Mr. Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 
Merck & Company 
Mrs. Margaret Carnegie Miller 
Mrs. Irene Morden 
National Bank of Detroit 
National Steel & Shipbuilding 

Newport News Shipbuilding 
Olin Corporation Charitable Trust 
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Oppenheimer 
Optimus Productions Ltd. 
PACCAR Foundation 
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. 
James C. Penney Foundation, Inc. 
Philip Morris Incorporated 
The Pioneer Foundation, Inc. 
Propeller Club, Port of New York 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Richards 
Anne S. Richardson Fund 
Josephine C. Robinson Foundation 
Estate of Berenice Schwieder 
Security Storage Company of 

Misses Elsie and Dorothy Shaver 
Mr. and Mrs. Alger Shelden 
Shipbuilders Council of America 
The Sidney Printing and Publishing 

Mr. Charles Simons 
Mrs. Frances F. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. James K. Smith 
Standard Oil Company of California 
Mrs. Shirley Watkins Stein 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Stevens 
The Symonds Foundation 
Tauber Oil Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 
Time Incorporated 
Trust Company of Georgia 

T.R.W. Foundation, Inc. 

Financial Report I 49 

$1,000 or more — continued 


Union Mechling Corporation 
University of Michigan 
University of Washington 
Walco National Corporation 
Mr. Richard W. Weatherhead 
Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Weinstein 
Mr. Royce S. Weisenberger, Jr. 
Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

WGBH Public Broadcasting, Boston 
Ms. Gail D. Wilson 
Woodward and Lothrop, Inc. 
Woolworth and Woolco Stores 
Worthington Sales Company 
Charles W. Wright Foundation of 

Badger Meter, Inc. 
Young Men's Christian Association 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Zell 

$500 or more: 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip W. Amram 

Mr. Thomas D. Anderson 


Arizona Historical Society 

Mr. and Mrs. James C. Barbour 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernhard G. Bechhoefer 

Mr. and Mrs. Roger K. Becker 

Mr. and Mrs. John M. Begg 

Mr. and Mrs. Spencer M. Berger 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Pierre Bernard 

Mr. Frank E. Bevens, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. William Bliss 

Bloomingdale Brothers 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Brown 

Dr. Erika Bruck 

Dr. and Mrs. Curt F. Buhler 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Bullock 

Mr. Hugh Bullock 

Campbell Barge Line, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. William F. Cassidy 

Mr. and Mrs. Blair Childs 

Copley Newspapers 

Mr. Julien Cornell 

Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Corwin 

Mr. and Mrs. George L. Craig 

Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Grain, Jr. 

Mrs. Allerton Cushman 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Davies 

Dr. and Mrs. B. N. Desenberg 

Dr. and Mrs. Lowell R. Ditzen 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard G. Doak 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Edgar 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert R. Elsas 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Farr 

First National Bank of Boston 

Mr. and Mrs. Sebastian Gaeta 
General Agents and Managers 

Conference of N.A.L.V. 
Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Gillham 
Mr. Herbert R. Glaser 
Reverend and Mrs. C. Leslie Glenn 
Mr. Frederick R. Goff 
The B. F. Goodrich Company 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Gordon 
Mr. Gilbert Greenway 
Mr. and Mrs. T. R. Grosvenor 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Henry 
Mrs. Maxine Harrison 
Estate of Calvin Hathaway 
Mr. and Mrs. Curtis L. Hillyer 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert G. Hoffman 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh H. Honnen 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel G. Houghton 
Miss Dora Ide 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank N. Ikard 
Irving One Wall Street 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D. Isaacson 
Mr. William Jamison 
Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Jones 
Atwater Kent Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Morris Ketchum 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward F. Knight 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Knowles 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Laurenson 
Mr. and Mrs. Owen S. Lindsay 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin L. Loftus 
James A. MacDonald Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. John P. Mackinnon 
Mrs. Frances D. Martyn 
Maxon Marine Industries, Inc. 
Mr. Donald Mayer 

50 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

$500 or more — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mayer 

Mr. D. F. McClathey 

Mr. James R. McCredie 

Dr. and Mrs. Leo A. McNalley 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Metz 

Mr. and Mrs. William J. Milton 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles Morgan 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Morgan 

Mr. and Mrs. James D. Munro 

Ogden Marine Inc. 

Mr. Robert S. Pace 

Mr. and Mrs. Pierre Palmentier 

Miss Blanche Parseghian 

Mr. and Mrs. Chester R. Paulson 

Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Peterson 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Porter 

Presentation Studios 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Probst 

Miss Elsie H. Quinby 

Miss Margaret Rathbone 

Miss Caroline S. Reed 

Mr. and Mrs. John 5. Reese 

Mr. and Mrs. Sargent Reynolds 

Miss Esther M. Ridder 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Rogers 

Mr. and Mrs. John L. Rogers 

Saks Fifth Avenue, Chevy Chase 

Miss Frances Van Schaich 

Mrs. Alice S. Schwabe 

The Schiff Foundation 

Seamen's Bank of Savings 

Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Selinsky 

Mr. Sidney N. Shure 

Mr. and Mrs. L. T. Sloane 

Mr. and Mrs. Page W. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. William D. Snyder 

Sons of the Revolution 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Stevens 

Stroheim & Romann 

Dr. Walter A. Stryker 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred E. Tarr 

Mr. and Mrs. Bela C. Tifft 

Mrs. Arthur M. Tode 

Mr. John B. Trevor, Jr. 

Dr. Herman J. Viola 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Wall 

The Raymond John Wean Foundation 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in excess of 
$400,000 received from more than 5,000 contributors in fiscal 
year 1975. 

Financial Report I 51 

The 1975 Smithsonian Catalogue (foreground) offers a wide variety 
of Smithsonian Museum Shop merchandise by mail. 





The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of the Private Funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution as of June 30, 1975 and the related statement of 
changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Such statements 
do not include the accounts of the National Gallery of Art, the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, nor other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under 
Federal appropriations as detailed in note 2 to the financial state- 
ments. Our examination was made in accordance with generally 
accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests 
of the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we 
considered necessary in the circumstances. 

In our opinion, the aforementioned financial statements present 
fairly the financial position of the Private Funds of Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1975 and the changes in its fund balances 
for the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the 
preceding year. 

September 5, 1975 

Financial Report I 53 

Balance Sheet 

June 30, 1975 
(with comparative figures for 1974) 

Assets 1975 (note lb) 



In U. S. Treasury $ 543,741 139,352 

In banks and on hand 234,479 651,485 

Total cash 778,220 790,837 

Investments (note 3) 10,149,875 8,298,318 


Accounts, less allowance for doubtful accounts 

of $340,000 ($200,000 in 1974) 1,882,057 1,247,671 

Advances — travel and other 454,775 203,705 

Reimbursement — grants and contracts, net 2,271,060 2,261,103 

Due from agency funds 246,032 136,151 

Total receivables 4,853,924 3,848,630 

Inventories 1,118,688 780,054 

Prepaid expenses 462,278 420,272 

Deferred expenses 1,749,229 1,208,561 

Capitalized improvements and equipment, used in 

income producing activities, net of accumulated 

depreciation and amortization of $537,538 

($409,830 in 1974) 597,610 293,974 

Total current funds $19,709,824 15,640,646 


Cash, net of receivables and payables on securities 

transactions 41,063 506,035 

Notes receivable 48,354 49,966 

Due from current funds 316,043 239,967 

Investments (note 3) 40,015,177 40,043,593 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in perpetuity at 6% 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total endowment and similar funds $41,420,637 41,839,561 


Due from current funds 461,266 1,626,468 

Real estate (note 5) 6,230,034 4,790,921 

Total plant funds $ 6,691,300 6,417,389 


Investments 10,000 10,000 

Due from current funds 386,507 213,100 

Total agency funds $ 396,507 223,100 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 

Balance Sheet 

June 30, 1975 
(with comparative figures for 1974) 


Liabilities and Fund Balances 1975 (note lb) 


Note payable — secured (note 4) $ 95,920 191,843 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 3,261,791 2,596,331 

Due to plant funds 461,266 1,626,468 

Due to agency funds 386,507 213,100 

Due to endowment and similar funds 316,043 239,967 

Deferred income: 

Magazine subscriptions 5,215,531 3,645,757 

Other 655,955 334,955 

Total liabilities 10,393,013 8,848,421 

Fund balances: 

General purpose 3,767,375 3,476,776 

Special purpose 1,071,155 460,544 

Total unrestricted 4,838,530 3,937,320 

Restricted 4,478,281 2,854,905 

Total fund balances 9,316,811 6,792,225 

Total current funds $19,709,824 15,640,646 


Fund balances: 

Endowment 33,354,530 34,999,970 

Quasi-endowment : 

Restricted 2,224,323 2,286,057 

Unrestricted 5,841,784 4,553,534 

Total quasi-endowment 8,066,107 6,839,591 

Total endowment and similar funds $41,420,637 41,839,561 


Mortgage notes payable (note 5) 269,718 349,617 

Accrued liabilities 10,120 36,832 

Fund balances: 
Acquisition fund: 

Unrestricted 379,827 625,610 

Restricted 71,319 964,026 

451,146 1,589,636 

Investment in plant 5,960,316 4,441,304 

Total plant funds $ 6,691,300 6,417,389 


Due to current funds 246,032 136,151 

Deposits held in custody for others 150,475 86,949 

Total agency funds $ 396,507 223,100 


Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 

Year ended June 30, 1975 

Total Total 

current unrestricted 
funds funds 


Auxiliary enterprises revenue $18,866,324 18,866,324 

Federal grants and contracts 12,344,540 

Investment income (net of $91,886 management and 

custodian fees) 2,396,696 951,143 

Gains (losses) on sale of securities (14,909) (14,909) 

Gifts, bequests, and foundation grants 4,576,523 399,725 

Additions to equity in real estate - - 

Rentals, fees, and commissions 745,708 745,708 

Other— net 881,228 244,626 

Total revenue and other additions 39,796,110 21,192,617 


Research and educational expenditures 15,617,194 1,003,767 

Administrative expenditures 4,099,594 1,528,091 

Auxiliary enterprises expenditures 16,035,738 16,035,738 

Expended for real estate and equipment 123,000 - 

Retirement of indebtedness - - 

Interest on indebtedness - - 

Total expenditures and other deductions 35,875,526 18,567,596 


Mandatory — principal and interest on notes (96,894) (96,894) 

Portion of investment gain appropriated 295,084 17,078 

Income added to endowment principal (141,677) - 

Appropriated as quasi-endowment (1,473,436) (1,463,151) 

For designated purposes - (180,844) 

Endowment released 20,925 - 

Net increase in activities - - 

Total transfers among funds — additions (deductions) . . . (1,395,998) (1,723,811) 

Net increase (decrease) for the year 2,524,586 901,210 

Fund balances at June 30, 1974, as restated (note lb) 6,792,225 3,937,320 

Fund balances at June 30, 1975 $ 9,316,811 4,838,530 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 

56 I Smithsonian year 1975 

Current funds 

and similar 













in plant 


















































































































































































Financial Report I 57 

Newly renovated Museum Shop in the National Museum of 
History and Technology opened to the public in March 1975. 


Notes to Financial Statements 

June 30, 1975 

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies 

a. Accrual Basis — The financial statements of Smithsonian Institution — Private 
Funds (note 2) have been prepared on the accrual basis, except for 
depreciation of plant fund assets as explained in note 1(h) below, and are 
in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles included in 
the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Audit Guide "Audits 
of Colleges and Universities." 

b. Current funds include capitalized improvements and equipment used in 
income producing activities having a net carrying value of $597,610 and 
$293,974 at June 30, 1975 and 1974, respectively. Such assets together with 
funds held for additions and liabilities on acquisitions, which were pre- 
viously included in plant funds, were reclassified to current unrestricted 
funds at the beginning of the 1975 year to better reflect assets and liabilities 
used in current operations. Figures for 1974 have been reclassified in the 
accompanying balance sheet at June 30, 1974 to put them on a comparable 
basis with 1975, resulting in an increase in the current unrestricted fund 
balance and a decrease in the plant funds balance of $410,182 at June 30, 

Current funds used to finance the acquisition of plant assets and for 
provisions for debt amortization and interest are accounted for as transfers 
to the plant fund. 

c. Fund Accounting — In order to ensure observance of limitations and re- 
strictions placed on the use of the resources available to the Institution, 
the accounts of the Institution are maintained in accordance with the 
principles of "fund accounting." This is the procedure by which resources 
for various purposes are classified for accounting and reporting purposes 
into funds that are in accordance with activities or objectives specified. 
Separate accounts are maintained for each fund; however, in the accom- 
panying financial statements, funds that have similar characteristics have 
been combined into fund groups. Accordingly, all financial transactions 
have been recorded and reported by fund group. 

Within each fund group, fund balances restricted by outside sources are so 
indicated and are distinguished from unrestricted funds allocated to specific 
purposes by action of the governing board. Externally restricted funds may 
only be utilized in accordance with the purposes established by the source 
of such funds and are in contrast with unrestricted funds over which 
the governing board retains full control to use in achieving any of its 
institutional purposes. 

Endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of gift instruments re- 
quiring in perpetuity that the principal be invested and the income only be 
utilized. Also classified as endowment funds are gifts which will allow the 
expenditure of principal but only under certain specified conditions. 

Financial Report I 59 

While quasi-endowment funds have been established by the governing 
board for the same purposes as endowment funds, any portion of such 
funds may be expended. Restricted quasi-endowment funds represent gifts 
for restricted purposes where there is no stipulation that the principal be 
maintained in perpetuity or for a period of time, but the governing board 
has elected to invest the principal and expend only the income for the 
purpose stipulated by the donor. 

All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection, or other disposition 
of investments and other noncash assets are accounted for in the fund 
which owned such assets. Ordinary income derived from investments, 
receivables, and the like, is accounted for in the fund owning such assets, 
except for income derived from investments of endowment and similar 
funds, which income is accounted for in the fund to which it is restricted 
or, if unrestricted, as revenues in unrestricted current funds. 

All other unrestricted revenue is accounted for in the unrestricted current 
fund. Restricted gifts, grants, endowment income, and other restricted 
resources are accounted for in the appropriate restricted funds. 

d. Investments are recorded at cost or fair market value at date of acquisition 
when acquired by gift. 

e. Inventories are carried at lower of average cost or net realizable value. 

f. Income and expenses in respect to the Institution's magazine and asso- 
ciates' activities are deferred and taken into income and expense over the 
applicable periods and are reported in the activities section of the current 
unrestricted funds. 

g. The Institution utilizes the "total return" approach to investment manage- 
ment of endowment funds and quasi-endowment funds. Under this ap- 
proach, the total investment return is considered to include realized and 
unrealized gains and losses in addition to interest and dividends. In ap- 
plying this approach, it is the Institution's policy to provide 4V2% of the 
five year average of the market value of each fund (adjusted for gifts and 
transfers during this period) as being available for current expenditures; 
however, where the market value of the assets of any endowment fund is 
less than 110% of the historic dollar value (value of gifts at date of 
donation) the amount provided is limited to only interest and dividends 

h. Capitalized improvements and equipment used in income-producing activ- 
ities purchased with Private Funds are capitalized in the current unre- 
stricted fund at cost (see note 1(b)), and are depreciated on a straight-line 
basis over their estimated useful lives of five to ten years. Depreciation 
expense of $130,525 for 1975 is reflected in the expenditures of the current 

Real estate (land and buildings) are recorded in the plant fund at cost, to 
the extent that restricted or unrestricted funds were expended therefor, or 
appraised value at date of gift, except for gifts of certain islands in 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Chesapeake Bay, Carnegie Mansion, and Hillwood Estate which have been 
recorded at nominal values. Depreciation on buildings is not recorded. 

All the other land, buildings, fixtures and equipment (principally acquired 
with Federal funds), works of art, living or other specimens are not 
reflected in the accompanying financial statements. 

i. The agency funds group consists of funds held by the Institution as 
custodian or fiscal agent for others. 

j. Pension Costs — All pension costs are funded as accrued. 

k. The Institution has a number of contracts with the U. S. Government, 
which primarily provide for cost reimbursement without fee to the 
Institution. Contract revenues are recognized as expenditures are incurred. 

2. Related Activities 

The Private Funds reflect the receipt and expenditure of funds obtained 
from private sources, from Federal grants and contracts and from certain 
business activities related to the operation of the Institution. 

Federal appropriations, which are not reflected in the accompanying 
financial statements, provide major support for the operations and ad- 
ministration of the educational and research programs of the Institution's 
many museums, art galleries and other bureaus, as well as for the main- 
tenance and construction of related buildings and facilities. In addition, 
land, buildings and other assets acquired with Federal funds are not 
reflected in the accompanying financial statements. 

The following Federal appropriations were received by the Institution for 
the fiscal years ended June 30, 1975 and 1974: 

1975 1974 

Operating funds $72,511,000 60,562,900 

Special foreign currency program 2,000,000 4,500,000 

Construction funds 17,910,000 21,860,000 

$92,421,000 86,922,900 

3. Investments 

Quoted market values and carrying values of investments (all marketable 
securities) of the funds indicated were as follows: 

June 30, 1975 June 30, 1974 

Carrying Market Carrying Market 

value value value value 

Current funds $10,149,875 10,083,444 8,298,318 7,971,088 

Endowment and 

similar funds 40,015,177 40,532,249 40,043,593 34,822,438 

Total investments . . $50,165,052 50,615,693 48,341,911 42,793,526 

Financial Report I 61 

Total investment performance is summarized below: 

Net gains (losses) 

Current and similar 
funds funds Total 

Unrealized gains (losses) : 

June 30, 1975 $ (66,431) 517,072 450,641 

June 30, 1974 (327,230) (5,221,155) (5,548,385) 

Unrealized net gains for year 260,799 5,738,227 5,999,026 
Realized net losses for year (14,909) (1,718,330) (1,733,239) 

Total net gains for year $ 245,890 4,019,897 4,265,787 

Substantially all of the investments of the endowment and similar funds 
are pooled on a market value basis (consolidated fund) with each individual 
fund subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the value per unit 
at market value at the beginning of the calendar quarter within which the 
transaction takes place. Of the total units each having a market value of 
$102.61 ($84.60 in 1974), 333,155 units were owned by endowment, and 
62,239 units by quasi-endowment at June 30, 1975. 

The following tabulation summarizes the changes in the pooled investments 
during the year ended June 30, 1975 : 

Carrying Market value 

value Market per unit 

June 30, 1975 $40,063,092 40,569,918 102.61 

June 30, 1974 11,845,384 10,195,872 84.60 

Increase $28,217,708 30,374,046 18.01 

The increase in pooled investments during the year ended June 30, 1975 
resulted primarily from the addition of certain endowment funds to the 
pooled investments. 

Note Payable 

The note payable in the principal amount of $95,920 ($191,843 in 1974), 
which is noninterest bearing, is secured by computer equipment and is 
payable in monthly installments of $7,993 to June 30, 1976. 

Mortgage Notes Payable 

The mortgage notes payable are secured by first deeds of trust on property 
acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay Center. The details of the 
mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

1975 1974 

Mortgage note, payable in semiannual installments 
of $13,300, plus interest at the prevailing prime 
rate at the due date of the installment payment 
but not less than 8%, due July 1, 1980 $146,300 172,900 

6% mortgage note payable, due in monthly install- 
ments of $451 including interest, due November 1, 
1989 33,418 36,717 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

6% mortgage note, payable in semiannual install- 
ments of $10,000, plus interest, due November 7, 
1979 90,000 110,000 

7% mortgage note, payable in annual installments of 

$30,000, plus interest, due November 1, 1974 - 30,000 

$269,718 349,617 

Pension Plan 

The Institution has a contributory pension plan providing for the purchase 
of retirement annuity contracts for those employees meeting certain age 
and length of service requirements who elect to be covered under the plan. 
Under terms of the plan, the Institution contributes the amount necessary 
to bring the total contribution to 12% of the participants' compensation 
subject to social security taxes and to 17% of the participants' compensa- 
tion in excess of that amount. The total pension expense for the year was 
$815,304 ($729,068 in 1974). 

Management Fees 

The Institution provides financial and management services to certain 
affiliated organizations. In 1975 the Institution charged fees for such 
services as follows: 

Smithsonian Research Foundation $125,000 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange 130,000 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc 38,000 

Center for Natural Areas 24,000 

Income Taxes 

The Institution has been recognized as exempt from income taxes as a 
nonprofit organization described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal 
Revenue Code. It is the opinion of the Institution that it is also exempt 
from taxation as an instrumentality of the United States as described in 
Section 501(c)(1) of the Code. Formal recognition of this dual status will 
be sought from the Internal Revenue Service. Should the Institution's 
position not prevail, income taxes might be imposed on certain income 
of the Institution, under provision of the Internal Revenue Code dealing 
with unrelated business income as defined therein. 


The Institution has entered into a contract for construction of a West Court 

facility within the National Museum of Natural History at a total estimated 

cost of $3,000,000 which is to be financed by a $1,100,000 construction loan 

with the remainder being financed from the unrestricted general fund 


Financial Report I 63 

Visitors to the annual Mount Hopkins Observatory Open Day take a daytime look 
at the planet Venus through one of the many telescopes at the mountain-top facility. 
Photo: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

Smithsonian Year • 7975 


The QUALITY OF SCIENCE at the Smithsonian and its diversity were 
closely examined this past year. Some new ways were used to assess 
the progress and promise of science at the Institution — most nota- 
bly a seminar held at Front Royal in February. 

At the Front Royal Seminar scientists from each of the bureaus 
had an opportunity to describe their research to each other and to 
discuss the future direction of science in general. This gathering 
enabled the assembled researchers to learn about the work being 
undertaken in the various bureaus and to consider the relationship 
which that work might have to their own endeavors. A number of 
recommendations made at this meeting addressed concerns already 
on the minds of administrators while other recommendations 
pointed to potential areas of investigation. 

Maintenance and improvement of the quality of research were 
pinpointed as the major priority of Smithsonian science by those 
present. The maintenance of the highest standards of research 
coupled with increased resources is the desired goal. It was clear 
from the remarks of the participants that size is a major concern 
to all, and the uppermost question was how or to what degree can 
or should growth be limited. The Smithsonian's current size allows 
flexibility and the concomitant ability to respond quickly. This 
characteristic reflects the unique quality of our Institution's opera- 
tion and is one that separates us from many of the federally funded 
research institutions. Freedom from the ephemeral nature of efforts 
to overcome specialization and its trappings sets us apart from most 
universities. This approach allowed us to convene the seminar at 


Front Royal in the form of an interdisciplinary dialogue, an achieve- 
ment which would not have been possible in a bureaucratic environ- 

Once again the threat of nascent anti-intellectualism appeared 
this year with challenges to the type of basic research which the 
Smithsonian performs or sponsors. While this kind of basic research 
will always be subject to ridicule because of esoteric titles, the 
scientist-administrators must continue to defend and promote basic 
research as perhaps the most important part of their job. 

When quantum leaps are made in the space sciences or medicine, 
no one pauses to realize that these advances have come about only 
through years of unspectacular basic research. The Smithsonian is 
unique in the federal structure for its concentration on basic 
research, indeed it is one of our most fundamental premises. The 
knowledge and information gained from such work has furnished 
the base from which the mission agencies produce practical results. 

We shall continue to seek preeminence in our research areas by 
better utilizing our resources, by retaining the process of peer 
review, and by exploiting our unique flexibility to respond to the 
significant challenges of the future, while always maintaining our 
existing strengths. 

Center for the Study of Man 

The Center for the Study of Man has continued research activities 
in the human sciences throughout fiscal year 1975. Following its 
successful conferences at the International Congress of Anthropo- 
logical and Ethnological Sciences in 1973, the Center administered 
and edited the publications which resulted from those meetings. 
Forthcoming and in press are the following: 

1. Volumes in the World Anthropology Series, published by 
Mouton. The Anthropological Study of Education, edited by Craig 
J. Calhoun; Toward a General Theory of Education, edited by 
Frederick Gearing and Lucinda Sangree; Population and Social 
Organization, edited by Moni Nag; Population, Ecology and Social 
Evolution, edited by Steven Polgar; Cross-Cultural Perspectives on 
Cannabis, edited by Vera Rubin; Cross-Cultural Approaches to the 
Study of Alcohol, edited by J. Waddell, M. Everett, and D. Heath. 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

2. Conference Reports: The Cultural Consequences of Population 
Change, report on a Seminar held in Bucharest, Romania, August 
14-17, 1974. (Edited by the Center, includes edited versions of 
papers prepared for the Seminar.) 

From August 14 to August 17, 1974, the Center, in conjunction 
with the Romanian Academy of Sciences and the Population Com- 
mission of the International Congress of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences, hosted a meeting on the cultural implications 
of population change at Bucharest, Romania. The meetings were 
held prior to and in conjunction with the World Population Confer- 
ence. In addition to the sixteen third world persons representing 
the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, 
Kenya, Ghana, Mexico, and Venezuela, there were Margaret Mead, 
Sol Tax, Steve Polgar, and Moni Nag from the United States, and 
Sam Stanley and William Douglass representing the Smithsonian 

The meetings accomplished a number of related objectives. Rep- 
resentatives from third world countries had an excellent oppor- 
tunity to exchange views about the present condition of the human 
sciences with nonthird world colleagues. The members of the 
Seminar had an opportunity to review each other's papers and also 
the documents put out by the World Conference on Population of 
the United Nations, 1974. Most importantly, they were able to 
advance their own views on the draft World Plan of Action for the 
World Population Year. As a result there was specific input from 
the Seminar to the World Plan of Action. They pointed out that 
the document ought to recognize that all humans are members of 
social groups which are smaller than nations. They also urged the 
United Nations to begin to develop a global ethic on population 
with which any nation-state may evaluate its own performance. 

The Urgent Anthropology Small Grants Program continued to 
function during the fiscal year. Grants were made for urgent 
research in North America and Africa. 

During the past fiscal year the Center began research on sur- 
viving American Indian groups in the Eastern and Southern parts 
of the United States. This modest program has yielded some inter- 
esting results. From preliminary investigation it would appear that 
more Indian groups have survived than previously estimated, 
though much additional work remains to be done. 

Science I 67 

From the Study of Child Behavior and Human Development in Cultural Iso- 
lates of the National Anthropological Film Center, visual data on typical 
child-handling practices has been abstracted for a number of studies : Among 
the Fore people of New Guinea, infants and toddlers must take some of the 
responsibility for remaining safely on the backs of those carrying them. Al- 
though the carrier often holds the hands of a carried infant and sometimes 
shuffles a sagging child back to a more secure position, the responsibility 
for staying on falls to a significant degree to the infant, who must manage 
for himself while his carrier negotiates difficult trails or darts and cavorts in 
play. Facing page-, in contrast, Cora Indian infants and toddlers can remain 
relaxed and passive tied to the backs of their older siblings. 

Another part of the American Indian Program is concerned with 
learning more about the transition period between what is gathered 
from ethnology and from archeology. This work is also valuable 
for the forthcoming encyclopedic Handbook of North American 
Indians. It is anticipated that several volumes of the Handbook, 
under the general editorship of WiUiam C. Sturtevant, will begin 
appearing in 1976. 

68 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


The work of the Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic 
Studies for the fiscal year 1975 involved a wide-range of activi- 
ties: special lectures and participation in professional meetings on 
ethnicity and immigration; publications in professional journals; 
supervision of graduate fellows in ethnic studies; and rendering 
consultation services to other sectors of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Under the directorship of Roy S. Bryce-Laporte, a comparative 
sociologist, RiiES obtained internal support for a bicentennial project 
on new immigration to the United States. The project being coordi- 
nated by Ms. Dolores Mortimer takes the form of a series of 
seminars on various aspects of the new immigration which will 
culminate in a national conference and publication. Various con- 
sultation visits and advisory seminars in Washington, D.C., Cali- 
fornia, Florida, and the Virgin Islands, have been carried out by 
RUES staff and it has contracted for data surveys on special immi- 
grant populations. Lecture presentations by the Director of rues 
were made at Howard University, the Caribbean Studies Associa- 
tion, and the International Studies Association. 

Science I 69 


The National Anthropological Film Center was established this year 
to take fuller advantage of the scholarly potential of film as a tool 
of inquiry into the vanishing and changing ways of life and cul- 
tures of the world. Like its parent discipline, anthropology, the 
Center will bridge both science and the humanities, dealing with 
the full range of the human condition. Strictly scientific studies 
will be balanced by more humanistic interests dealing with the arts, 
historical process, and cultural values. 

Physically, the Center will serve as a research facility and reposi- 
tory for visual studies in much the way that museums obtain and 
preserve important objects and materials for continued study and 
to support findings. The Center will also provide cultural informa- 
tion to peoples who have little written history, thereby helping 
fulfill their need for information related to their own development. 

Projects have been started which involve filming a number of 
cultural survivals. The Center is giving special attention to the few 
remaining small, isolated cultural groups of the world which have 
evolved independently over thousands of years, and to other small 
social enclaves which represent vanishing unique expressions of 
human organization and behavior. It also collaborates with docu- 
mentary film projects sampling the range of better known, more 
stable cultural variation, including traditional folk cultures, as well 
as selected aspects of our changing modern society. 

Presently being planned is a research film library in which film 
prints will permit review, study, and scholarly assembly, leaving 
original films undamaged to take advantage of future advances in 
the copying technology. The basic collection is being developed so 
that access will ultimately be possible via cable connecting a cen- 
tral automated videotape library with study centers and museum 

The Center has been able to develop collaborative projects with 
scholars in various parts of the world; and it has been able in a 
few crucial areas to provide raw film stock, film processing, equip- 
ment, and guidelines to anthropologist-filmmakers interested in 
preparing scholarly visual documents as a permanent research 
resource. Experimental field studies are also underway in an effort 
to develop and improve visual sampling methods and equipment. 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Affectionate play among children of different ages is characteristic among 
the Fore of New Guinea. Knives or other potentially dangerous objects are 
also part of the play environment experienced by young children. One of the 
findings coming from the Study of Child Behavior and Human Development 
in Cultural Isolates is that such aspects of child handling have a direct in- 
fluence on the behavior patterns developed as children grow older. 

With Mr. John Marshall, world-famous anthropological filmer 
of the Kalahari Bushmen, the Center has begun assembling and 
annotating his film record, the most extensive ever made of a tradi- 
tional hunting-gathering society, and preparing research films for 
deposit in the National Anthropological Film Center. 

Although facilities to store film have not yet been completed, the 
Center has begun its search for existing anthropological film foot- 
age of research value which may be in danger of deterioration or 
loss. Film historian Emilie de Brigard has agreed to join the staff 

Science I 71 

for a short period to apply her extensive knowledge of work already 
done in anthropological film. 

With the cooperation of Dr. Norman Miller, Director of the 
American Universities Field Staff Film Project, the Center has now 
accessioned 126,800 feet of research filmed material of human 
adaptation in three modernizing cultures: a Tadjik-Pashtoon-Uzbek 
agricultural village in northern Afghanistan, a highlands Aymara 
subsistence agricultural community in Bolivia, and a cattle-herding 
Boran nomadic group in Kenya. The Afghanistan footage has 
already been annotated by anthropologist Dr. Louis Dupree. The 
others are now being prepared for annotation. The Center cele- 
brated its formal opening with premier showings of several educa- 
tional films prepared by the American Universities Field Staff from 
this research filmed material. 

With anthropological filmmakers Asen Balikci of the University 
of Montreal and Timothy Asch of Harvard University, and the 
collaboration of Professor Bayazid Atsak of Kabul University, the 
Center has begun a research film study of the Pashtoon Nomads of 
Afghanistan, whose way of life is now rapidly disappearing. 

At the invitation of the Premier of the Cook Islands, Sir Albert 
Henry, and with a grant obtained from the National Geographic 
Society, the Center is preparing to document representative tradi- 
tional dances from each of the three major Polynesian culture areas 
comprised by the Cook Islands. 

As part of the Study of Child Behavior and Human Development 
in Cultural Isolates and with the support of the Instituto Nacional 
Indigenista of Mexico, the Center is proceeding with a long-term 
film study of traditional Huichol Indian life in the San Andres 
region of Mexico. Dr. Kalman Muller, an anthropological filmmaker 
now resident in this region, has been participating as chief ethno- 

With Dr. William Crocker of the Department of Anthropology, 
the Center is collaborating in a research film study of child behavior 
and human development among the relatively unacculturated 
Canela Indians of Brazil. 

In collaboration with Dr. Kalman Muller, the research film study 
of remaining surviving traditional Melanesian cultural groups in 
the New Hebrides Islands is continuing. This footage is now being 
prepared as annotated research films at the Center. 

72 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Research film studies of naturally occurring human behavior in different 
parts of the world not only make possible comparative studies of play and 
child interaction but also of such culturally variable characteristics as gait. 

In an effort to devise methods by which film footage shot by 
educational filmmakers may also be prepared as a research resource, 
the Center is exploring a variety of strategies with filmmakers from 
the American Universities Field Staff, the University of Montreal, 
Harvard University, the University of Illinois, Bellevue Community 
College, the University of CaUfornia, Indiana University, the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Delhi University (India), and the Anthro- 
pology Film Center (Santa Fe). 

Science I 73 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

In January 1975, Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, after six years as 
Director of the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, 
resigned to accept an appointment as Commissioner of Health and 
Social Service for the state of Alaska. Dr. J. Kevin Sullivan assumed 
the position of Acting Director. 

Dr. Williamson and his colleagues conceived of the Rhode River 
Program, which is the core of the Center's research effort. This 
project is a study of the interaction of the Rhode River estuary 
with its watershed and man's impact on this system. The comple- 
tion during fiscal year 1975 of a full year of monitoring material 
entering the estuary from land runoff and other non-point sources 
and the initiation of a Forest Ecology Program are steps toward 
understanding how man's use of land affects this ecosystem. The 
Forest Ecology Program is part of the Smithsonian's Environmental 
Sciences Program (esp). 

The watershed of the Rhode River is composed of many small 
basins, some of which drain into discrete creeks. As part of the non- 
point sources study, the Center constructed instrumented weirs 
(notched dams) to monitor the runoff from eight of these basins. 
The weirs record the volume of water discharged while taking 
volume-integrated samples. These samples are analyzed for sedi- 
ment and nutrient concentrations. 

Each drainage basin contains a different proportion of five land- 
use types: cultivated cropland; wet areas such as ponds, swamps, 
and marshes; pasturelands; natural areas such as forest and brush- 
land; and residential areas including dwellings and roads. The total 
area being monitored is 2100 acres. 

Data gathered have been used to determine mathematically the 
area loading rates to the Rhode River from each of the five land-use 
categories at different times of the year. These rates are applicable 
to predicting the effects of land-use changes upon the turbidity and 
nutrient loading of an estuary on a seasonal basis. 

Stream samples were also taken at times of known water dis- 
charge and analyzed for total and fecal coliform bacteria as indi- 
cators of pollution with human pathogens. Analyses revealed high 
correlations between fecal coliform levels and water runoff rates 
for each watershed. At times of heavy runoff, contamination of the 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Rhode River estuary with bacteria of fecal origin was a serious 
problem. As the volume of the Rhode River increased toward the 
mouth, fecal coliform bacteria were diluted and the higher salinity 
levels further contributed to their decline in numbers. 

The non-point sources study is funded by nsf-rann (National 
Science Foundation-Research Applied to National Needs) through 
the Chesapeake Research Consortium. It is the most extensive study 
of its kind currently underway on an estuarine system in the United 
States. Investigators from the University of Maryland and the 
Johns Hopkins University are working with Smithsonian scientists 
on this project. Dr. David Correll is coordinating the Rhode River 
Research Program. 

In addition to the land runoff studies, scientists at cbces partici- 
pated in the development of a Forest Ecology Program. This Pro- 
gram has as its objective the monitoring of species succession 
among primary producers at sites which have been subjected to 
various land uses. Studies of small mammals, birds, insects, soils, 
and minerals are coordinated with the studies of vegetational 

Eight forest ecology study sites have been identified in the Java 
Farm area. They include sites which have been undisturbed for 
several hundreds of years (Hog Island) and others intensively culti- 
vated until abandonment in the 1940s. A wide disparity exists 
between plant communities at these sites, even in those which have 
had the same land use. cbces scientists hope to determine the fac- 
tors controlling species succession in the forest community. Base- 
line data collected in this study will also be used to predict the 
impact of man's perturbations on the forest ecosystem. 


With the addition of a full-time Program Director this past year, 
education activities were restructured and several new starts were 
made. A large-scale model field trip program in outdoor education 
at the CBCES was initiated. These teacher-led experimental tours, 
which occur daily during the spring and fall, are designed to satisfy 
specific curriculum requirements in science education in Anne 
Arundel and other nearby counties. 

Efforts were also made to develop a model Outdoor Environ- 
mental Education Program for Adults. The cbces played an active 

Science I 75 

Facing page, above: In order to measure land runoff and other non-point 
sources of pollution, cbces investigators have instrumented the Rhode River 
watershed's key tributary streams with a system of wiers — notched dams 
that permit water to flow through. The wiers record volume and velocity of 
flow while automatically collecting samples at intervals determined by flow 
rates. The samples are collected weekly and analyzed for nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, particulate load, total and fecal bacteria and pathogens. 

Facing page, below: With the aid of sweepnets and plastic bags, students 
are exploring the variety of insects and spiders that live in a forest com- 
munity. This field activity was developed by Dr. John Falk, cbces Education 
Director, as part of the obis (Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies) Pro- 
gram. It is one of many obis activities which are designed to promote the 
understanding of ecological relationships by youngsters from eleven to fifteen 
years of age. 

Below: A major new facility — the Jean C. Schmidt Environmental Education 
Building — was completed at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 
Studies in March 1975. This building is divided into two sections: a visitors' 
area which contains an auditorium seating 200 people and a dormitory area 
which houses twelve and includes a kitchen, a study room, and a lounge. The 
visitors' area will serve as a center for workshops on environmental educa- 
tion, for meetings of citizen groups, and for conferences on environmental 
research. The dormitory will be quarters for college students on work/study 
projects and visiting scientists. 





^.." ;X 

leadership role in the formation of a coaUtion for Adult Environ- 
mental Education in cooperation with the National Park Service 
and the National Audubon Society and several adult groups partici- 
pated in trial programs during the fall and spring. 

The CBCES was the recipient of a National Science Foundation 
(nsf) grant designed to implement obis (Outdoor Biology Instruc- 
tional Strategies) within out-of-school community institutions. In 
addition, cbces was designed as an obis National Field Center. 

OBIS is an outdoor biology program that gives young people 
between the ages of eleven and fifteen years the experience of 
observing and investigating organisms and events in the out-of- 
doors. Under the nsf grant, the Center is conducting instructional 
workshops on obis activities for elementary and junior high school 
teachers, summer day camp directors, and high school students. 

For the second year, a Summer Ecology Program for children in 
grades three through twelve was operated at cbces. The objective 
of this program is to train college students in outdoor education 
techniques and is aimed at future elementary and secondary school 
teachers. In addition, the Center continued its successful Speakers 
Bureau Program in which Center staff present talks on environ- 
mental subjects to a variety of local and regional groups. 


Funded with a grant from the Edward John Noble Foundation, the 
Information Transfer Program has as its goal the translation of 
scientific results into forms which can be used by planners, govern- 
ment officials, and resource managers who make decisions which 
affect the Bay. In addition, the program makes environmental 
information available to organizations and individuals. 

Projects undertaken this year include a study on the opportuni- 
ties for citizen participation in the water quality planning process. 
An information specialist identified and evaluated these major areas 
for citizen participation in the state of Maryland: Public Advisory 
Councils on river basin planning, public informational meetings 
and hearings on basin plans, and hearings on discharge permits 
and the state's Priority List for construction of sewage treatment 
plants. The study resulted in recommendations for improving citi- 
zen participation in the planning process and many of the recom- 
mendations were adopted. 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Over the past year, the Center greatly expanded its informa- 
tional services to management agencies, citizen organizations, and 
the general public. News releases summarizing on-going research 
activities at cbces were distributed to resource managers, environ- 
mental leaders, and other interested groups and individuals, cbces 
staff also developed information on specific environmental issues 
such as land use, solid waste disposal, and off-shore energy tech- 
nology for citizen groups and government officials. 

The Center provided support in the form of staff time and exper- 
tise to a number of local citizen organizations. Support activities for 
these groups included organizing workshops and conferences, 
researching environmental issues and planning public programs, 

CBCES helped organize two workshops on Maryland's Coastal 
Zone Management Program (czmp). The first workshop focused on 
major environmental problems affecting Maryland's coastal zone; 
the second explored citizen participation alternatives in Maryland's 



The Jean C. Schmidt Environmental Education Building was com- 
pleted in March 1975. The brick building is divided into two sec- 
tions. The visitor area contains an auditorium seating 200 people. 
Movable storage dividers convert it into smaller rooms. This area 
will be used for meetings and workshops and as a reception center 
for visiting groups and individuals. 

The dormitory area houses twelve and includes a kitchen, a study 
room, and a lounge. It will be quarters for college students on 
work/study projects and visiting scientists. 


The Center's full-time staff numbered approximately forty-five at 
the close of the fiscal year. Over one-half of these employees are 
private employees. Additions to the permanent federal staff in- 
cluded Dr. James Lynch, zoologist, and Mr. Gary Chirlen, bio- 
logical systems analyst. 

Some thirty additional researchers are actively engaged in proj- 
ects at the Chesapeake Bay Center, including principal investigators 
for the Rhode River Research Program from the Johns Hopkins 
University, the University of Maryland, and the United States 
Geological Survey. 

Science I 79 


Aerial view of Link Port, location of the Smithsonian's Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida. 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

The scientific objectives of the Smithsonian Institution's Fort Pierce 
Bureau for the next five to ten years was approved on a year-to-year 
basis in a Resolution by the Board of Regents during its meeting in 
May. The Fort Pierce Bureau has three long-range and interrelated 
programs which are designed to understand the estuarine and 
marine environments along the east coast of Florida and adjacent 
continental shelf and to establish baseline information for measur- 
ing natural and man-caused stresses and changes. These are the 
Indian River Study, Life Histories Studies, and Submarine Explora- 
tion of the East Florida Continental Shelf. 

The Indian River Study is a ten-year joint program with the 
Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., to obtain baseline information on 
the biota in the Indian River lagoon, environmental quality and 
sources of pollution, and a predictive capability of natural and man- 
induced changes. Quantitative benthic sampling at seagrass {Halo- 
dule wrightii) stations has resulted in almost 50,000 specimens, 
which will provide information on community structure. Effects of 
predation on the seagrass-associated benthos have been studied by 
using field enclosures (cages). A checklist of over 500 fishes from 
the Indian River region has been completed, based on 100 con- 
tinental-shelf trawling stations and 1000 estuarine seine collec- 
tions, along with a literature survey. Fifteen percent of the fishes 
sampled have not been recorded previously. Twelve cruises of the 
houseboat research laboratory have measured chemical parameters 
of the water column along the estuary for fluctuations of major 
nutrients, heavy metals, phytoplankton composition, and standing 
crop. Indian River Study data from 1383 biological stations, 521 
chemical stations, and 75 physical oceanographic stations have been 
stored in the Smithsonian's selgem data management system in 
Washington, D.C., from the remote computer terminal on the 
laboratory barge at Fort Pierce. 

Objectives of the Life Histories Studies are to obtain baseline 
information on reproduction, developmental patterns, and larval 
development of common marine organisms in the Indian River and 
offshore oceanic waters in the vicinity of Fort Pierce. The knowledge 
of these critical phases of development, essential to survival and 
dispersal of species, is to be utilized as part of the consortium effort 

Science I 81 

in the understanding of marine ecosystems and the assessment of 
environmental stresses. During the past year studies have con- 
centrated on two groups of benthic invertebrates, which form 
prominent communities in the Fort Pierce area, sipunculans and 
sabellariids. Twenty-four sipunculans have been collected in the 
Indian River and adjacent continental shelf, five of which appear 
to be previously undescribed species. Observations have been made 
on the spawning and breeding seasons of nine species of sipuncu- 
lans, including the unusual self-fertilizing hermaphrodite, Themiste 
lageniformis, which occurs in densities as great as 500 per square 
meter in the Fort Pierce Inlet. Developmental patterns of local spe- 
cies vary from direct development with no larval stage, through 
those with short-lived swimming larval stages to sipunculans with 
long-lived planktonic larval stages. Electron microscopy of larval 
cuticle has revealed distinguishing patterns of structure which can 
serve to identify planktonic larvae to species. An investigation is 
also underway on the role of various substrates in inducing meta- 
morphosis of sipunculan larvae. 

The Submarine Exploration of the East Florida Continental Shelf 
is intended to build an inventory bank of continental-shelf orga- 
nisms correlated with environmental and ecological information 
with a precision heretofore unavailable by conventional sampling 
methods. It is being carried out by the Harbor Branch Foundation. 

National Air and Space Museum 

The grand event of fiscal year 1975 for the National Air and Space 
Museum was the move of the staff from the Arts and Industries 
Building to the new museum on Independence Avenue, between 
Fourth and Seventh Streets. Construction of the building is com- 
plete, and it has been transferred from the General Services Admin- 
istration to the Smithsonian. The first aircraft, the Douglas World 
Cruiser "Chicago" was moved into the museum in April. The task 
is now to fill the museum with educational and interesting exhibits 
and artifacts. This assignment, though formidable, will be possible 
as a result of a successful Arts and Industries Building exhibits trial 
program, which marked the beginning of a most ambitious design 
and fabrication program. The program, to provide approximately 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


j» r 


Smithsonian's floating laboratory barge which currently is the headquarters for the 
Indian River study. Below: A portion of the Indian River study reference collections 
on the floating laboratory barge which now houses about 1000 lots of fishes, 2400 lots 
of decapods, and 1000 lots of other miscellaneous invertebrates. 

^ \4 

200,000 square feet of exhibit space in two calendar years, was 
undertaken for a building not to be completed until midway through 
the program. To date, the program is on schedule. The July 4, 1976, 
targets are: to have all major galleries open and to have between 
40 and 50 percent of this space filled with long-term or "core" 
exhibit units. 

The major exhibits program tasks completed during fiscal year 
1975 were: 

1. Conclusion of a successful Arts and Industries Building ex- 
hibits research and development program toward exhibitions for 
the new nasm. This included review and subsequent revision of the 
exhibit "Air Traffic Control" to strengthen and to improve its 
understandability by unification of design elements and rewriting 
of the labeling. The completion of an outside evaluation of the 
exhibit "Life in the Universe" resulted in a report which indicates 
a high degree of success in terms of public acceptance and under- 
standing of the material presented. 

2. Exhibits Division design for twenty projects (twelve gallery 
exhibit designs and eight exhibits-related designs). Establishment of 
standard specifications for contract design of exhibits and for sepa- 
rate contracts for fabrication and installation. 

3. Evaluation and resulting award of twelve contracts for exhibit 
design and four contracts for exhibit fabrication and installation. 

4. Research and resulting concept design for the world's first 
museum automatic central control system which led to the award 
of a contract to install the highly innovative five megabit multi- 
plexing system currently being produced on schedule. 

5. Initiation of two functions vital to the long-range exhibits 
program and the Bicentennial opening of the new nasm: 

a. Provision for basic label production and photoprocessing 
of silk screen materials for the Exhibits Division Production Unit, 
located at Silver Hill. 

b. Establishment of a Media Unit in the Exhibits Division 
responsible for presentation of the "message" for overall exhibits. 
The tasks include creative writing, film storyboarding, and accom- 
panying narratives, film production, all exhibits editorial functions, 
and illustration required in all facets of museum exhibits. This Unit 
will bridge the gap between the curatorial research and information 
input and the design of environmental aspects of exhibits. 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Douglas A-lE Skyraider being moved from Dahlgren, Virginia, Naval Weap- 
ons Test Center, to nasm's Silver Hill Facility in Suitland, Maryland. 

The first artifact to be moved into nasm's new museum was the Douglas 
World Cruiser, "Chicago," in April 1975. 


The research performed by the staff during the year was directed, 
for the most part, toward the planning and preparation of exhibits. 
The Department of Science and Technology completed scripts for 
numerous exhibits including: 

"Benefits from Flight" — this major exhibit portrays the complex 
and diverse ways in which air and space flight have affected our 
civilization, from important technological developments to broad 
cultural changes. 

The Department of Aeronautics completed scripts for: 

"Air Transportation" — this exhibit covers the development and 
growth of air transportation, both United States and foreign. 

"General Aviation" — the various facets of general aviation in- 
cluding the many types of aircraft and the vast airport network 
are featured here. 

"Sea-Air Operations" — the hangar deck and other areas of an 
aircraft carrier will be recreated in this gallery. 

"Balloons and Airships" — the history of lighter-than-air craft, 
including both balloons and airships, is told in this gallery. One 
feature is a 30-foot model of the dirigible "Hindenburg." 

"Exhibition Flight" — the glamour and excitement of barnstorm- 
ing, aerobatics, and air racing are featured in this gallery. 

The Department of Astronautics completed scripts for: 

"Apollo to the Moon" — this exhibit depicts United States manned 
space flight and lunar exploration; Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo 

"Life in the Universe" — this exhibit considers the possibility that 
life exists beyond the Earth. 

"Rocketry and Space Flight" — this is an exhibit of the history 
and evolution of rocket propulsion, rocket engines, and space suits. 


During fiscal year 1975 the Silver Hill Shops restored nine major 
aeronautical artifacts and two major space artifacts — the Jupiter C 
and Vanguard Launch Vehicles. In addition, 175 other space arti- 
facts were removed from storage, and inspected for exhibit. Twenty 
were selected and the necessary restoration was performed. 

Over twenty volunteers worked with the regular staff in the 
restoration process. 

86 / Sfnithsonian Year 1975 

During the year the division acquired three additional staff mem- 
bers, two of them in the Education Unit and the third in the Space- 
arium Unit. Activities centered on planning for the new building in 
all of the areas of responsibility: Education, Theater, and Space- 

Education Unit 
Two NASM-subject-matter guided school activities were developed 
and used to gain experience for the future. One of these titled 
"The History of Flight," a study of the evolution of flight, was 
presented to 103 groups. The other, "Space Age," combined a 
planetarium lesson and examination of selected space artifacts. The 
planetarium lesson, "The Lunar Experience," was written and pro- 
duced by the division and presented in the Experimentarium located 
in the Air and Space Building. This combination of planetarium 
lesson and specimen examination proved to be very popular and 
received excellent response by the 415 groups involved, verifying 
the model of combinations of Spacearium, Theater, and gallery 
activities planned for the new museum. In all, approximately 9000 
students participated in the guided events. 

The Education Unit staff also gained experience in going out to 
school classrooms in conjunction with studies related to nasm. They 
also provided special programs of activities at nasm for Fairfax 
County high school students participating in a summer space science 
institute, for Civil Air Patrol Cadets, and for 150 elementary school 
teachers from California. 

nasm's first Holiday Lecture Series was presented at the Car- 
michael Auditorium on December 26, 27, and 28, with about 250 
high school students attending each session. The general topic of 
the series was "Life in the Universe," and the speakers were Von 
Del Chamberlain of nasm, Cyril Ponnamperuma of the University 
of Maryland, and Richard Berendzen of The American University. 
The lecture series received enthusiastic response, encouraging its 

NASM Theater 
As the year draws to a close, the nasm Theater nears completion. 
The 50-foot by 75-foot screen has been installed, 485 seats have 
been attached to the risers, an imax projector has been ordered and 

Science I 87 

scheduled for installation in early 1976, and the sound system is 
being described for contract purposes. In addition, the first imax 
'film for showing to nasm visitors is under production by Francis 
Thompson, Inc., of New York City with funding by the Continental 
Oil Company. The facility promises to become one of the major 
features of public interest on the Mall. It will be used to help tell 
the aerospace story to millions of people who visit the Smithsonian. 

Spacearium Unit 

Public use of the Experimentarium in the Air and Space Building 
has ended. Attendance for the year was about 43,000. The facility 
will be used for the next few months in developing the first Space- 
arium show. The planetarium projector and projection dome will be 
removed and used in an exhibit in the new building. Other Experi- 
mentarium equipment will be used in the Spacearium. 

In June 1975, the Government of the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many announced the gift to the American people of a Zeiss Model 
VI planetarium projector and funds for an associated automation 
system. This equipment is given in honor of the Bicentennial of 
the American Revolution, and will reside in the Spacearium of the 
National Air and Space Museum. It will help millions of Americans 
and visitors from many other countries begin to comprehend the 
significance of what they see above the landscape and to judge for 
themselves their own relationship to the universe. 

The Spacearium theater is rapidly taking form. The seventy-foot- 
diameter projection dome is being erected, the lift for the plane- 
tarium projector is being completed, and the sound system is being 
designed as fiscal year 1975 ends. 

Plans are proceeding for the first Spacearium show to be pre- 
sented for general visitors. Additional programs are being written 
for visiting school classes. 


During its second year of operation, nasm's Center for Earth and 
Planetary Studies has engaged in several space research projects. 
The basic research material is a complete collection of photographs 
of the Moon taken both by unmanned probes and by Apollo astro- 
nauts. This photographic library was increased by the addition of 
a large library of photographs of the Earth taken from orbit. The 

88 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Center is also acquiring photographs of Mars and Mercury. Its 
research collection will be one of the most complete for compara- 
tive planetology in the world. 

The major research project of the year was related to the ApoUo- 
Soyuz Test Project (astp). Dr. Farouk El-Baz, Research Director of 
the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, is Principal Investigator 
for "Earth Observations and Photography" on this mission. His 
research team is comprised of thirty-four experts in the fields of 
geology, oceanography, desert study, hydrology, meteorology, and 
environmental studies. The purpose of the experiment is to use the 
capabilities of the trained astronauts in obtaining scientific data 
while in Earth orbit. 

The lunar photographic collection of the Center for Earth and 
Planetary Studies was used in the selection of photographs for an 
Atlas of the Moon to be published by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. As material for scientific research, the 
collection was used in global studies of the Moon as well as detailed 
investigations of some surface features. The global studies included 
mapping of all occurrences of the relatively dark volcanic rock 
(basalt) on the Moon to study its distribution and reasons of local- 
ization. Also a synthesis was performed of geochemical and geo- 
physical data on the east side of the Moon to correlate those with 
photogeologic interpretations. A detailed study of sinuous rilles 
near the crater Prinz was performed using topographic data. This 
study concluded that these rilles emanate from circular depressions 
on top of a dome and meander in lower terrain, supporting the idea 
that they originated as lava channels. 

In cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration the lunar topographic collection was used in connection 
with the lunar mapping program to: (1) select areas to be topo- 
graphically mapped; (2) select photographs to be used in the mak- 
ing of the maps; (3) assign the production priorities based on scien- 
tific value and interest; and (4) define the exact borders of map 
sheets. The maps which are being produced by the Defense Map- 
ping Agency, Topographic Center, are important in both global 
studies of the Moon (1:250,000 scale maps) and detailed studies of 
particular surface features (1:50,000 and 1:10,000 scale maps). 

As a member of the Task Group on Lunar Nomenclature of the 
International Astronomical Union, Dr. El-Baz is responsible for 

Science I 89 

the selection of features to be named on the Moon. Much of the 
work necessary for the revision of the lunar nomenclature system 
is being made at the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. The 
Research Director was also appointed by the Secretary of the 
Interior to membership on the Advisory Committee on Extraterres- 
trial Features of the United States Board of Geographic Names. 

Dr. Farouk El-Baz made a trip to India and the Middle East to 
lecture on "Scientific Findings of the Apollo Missions" and "Earth 
Observations and Photography on ASTP." 

While in Egypt, he conferred with officials of the Academy of 
Scientific Research and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scien- 
tific Research concerning a joint project with the Smithsonian. This 
project will deal with the "Geological Characteristics of the Deserts 
of Egypt" and will be based at the Geology Department of the 
University of Ain Shams in Cairo. During the ten-day visit. Dr. 
El-Baz was received by President Anwar Sadat, who encouraged 
the project and emphasized the importance of scientific research in 



During fiscal year 1975 a Curator of Art was appointed. Steps were 
taken to commission two major pieces of sculpture to be shown 
outside the new nasm building at both the Mall and Independence 
Avenue entrances. The sculptors, Richard Lippold and Charles 
Perry, were selected after an extensive search, which involved rep- 
resentatives of the National Gallery of Art and the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts, as well as the Architect and the General 
Services Administration. 

Arrangements have been made with artists Robert McCall, Eric 
Sloane, and Keith Ferris to paint large murals in the nasm. Robert 
McCall will depict the Space Flight Environment, Eric Sloane the 
Earth Flight Environment and Keith Ferris will render in nearly 
full size a portrait of a B-17 Bomber in flight as part of the World 
War II exhibition. 

During this reporting period, nasm was offered and accepted the 
NASA collection of art which documents many space program activi- 
ties. Delivery of hundreds of sketches, drawings, watercolors, 
paintings, and sculpture was made and the cataloguing process 
started. A selection of pieces from this collection, as well as pieces 

90 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt examines the feature named Al-Qahira 
Vallis (Cairo Valley) on a globe of Mars presented him by Dr. Farouk El-Baz 
during a recent visit. The name Al-Qahira Vallis was recommended by El-Baz 
to the International Astronomical Union because the city of Cairo was 
originally named after the planet Mars. 

from other sources, will be exhibited in the art gallery of the nasm. 
This documentary art, along with many other drawings and paint- 
ings commissioned by the military services and spanning several 
decades, provides a unique record of man's activities in developing 
his ability to fly through air and space. The art work displayed on 
opening day will provide a record for the future of some of the 
greatest moments of the present through a medium that is as old 
as our recorded past — this intimate, human medium of the artist's 
eye and hand. 

Science I 91 

National Museum of Natural History 

The National Museum of Natural History's service to the public 
is a continual commitment that goes back to its founding. The 
Museum is proud of its efforts during the past year to keep this 
tradition strong and vital. Major projects are underway that will 
bring the Museum closer to the people by making its exhibits more 
stimulating and informative and by creating a friendly and com- 
fortable atmosphere in which the three and a half million visitors 
who walk through the Museum every year can find the answers 
to their questions about the natural world and their relationship 
to it. 

With this end in mind, the Museum's Exhibits Committee in 
February 1975 finished drawing up a long-range plan for the recon- 
struction and refurbishment of virtually all of the present halls of 
the Museum over the next twenty years. The schedule is for at least 
one or two major openings every year. The first of these new halls. 
Ice Age Mammals and the Emergence of Man, opened in October 
1974. This exhibit's thematic rigor, cool esthetic ambiance, rich 
cross-disciplinary scientific content, and logical positioning of ob- 
jects, sets a standard for exhibits that will follow. It is not a hall 
dominated by audiovisual techniques or long textual labels; its 
message and excitement are in the realism of its objects: the huge 
reconstruction of the woolly mammoth that once roamed the 
Alaskan tundra, the saber-toothed tiger depicted attacking a giant 
ground sloth at the LaBrea tar pits, and the archeological sites 
where we see evidence of man's biological and cultural evolution 
during the Ice Age — from a crude circle of rocks constructed almost 
two million years ago at Olduvai Gorge in East Africa to the flutes 
and ceramic art created 30,000 years ago at Dolni Vestonice in 
Central Europe. 

Future exhibits will deal with such topics as the dynamics of 
organic evolution, cultural adaptation to differing environments, 
diversity of life, the evolution of the earth, origin of Western civil- 
ization, and evolution of man. Broad concepts of natural history, 
most of them related in their content to the major theme of organic 
and inorganic evolution, will be constructed in axial halls — the 
building's major architectural spaces. These large halls will be 
designed to serve as the public's major passageways into and 
through the Museum, 

92 / Smithsonian Year 1975 




Woolly mammoth in "Ice Age Mammals and the Emergence of Man," a new 
exhibition in the National Museum of Natural History. Below: Ice Age 
archeological sites reconstructed in the exhibition "Ice Age Mammals and 
the Emergence of Man." 



The Museum foyer's Bicentennial exhibit, "Our Changing Land/' 
is the first of these axial halls to be developed. It does not deal 
directly with evolution but will form a base for the understanding 
of a projected hall of the Dynamics of Organic Evolution above it 
on the first floor. General principles of ecology will be illustrated 
in the Bicentennial exhibit by depicting environmental changes that 
took place over 10,000 years in a single geographical area of the 
country — the Potomac Valley. An escalator is being cut through 
the ceiling at the south end of this hall to take the crowds coming 
in the Constitution Avenue entrance up into the Rotunda. 

The smaller peripheral halls on the Museum's first and second 
floors will be used to provide more detailed information about the 
broad conceptual exhibits, as a space for temporary exhibits, and 
for a variety of exhibit halls on specific topics. One of these cur- 
rently under development and scheduled for opening in the fall of 
1975 is a hall devoted to South American anthropology, entitled 
South America: Continent and Cultures. 


Ground was broken in 1974-1975 on the first major addition to 
the Museum building since its east and west wings were added in 
the late 1950s and early 1960s. The three-story structure — adding 
48,324 square feet of space to the Museum building — will be built 
in the Museum's west courtyard. When it is completed in mid- 
1976, there will be a new and enlarged Museum Shop, which will 
house a natural science bookstore and a sorely needed public cafe- 
teria, that will seat 400 persons. 

In the middle level of the new building will be a specimen refer- 
ence library that will have natural history collections that can be 
handled and studied by interested hobbyists and students. Staffed 
by trained volunteer docents, it will serve to bridge the gap that 
now exists between the exhibits and the research collection area. 

An important facility on the new building's ground floor, in addi- 
tion to staff and Associates cafeterias, will be a school tour recep- 
tion and classroom area operated by the Museum's Office of Educa- 
tion. School groups coming into the Museum will go directly to this 
area where there will be a lounge to check their coats and bag 
lunches. The docent can then give them a brief orientation lecture 
before taking them out into the Museum on their tour. 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1975 



Looking over the foundation work for the National Museum of Natural 
History's new west courtyard addition were (left to right) Dr. Porter Kier, 
NMNH Director; Richard O. Griesel, Smithsonian's Business Management 
Office Manager; Richard W. Kernan, Group Vice President of the Marriott 
Corporation; Ames T. Wheeler, Treasurer of the Smithsonian; Paul N. Perrot, 
Smithsonian's Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs; and James F. Mello, 
NMNH Assistant Director. 

During the 1974-1975 year the Office of Education introduced a 
number of new programs at the Museum. With the help of a grant 
from the Smithsonian Women's Committee, it instituted programs 
that will make many of the Museum's exhibits, films, and lectures 
more enjoyable to the deaf and the blind. Cassette tape players and 
embossed maps were made available to the blind and braille labels 
were installed in the Museum's Discovery Room. Interpreters for 
the deaf were provided for many of the Museum's Friday films and 
lectures in Baird Auditorium. 

Science I 95 


Blind visitors have an opportunity to touch and explore a sculpture of a woolly mammoth. 

A group of children watch Mrs. Isabell Deschinny (right), a Navaho from Houck, 
Arizona, and the daughter of a world-famous weaver, give demonstrations during 
April at the National Museum of Natural History. She is being assisted by docent Fran 
O'Leary. This is the first in a series of nmnh Office of Education demonstrations a 
that show traditional ways in which items in the museum's exhibitions were used. I 


In February 1975, three of the Museum's staff, Donald W. Duck- 
worth, Frederick J. Collier, and Dieter C. Wasshausen, made a tour 
of a number of major European museums to gather information 
about methods of modern, high-density storage technology. The 
trip was part of a preliminary planning effort being made by the 
Museum to prepare for the long-range storage of part of its collec- 
tions in the proposed off-Mall Museum Support Facility at the 
Smithsonian's Silver Hill facility, located in the Suitland Federal 
Center, Suitland, Maryland. This building will be of immense 
future importance to the Museum. It would provide space for ex- 
panding collections — which for the past two decades have been 
growing at the rate of one million objects and specimens a year — 
and it would free valuable space within the Museum for badly 
needed exhibits and research functions. 


The prehistory of the Labrador coast was long obscured by a be- 
wildering melange of Indian and Eskimo archeological remains that 
defied clarification. But now the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory's Dr. William W. Fitzhugh has worked out a framework for 
7000 years of that region's prehistory. He believes that to under- 
stand its shifting cultural patterns one must take into account strong 
environmental influences that overrode other events. 

Dr. Fitzhugh's first few years of Labrador field work testing this 
hypothesis focused on an area along the central coast. The results 
were published in Environmental Archeology and Cultural Systems 
in Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. During the past two years he has 
shifted his attention northward. 

The basic cultural adaptions to the Labrador environment are 
at times subject to disruptive cultural-historical and ecological 
pressures — especially the latter. Climatic controls, operating through 
changes in the prevalence of forest fires, winter icing of caribou 
feeding grounds, and shifts of sea-ice distribution have caused 
ecological crises. 

For the Indians in the interior, the icing over of the barren 
ground lichen cover or its destruction by fire means the starvation 
of the herds of caribou upon which they are dependent. It takes 
many years for the caribou herds to rebuild when this happens and 

Science I 97 

Dr. William Fitzhugh at work excavating a two-family Dorset Eskimo (ca. a. d. 400) 
semi-subterranean winter house in northern Labrador. Below: Dr. Fitzhugh holding 
Indian and Eskimo artifacts up to a map to show where they were found in Labrador. 


^. ? 







HdCg 2 


















Plan and cross section of Dorset Culture winter house, northern Labrador 

(ca. A. D. 400) 

the Indian populations starve because they cannot sustain them- 
selves on a year-round basis by hunting other animals and fishing. 

Dr. Fitzhugh says that there is evidence that this drastic caribou- 
Indian population collapse — which we know occurred in both the 
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries — was a fairly common 
occurrence in the prehistory of the Labrador-Quebec peninsula. The 
consequence for the famine stricken Indians was often cultural 
extinction. Eventually the caribou herds would reestablish, Indian 
hunters would drift upward into Labrador from Quebec, and a cul- 
ture would form and the cycle would repeat itself. 

Labrador's Eskimo populations were dependent on a diverse ma- 
rine ecology that was much more stable than conditions in the 
interior. But during very cold periods, when ice pack conditions in 
the north made it difficult to hunt along the coast, their populations 
shifted southward. This happened most recently in 800-100 B.C. 

Science I 99 

(the Little Ice Age) when the Eskimo Dorset culture displaced the 
Indians from their important fishing territories in southern Labrador. 
There was tension and perhaps warfare between the Indians and 
Eskimos during this period. The Eskimos would have been at a 
tactical disadvantage. The Indian was nomadic and highly mobile 
and the permanent Eskimo settlements would have been an easy 
target, especially as the Eskimos extended themselves farther and 
farther down the coast. 

African Ethnology 

The Himba are a pastoral cattle-keeping people that live in a harsh 
and remote mountainous area of Angola and South West Africa. 
Dr. Gordon D. Gibson, the National Museum of Natural History's 
specialist on African ethnology, is studying the life of these people. 
Demographic information is one part of this life but it is not easily 
accessible because the Himba, like most preliterate peoples, do not 
count the years of their lives or the years passed since critical 
events. Their time chronology is based on important events or 
"epochs" in the region in which they live. Thus, if an investigator 
asks a Himba when he was born, he might reply that it was during 
the epoch of the locust invasion as readily as we would reply to the 
same question with a numerical year, like 1923. 

Dr. Gibson found that drought and famine, which are common 
to southwestern Angola and South West Africa, are the events 
most frequently memorialized in epoch names. Seasons of plentiful 
rain are also recalled, as well as pestilences (animal rather than 
human), plagues of insects and vermin, wars, problems brought by 
administration, magicians, problems (other than wars) concerning 
relations with other tribes, acculturative changes, deaths of impor- 
tant people, and the abundance of certain wild fruits. 

Some events that brought neither bad nor good to the Himba but 
were merely remarkable are also found as names of years; for 
example, an airplane disaster in the region, a rainy season with 
many lightning storms, an abundance of red velvet mites, and the 
occasion when the chief of the Ngambwe asked the Himba to kill 
a rhinoceros so that he could have shoes made of rhino hide. 

Most adult Himbas that Dr. Gibson questioned were able to pro- 
vide a sequence of epoch names relating to specific events in their 
region, but before a number of these could be combined into a 

100 / Smithsotiian Year 1975 

Dr. Gordon Gibson holding an exannple of the hair ornament shown in the 
enlarged photograph next to him. Below: Dr. Gibson interviews some of the 
Himba people. 

These Plants and Hundreds 
More May Soon Be Extinct 

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3,200 American Plants Threatened by Extinction 

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Much of Ndion's 
Floral Treasure 
Already Is l^'*^,, 

Rare plants may be doomed 

88 Northwest species threatened 
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Plants Threatened With Extinction .^ 


correctly ordered master list and correlated with European years, 
some troublesome obstacles had to be overcome. 

Dr. Gibson found that persons from the same area who claim to 
be able to recite the names of the years in continuous order gen- 
erally do not agree completely, either in the order they give them 
or the names of the year included. Names often differed from place 
to place also, some having widespread usage while others were very 
localized; and there were many synonyms as well as some homon- 
ymous year names among the more than 300 epochal names Dr. 
Gibson collected. 

In spite of these problems. Dr. Gibson was eventually able to 
come up with a well-supported sequence for his master list of 
epochs. By consulting archival sources he then documented several 
of the epochs in the list, so that "tie points" to the Christian years 
are not separated by more than about five years. With this list he 
can determine with a good degree of approximation Himba indi- 
viduals' current ages and their ages at life crises — data important 
for certain kinds of sociological research. 


Cactus plants, once plentiful in desert areas of the United States, 
are being hunted and sold in plant shops for large sums of money — 
rarer species fetching as much as $300 apiece. As a consequence 
botanists fear that they may soon become extinct. They are among 
a growing list of native American plants that are vanishing because 
of exploitation or because the areas in which they grow are being 
destroyed by development. Scientists estimate that about 10 percent 
of the total flora in the United States is either endangered or 

In September 1974, Dr. Edward S. Ayensu, Chairman of the 
National Museum of Natural History's Botany Department, con- 
vened an international meeting of botanists and administrators 
at American Horticultural Society headquarters. Mount Vernon, 
Virginia. He was acting in accordance with Congress' 1973 En- 
dangered Species Act, which requested that the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian, in conjunction with other affected organizations, begin 
reviewing the species of plants which are now or may become 
endangered or threatened and methods of adequately conserving 
such species. 

Science I 103 

Attending the meeting were representatives of the Departments 
of Interior and Agriculture, Council on Environmental Quality, 
National Science Foundation, Nature Conservancy, and a number 
of universities and botanical gardens. Foreign representatives were 
also present, including Dr. J. K. Morton of Canada, chairman of 
the committee on Rare and Endangered Species in the Canadian 
Flora, and Grenville Lucas, Royal Botanic Gardens, England, 
Threatened Plant Committee, Secretary, International Union for 
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 

Nine recommendations, compiled under Dr. Ayensu's super- 
vision, were subsequently submitted to Congress in a report by 
Secretary Ripley. Sent to Congress with the recommendations was 
a list of about 750 endangered and 1200 threatened plants in the 
mainland United States. A separate list of over 1000 endangered 
or threatened kinds for Hawaii was also included. These species, 
either very rare or with local or limited distribution, are subject to 
threats, or are heavily depleted by destruction of habitats or by 
commercial or private collectors. 

The report was the first organized attempt to produce a list of 
threatened and endangered species for the entire United States. 
Museum of Natural History botanists realize that this is only a 
start, but a continued program is proposed to review and assess 
natural areas that contain endangered and threatened plant species. 

Pollen Research 

Dr. Joan W. Nowicke, whose speciality is the study of pollen 
grains, is part of an international group which is gathering scien- 
tific data on one of the most unusual and controversial groups of 
flowering plants, the Order Centrospermae. This Order has at least 
10,000 species distributed among eleven families including the 
cactus, pokeweed, four-o'clock, cockscomb, and carnation families 
and several others. Studies have shown that nine of this Order's 
eleven families have a unique red pigment, the nitrogen-containing 
betacyanins which substitute for the anthocyanin pigments found 
in other flowering plants. 

Part of the controversy is over whether the two families without 
betacyanins should be included in this Order. In examining the 
pollen grains of more than 200 species Dr. Nowicke has found that 
the vast majority of the grains in the betacyanin families and the 

104 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Pollen Grains in the Order Centrospermae. Top left: a grain from the carnation 
family which illustrates the common type found in the betacyanin families and the 
two disputed anthocyanin families. Top right: a specialized grain from the cockscomb 
family. Middle left: a specialized grain in the cactus family. Middle right: a very 
unusual grain, cube shaped, and found in a small tropical family, the Basellaceae. 
Lower left: the pollen grain of Bougainvillea, a member of the four-o'clock family. 
Lower right: another member of the carnation family, but a specialized type. All of 
the above pictures are highly magnified scanning electron micrographs. 

Dr. Terry Erwin studying ground beetles that have moved into the trees 
on Barro Colorado Island. 

Calosoma alternana. 

Artist: George Venable. 

Loricera rotundicalUs. 

two disputed families have the same surface patterns. Thus pollen 
morphology supports a close tie between the betacyanin families 
and the two anthocyanin families. Using the result of the study as 
a base. Dr. Nowicke is surveying the pollen surface patterns of 
families which are thought to be related or derived from the Cen- 
trospermae, and thus far it appears that no other flowering plants 
branched off from the Centrospermae group. 


"Where Have All the Ground Beetles Gone?" was the title of a 
lecture given last year by Dr. Terry Erwin at the National Museum 
of Natural History. Only a handful of scientists in the world are 
as well qualified as he is to address such a question even though 
the ground beetle family (Carabidae) is the third largest family of 
beetles (40,000+ species). 

Dr. Erwin's field observations at the Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute's (stri) Barro Colorado Island have given him evi- 
dence that ground beetles moved from tropical wetlands — the "boil- 
ing pot" for their evolution — in an ecological progression from the 
wetlands onto the forest floor, then into the forest undercanopy, 
and finally upward into the treetops. He has pioneered in tracing 
the specialized tropical life cycles developed by the beetles on the 
forest floor and undercanopy and plans future work at stri and 
elsewhere that will eventually take him on eighty-foot-high cat- 
walks so that he can study life in the treetops. There is an urgency 
to this project because when the forests are cut, as is happening in 
Latin America, hundreds of these forest top species are irretrievably 

The National Museum of Natural History has a half-million 
ground beetles in its collections, making it probably second in size 
only to the British Museum. When Dr. Erwin came to nmnh in 
1971 he found these collections poorly organized because no ground 
beetle specialist had ever been employed at the Museum before. 
He has since sorted all of these specimens to tribe level, and many to 
generic and species level. The wealth of data available in the col- 
lections and the opportunity to work at stri launched him into a 
massive systematic study of the ground beetles of Central America. 

When completed, this study will cover more than 2000 species, 
probably 40 percent of them undescribed in scientific literature. 

Science I 107 

All of the natural history and geographical information on each 
species is being computerized by Dr. Erwin's wife La Verne, who 
is a full partner in the project and will co-author the six-volume 
study. Heretofore, projects one-third this size have taken from 
twenty-five to thirty years but computerization will enable them to 
finish it in a fourth of the time. 

The computer will be able to generate ground beetle distribution 
maps and keep them updated as new material is acquired; and make 
it possible to correlate faster than ever before such specimen- 
related data as altitude, range, plant association, parasites, and so 
on. Up to sixty categories of data are being fed into the computer 
for each newly acquired specimen, as compared to an average of 
only fifteen recorded for older specimens. 

The Erwins have designed each volume to be a systematic study 
with much natural history data included which can be used by 
amateurs or mathematical ecologists to simply identify specimens 
or to seek geographical and ecological data. And from volume six, 
the all-important faunal analysis, people will be able to learn where 
all the ground beetles have gone. 


At the National Museum of Natural History a great deal of 
interest in Ascension Island's invertebrate animals has been stimu- 
lated by a field trip made there in 1971 by Dr. Raymond B. Man- 
ning, a specialist in decapods (an order of crustaceans that includes 
shrimps, lobsters, and crabs). Like earlier scientists, he was inter- 
ested in Ascension's land crabs. But casting his net over a wider 
area, he took the opportunity to make an intensive survey of the 
marine life in the Island's lava tidal pools and shallow shore waters. 

Because of Ascension's isolation and relative geological youth — 
estimates of its age make it no older than one million years — it is 
an excellent natural laboratory on which one can study where its 
marine animals originated, how this life was dispersed and carried 
to Ascension by currents and other means, and what adaptions it 
has made to its environment since its arrival. 

An example of the Island's puzzling fauna, collected by Dr. 
Manning in two tidal pools on the western edge of the Island, 
were two unusual shrimps, one unique in being clawless and lack- 
ing sexual modifications. In the report on the two shrimps, written 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Clawless Shrimp Procaris ascensionis. x7. Drawing by Dr. Fenner Chase. 
Dr. Raymond Manning examines an Ascension crab. 

Glomar Challenger. Below. Dr. William Melson and colleague. Dr. Fabrizio Aumento, 
examining core samples aboard Glomar Challenger. 




A- 4 

few -w,< 

with his colleague Dr. Fenner A. Chase, Jr., Two Neio Caridean 
Shrimps, One Representing a New Family, from Marine Pools on 
Ascension Island, the nmnh scientists noted that one of the shrimps 
had relatives living in subterranean fresh water habitats in the West 
Indies and Galapagos Islands whereas the other one had no obvious 
close relatives. Within a year a relative of the latter shrimp was 
found in a similar habitat, a saltwater pool in a lava flow, in Hawaii. 
How two very similar species of the same genus came to occupy 
the same habitats in such widely separated areas remains an in- 
triguing mystery. 

Drs. Manning and Chace are now engaged in completing their 
study of the more than forty other species of decapods collected 
by Dr. Manning on Ascension, based on samples taken from a 
variety of shallow-water habitats there. Dr. Joseph Rosewater has 
recently published a survey of the Ascension mollusks collected by 
Dr. Manning^ >ln Annotated List of the Marine Mollusks of Ascen- 
sion Island, South Atlantic Ocean, and Dr. David L. Pawson is 
studying the echinoderms Dr. Manning brought back. The deep- 
water fauna off Ascension remains poorly known. 


"The ocean is almost like a mirror today — almost glassy smooth, 
like a great quiet lake. An intense morning — looking at our longest 
core so far — core 44 — 7.1 meters of gloriously interesting material. 
All is well! All is dehghtful for Leg 37," so wrote Dr. William 
Melson, Chairman of the nmnh Department of Mineral Sciences, 
who spent part of last year on board the U. 5. Research Vessel 
Glomar Challenger, the ship that for six years has been circling 
the earth, relentlessly drilling and coring the ocean floor for scien- 
tific purposes. 

This notation in his log was written the day the drill reached 563 
meters (about 1800 feet) on its way to an historic 1910-foot pene- 
tration of the ocean floor. 

It was to be the deepest of five borings made during Leg 37 in 
1600 feet of water at sites off the Azores near the Mid-Atlantic 
ridge. Each of the five holes — measuring 333, 405, 1102, 1092, and 
1912 feet — exceeded the previous record penetration into the vol- 
canic rocks beneath the ocean floor. The five borings yielded more 
than 3000 core samples of igneous and sedimentary rock, which 

Science I 111 

are now undergoing laboratory analysis at the Smithsonian and 
other major research centers in the United States, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, Canada, France, Germany, and Great Britain. 

Earlier legs of the Glomar Challenger had only sought to bring 
up cores of the sediment layers that overlie the hard rocks of the 
ocean floor. These have given an immense amount of paleonto- 
logical information about the early history of the earth. On Leg 37, 
however, the Glomar Challenger had for the first time directed its 
capabilities at the ocean's basement rock. 

Its probes made it possible to study how crust forms during sea 
floor spreading. The data from Leg 37's sites confirmed that the sea 
floor is spreading from the Mid-Atlantic rift at the rate of 1.1 
centimeters a year a few hundred miles south of the Azores. The 
scientists were also able to see what is happening deep inside the 
earth's mantle, locate mineral and oil deposits in the oceanic crust, 
and study the origin of the magnetic strips below the earth's ocean 
basins and past reversals of the earth's magnetism. 

Dr. Melson was cruise co-chief scientist with Dr. Fabrizio 
Aumento of Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 
Assisted by information provided by the thirteen other scientists 
comprising the international crew, they made such critical decisions 
as the exact location of the drill sites. 


In late January 1975 in the cattle ranching country of northern 
Queensland, Australia, paleobotanist Dr. Francis Hueber pried out 
of a low sandstone ledge the fossilized remains of a 360-million- 
year-old Devonian plant. It was the best preserved specimen found 
of this Devonian genus and for Dr. Hueber it was a major stride 
forward on a project that began seventeen years ago. 

Back in 1958 he had collected four or five isolated fragments of 
the same genus in New York's Catskill Mountains. Unfortunately, 
the fragments, which, oddly, were starshaped in cross section, were 
not large and complete enough to indicate much about the plant. 
More fossil material was needed. Because it was unlikely that any 
more would turn up in New York, Australia seemed to be the best 
place to look, since a piece of the same genus had been found 
there in the nineteenth century at a site on the Fanning River in 
northern Queensland. 

112 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

It was nine years before Dr. Hueber was able to get to Australia. 
When he did it was to collect fossil material in the State of Victoria 
connected with research he was doing on other Devonian plants. 
But he took the opportunity to go north for a few days and locate 
the site on the Fanning River. In Devonian times the area appar- 
ently had been a great river delta near the ocean^and trees and other 
plants had floated down river and sunk into the delta sands and 
muds. Dr. Hueber hastily surveyed the area's sandstone formations 
and was encouraged when he found more scraps of the fossil. The 
material that he was able to collect turned out to be rather poorly 
preserved but revealed the fact that the plant instead of being 
herbaceous of habit was in truth a tree. But another problem arose 
— were the star-shaped strands of wood the tree's roots or branches? 
The anatomy of the trunk was of a complex nature and did not give 
clear evidence for orientation of the specimens. Therefore, which 
way was up? 

In 1970, Dr. Hueber returned to northern Queensland after Don 
Wyatt, an Australian geologist, wrote that high water in the Fan- 
ning River area had cleared a mudstone layer in which two masses 
of the fossilized tree he was looking for were exposed. The geolo- 
gist had interpreted the fossils as the tops of the trees with their 
branches spread out through the matrix. Dr. Hueber collected a 
considerable amount of the fossil material but when he got it back 
to the Museum found it useless in solving the problem. The tree 
fragments had so badly rotted before fossihzation that it was im- 
possible to determine clearly the orientation of the specimens. 

It was on his third trip in 1975 that Dr. Hueber and Don Wyatt 
discovered the key 8-inch by 11- inch chunk of log weathering out 
of the sandstone ledge. Though it has not yet been cut into sections 
at the Museum and studied. Dr. Hueber is reasonably certain that 
the anatomy of the specimen is intact and that the orientation of 
the specimen indicates that the star-shaped strands are the tree's 

Importantly in tracing the early evolution of the plant kingdom 
this discovery marks a point in geologic time at which roots can be 
defined as an integral part of the plant body. Most land plants 
during the Devonian Period (which began 395 million years ago) 
relied upon the absorptive abilities of their stems which trailed 
along or were partially buried in the muds and swampy soils of the 

Science I 113 




"t : I 



'!\> i'. 

>^ "^:*^ 


Facing page, above: Dr. Francis Hueber at work in his office. Facing page, below: 
The fossilized remains of a 360-million-year-old Devonian plant pried out of a sand- 
stone ledge in Australia by Dr. Hueber. Above: Site of Dr. Hueber's study of Devonian 
plant fossils near the Fanning River, Queensland, Australia. 

ancient river deltas and coastal swamps. The root was gradually 
evolved over a period of about twenty-five million years and the 
plant Dr. Hueber is studying represents one of those very early 
plants in which the differentiation of the plant body into stem and 
root was achieved. It marks an important step in the history of the 
plant kingdom. 


Dr. Richard Thorington continued his studies on troops of howler 
monkeys on Barro Colorado Island at the Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute. The monkeys usually can be located by their 
strong smell and noisy chorus. A troop's eighteen monkeys move 
slowly along through the treetops, feeding on the fruit of fig and 
hog plum trees and roaring and howling at any stranger who dares 
invade their territorial area. 

Many studies of the social behavior of the Barro Colorado howl- 
ers have been made, dating back to the work of Dr. C. R. Carpenter 
in the 1930s, but Dr. Thorington is the first scientist to undertake 
a study of their long-term population dynamics and the factors that 
influence it. 

An anesthesia dart-gun is used to get the monkeys out of the 
trees. When they wobble and fall they are caught in a net and then 
morphological measurements, toothcasts, fingerprints, blood sam- 
ples, and biopsies are quickly taken. Before they are released white 
bands are freeze branded on their tails so that they can be identi- 
fied in the future for recapture. More than forty howlers have been 
marked in this way since 1972, when the study began. 

The project has already yielded interesting information. Chromo- 
some analysis of tissue cultures sent to Dr. Ma and Dr. Jones at 
Harvard's New England Regional Primate Research Center, shows 
that there is an odd translocation of a Y chromosome in the male 
howler over to one of the (nonsex bearing) autosomes. This gives 
the female 54 chromosomes to the male's 53; and the patterning 
of footprints, fingerprints, and tailprints of the Barro Colorado 
howlers and those of Costa Rica have been found to be curiously 
different. Dr. Thorington and Dr. Jefferey Froehlich (at that time, 
a postdoctoral student) are studying this patterning to see if there 
is any basic genetic difference in the two monkey populations. 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


One of the howler monkeys in a troupe on Barro Colorado Island studied by 
Dr. Richard Thorington. Below: Dr. Thorington measuring the circumference 
of one of the trees where the howler monkeys feed. Such data is used in the 
study which correlates productivity of the forest with fluctuations in the 
monkey population. 

Most of Dr. Thorington's findings will come in over a much 
longer term because howler monkeys live for a long time, perhaps 
twenty years. Gradually he is documenting life spans, death rates, 
and the frequency of births to different aged females. 

By marking and mapping the trees in the forest that the monkeys 
use — and studying the trees' flowering, fruiting, and leafing cycles 
— Dr. Thorington hopes to obtain indices of the annual produc- 
tivity of the forest and find what impact its fluctuations have on 
the monkey population. 

Results of the research have indicated a long-term stability of 
food resources. In 1955 there was a study of where the monkeys 
moved and where they fed. Many of the trees are the exact same 
ones in which the howlers feed today. Over a twenty-year period 
the distribution of resources appears to have changed little. This is 
an important factor in the social life of these monkeys, as well. 

But there are gradual inexorable changes occurring in the mon- 
keys' habitat. Botanists who have examined the Island's fig and hog 
plum trees for Dr. Thorington have noted that the trees do not 
seem to be producing seedlings, which leads him to believe that the 
main food supply of the howlers is going to become less and less 
abundant in the years ahead. 

Yellow fever has the potential of causing a swift and devastating 
impact on the monkey population. Dr. Thorington in collaboration 
with the Middle American Research Unit (maru) has been able to 
establish that howlers do not have antibodies to this disease. In 
1949, the last time yellow fever swept through the Central Ameri- 
can forests, it killed up to 75 percent of the Island's monkeys. 
Since then the Island howler population has increased from 250 in 
1951 to 800 in 1959 and in the last eight years has risen to 1500. 
But in 1974-1975 yellow fever cases have been reported again in 
the forest, spreading toward the Canal Zone, and Dr. Thorington 
is afraid that an epidemic could strike Barro Colorado Island. 

118 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

National Zoological Park 

In the Orient, this is the year of the hare. The past year at the 
National Zoological Park could be well called the year of the cater- 
pillar — tractor that is. The highest visible sign of activity to the 
visitors and the staff has been the construction program throughout 
the Zoo. One-third of the exhibition areas have been in the process 
of renovation. The lion and tiger exhibits have grown from a hole 
in the ground to a recognizable structure. One can now see the 
outline of the walls, moats, and the viewing areas. Internally, the 
quarters for the big cats are evolving in an orderly fashion from 
the beginning of seeming chaos. Delays from strikes and weather 
have occurred but it is now hoped that occupancy and dedication 
will take place about Easter of 1976. 

The occupants of the elephant house suffered the most incon- 
venience for they were confined to their quarters almost the entire 
year while their outside yards were being enlarged by a factor of 
three. The visitor has had on display the lumbering antics of bull- 
dozers, backhoes, cranes, and cement trucks accompanied by their 
frantic hard-hatted keepers. They have pushed their work so that 
the giraffes were returned to their outside yard five months ahead 
of the contract completion date. When the outside doors were 
finally opened, the giraffes gazed out on their new yards, which are 
five times larger than their previous inadequate space, for three 
days. Finally, the late afternoon the third day the young colt which 
had been born in late spring ventured out and was quickly followed 
by his mother and the other giraffes. For the first time in the history 
of the Zoo, the giraffes have enough space to run, kick up their 
heels, and frolic. The sight of these graceful animals cantering is 
indeed a reward for the months of planning, contract negotiations, 
confinement, and general inconvenience to the visitors. The giraffes 
are viewed behind a low moat. The path around the yard extends 
up on a low hillock to the north of the building so that the visitors 
actually have a giraffe eye-level view of these graceful animals. 
Also completed were the new pygmy hippopotamus yards which 
are the same size as previously but have a new moat system and 
outside pools. It is anticipated that shortly the Indian elephants will 
have the use of their new yard with its much enlarged bathing 
pool and that by Thanksgiving of 1975 the hippopotamuses. 

Science I 119 

African elephant, and Indian rhinoceroses will be enjoying spacious 
outside quarters. 

The level plaza surrounding the bird house is being completely 
redeveloped for three new duck ponds in front of the building, 
crane yards on the left, new flamingo pool, and exhibit behind in 
additional small cages scattered throughout the area. The project 
has been divided into two phases. Roughly half of the work is to be 
completed before the second half starts so that the birds are not 
completely removed from their homes. Visitors arrive at the side 
entrance to the bird house after passing the old eagle cage on the 
right and the new waterfowl pond construction on the left. The 
breeding pair of American bald eagles rather disdainfully super- 
vised the work in progress. They did take time off to build a nest 
and lay two eggs but, unfortunately, the eggs did not hatch. With 
good luck and fair weather the project will be completed about 
Thanksgiving of 1975. 

Remodeling of the 1904 monkey house, as described in Smith- 
sonian Year 1974, was completed early in the winter and the 
cage decorations were assembled. Because it is so difficult to dup- 
licate natural trees in such a manner that the animals cannot 
destroy them with their ingenious minds and busy fingers, it was 
decided that the timbers developed in the past few years for chil- 
dren's playground equipment would be used. The monkey habits, 
whether they be climbing, jumping, leaping, or swinging were taken 
into consideration and a specific design was made for each species. 
The swinging monkeys, such as the spider monkey, have plenty of 
ropes to swing from while the leaping monkeys, like the colobus, 
have platforms on which to bounce back and forth. Altogether it 
has produced a very active exhibit which is pleasing to the visitors. 
Zoo personnel are highly pleased that the monkeys accepted their 
new furniture with joyous abandon. Despite an aggressive, com- 
petent, supple minded, and knowledgeable staff, it is with trepida- 
tion that we attempt to predict the behavior of animals. It is very 
heart warming to have the monkeys' approval of our plans and 

The first Smithsonian Associates Women's Committee auction 
in mid-May of this year marked the official dedication and opening 
of the monkey house. Following a delightful meal served in the 
newly refurbished center of the old building, items and services 

120 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

^^* -v 

^ a^ 


Giraffes in the new yards at the National Zoo. In the foreground can be 
seen a section of the Indian elephants' yard under construction. Below: Giraffe 
in its new yard at the National Zoo enjoys "people watching." 

A view of one of the redecorated cages in the renovated Monkey House at 
the National Zoo. The "furniture" inside the cage was specially designed for 
these spider monkeys. The logs are solid oak. The ropes, simulating lianas, 
are two-inch thick manila rope. All the cages in the Monkey House have 
been designed with special features for the specific monkeys involved. 

pertaining to the various bureaus of the Smithsonian Institution 
were spiritedly bid for by a distinguished company of humans. One 
of the elderly and distinguished colobus monkeys was heard to com- 
ment that even for the sake of education he would never make a 
human out of himself. All in all, the monkeys seemed to enjoy the 
evening with slightly blase tolerant amusement. The visiting public 
has expressed great pleasure in the "new" old monkey house, com- 
menting that the lowered cage floors give good visibility to small 
children and that the plateglass does not obstruct the viewing. The 
monkeys are appreciative of the fact that they no longer have to 
smell human beings. 

In addition to the three major pieces of construction all through 
the Zoo, there have been smaller jobs being accomplished prepara- 
tory for the Bicentennial year. At the year's end, one dozen projects 
were underway and on target, with twice as many due to be active 

122 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

by late fall. Work is now in progress on ramps for the small 
mammal house and reptile house. When these are completed, all 
exhibits will be accessible to wheel chairs and baby carriages. 

Since the Zoo has changed its contracting practices to one of 
direct contracting rather than, as formerly, through the General 
Services Administration, the workload has increased tremendously. 
The Zoo was fortunate in having Mr. Robert C. Engle join the staff 
as engineer and Mr. Fred Barwick as Zoo contracting officer. 


On June 22, 1975, the General Services Administration transferred 
some 3100 acres of magnificent fields, forest, pasture, springs, and 
farm structures to the Smithsonian Institution, thus making official 
and legal the Zoo's tenancy at the old cavalry remount station at 
Front Royal. Previously, the Zoo had been occupying and develop- 
ing this area under a use permit. Dr. Christen M. Wemmer, who 
joined the Zoo staff from the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago, heads up 
the Center ably and is enthusiastically assisted by fifteen employees, 
some of whom were previously state or federal agricultural em- 
ployees and are continuing their long careers at the site. Together 
they have established successful farming, maintenance, and animal 
management programs. Last year two large pastures were enclosed 
and one of the old horse barns refurbished. This year two addi- 
tional horse barns were refurbished and four more large pastures 
were enclosed. Now in residence are Felds deer, bongo, kangaroo, 
zebra (two foals born), bactrian camels, rheas, as well as the scimi- 
tar horn oryx and Pere David deer which were established last 
year. In cooperation and conjunction with the newly formed Minne- 
sota State Zoological Garden at MinneapoUs, eight bactrian camels 
were secured and are now in residence at the Center. Maria, our 
female bactrian camel, returned to us from Cleveland bringing her 
consort, Jimmy. Early this spring one of the new females produced 
a lovely, if somewhat grotesque, calf. 

Dr. D. Kleiman planned a facility at one of the barns' in the cen- 
tral part of the Center's campus for a comparative canid behavior 
study. The cages for maned wolves, bush dogs, and crab-eating 
foxes have been constructed and presently two pairs of maned 
wolves are in residence and under study. These animals were 

Science I 123 

secured through the cooperation of Brazihan officials and Dr. Mario 
Autuori of the Sao Paulo Zoo. The study of these animals, with 
particular emphasis on their social and reproductive behavior, will 
continue for several years. 

Besides maintaining the present facility and producing 300 tons 
of hay for general Zoo use, exciting plans and programs are being 
formulated for the Center's future development. 


The most notable event for the Office of Animal Management was 
the hatching of a kiwi chick early in the year. This is the first time 
that this New Zealand bird has hatched outside of New Zealand 
and Australia. The incubation period is uncertain although reported 
to be fifty days. The male, who incubates the egg, hid the egg for 
a time, and the office was only aware of its presence for the twenty 
days prior to its hatching. Great consternation prevailed since there 
was no knowledge of how to feed the young chick; finally it was 
decided to double the amount of feed being fed to the adults and 
hope for the best. Fortunately, the male instructed the young chick 
in the proper methods of feeding and under this regimen it has 
thrived and grown mightily. The female pays little or no attention 
to either the egg or her offspring, leaving everything after egg- 
laying entirely up to the cock. 

The lesser pandas produced a litter of four kits, which means 
that these animals are now breeding into the second generation. 
It is hoped a strong breeding colony of this charming Asiatic animal 
can be established. 

The nene geese, inspired by the example of the previous years, 
decided to outdo themselves this year. Between February and March 
nineteen goslings were hatched from the eggs of three laying pairs. 
At one time the Zoo's exhibit consisted of twenty-eight of this 
highly endangered Hawaiian state bird. 

The Utah prairie dogs produced ten babies this year. The Office 
of Animal Management completed its studies of these animals and 
contemplates sending them to the University of Utah for additional 

The white tiger cubs, reported last year at Cincinnati, continue to 
thrive. They are straight-legged, big-boned, husky young cubs, and 
are expected to be returned to Washington, D.C., next Easter. 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The first kiwi ever hatched and reared outside of its native New Zealand, except for 
Australia, was an outstanding event for the National Zoo. After the female lays the 
egg she has no further interest in it and the egg is incubated for a period of 75-80 
days by the male. The chick was named Toru, the Maori word for "three." Photo: 
Washington Post. 

Growing at the rate of two pounds a day, the first born bactrian camel at the Front 
Royal Conservation and Research Center brings the National Zoo's camel herd up to 
eleven, the largest herd in North America. The baby was named "Number One." 
Photo: Leo Slaughter. 

In keeping with the Zoo's plans and responsibihty toward the 
animal kingdom, animals continue to be paired by sending them 
out on breeding loan to other zoos. At the present time thirty-two 
mammals, eight reptiles, and numerous birds are deposited in other 
zoos. Cooperation among all zoos in the United States is growing. 
More and more emphasis is being placed on replacement of zoo 
stock by zoo breeding and interexchange of animals. 

The Office of Animal Management^ under general curator Jaren 
Horsley, is continuing efforts to enrich contributions to animal- 
keeping and to broaden representation in the ranks with the hiring 
of ten women animal-keepers. Curatorial involvement in animal- 
exhibit planning resulted in excellent cage furnishing of the monkey 
house. Research activities increased in the office with two papers 
given by animal-keepers at professional meetings and with the 
addition to the staff of a herpetologist. Dr. Dale Marcellini, who will 
develop the research programs based on the collection. 

The most distressing death during the year was that of the large, 
old^ male komodo dragon, Kalana, who had been in residence for 
five years. During the past few months he failed noticeably, losing 
weight, and decreasing in activity. It was finally determined that 
euthanasia would be best for the animal. Post mortem revealed 
that he had a growth on the heart valve which produced a valvular 
insufficiency^ with the associated backup of blood and circulatory 
deficiencies common in this condition. 

The giant pandas, Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing, continue to be a 
main visitor attraction. This past April the young female came into 
heat for the third year. As reported last year, expectations of having 
a successful breeding were high. Unfortunately, the male was still 
not physically mature during this meeting. We hope the next meet- 
ing in April will prove successful. 


The year for the Office of Zoological Research has been most pro- 
ductive. Previous programs and studies have continued with some 
major additions. In the fall of 1974, final plans were made with 
Venezuelan scientists to inaugurate a program of field studies in 
vertebrate behavior and ecology in conjunction with Venezuelan 
researchers and students. Dr. G. G. Montgomery visited Venezuela 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

in June and July and radio-tracked both the giant anteaters and 
golden anteaters on the ranch of a Venezuelan collaborator, Sr. 
Tomas Blomh. In January Dr. Eisenberg and Dr. Marcellini under- 
took preliminary field investigations on herpetological and mam- 
malian studies. In March Dr. Eisenberg and Dr. Eugene Morton 
continued the field research undertaken in January by Dr. Eisen- 
berg. In June Dr. Eisenberg and two graduate students spent con- 
siderable time in the field working on the general problems and 
specifically that of the small mammals. It is anticipated that the 
work in Venezuela will continue for several years and should prove 
extremely fruitful. 

Dr. Devra Kleiman of the research staff has started a study in 
the communications and reproduction behavior of South American 
canids. This animal group provides a variety of social organization 
(e.g., the maned wolf is a solitary animal, the crab-eating foxes 
live in pairs, and the third individual to be studied, the bush dog, 
lives in family groups or small packs); a difference in physical size; 
and a separation in geography. Cage facilities have been con- 
structed at the Front Royal Conservation and Research Center and 
two pairs of maned wolves are now in residence and under study. 

Dr. Eugene Morton joined the Office of Zoological Research this 
past fiscal year as staff ornithologist. Dr. Morton has previously 
worked at Smithsonian facilities in Panama and the Chesapeake 
Bay Center on behavior and vocalization of avifauna. Currently, 
Dr. Morton is working in Venezuela and at Front Royal, where he 
has initiated studies on bluebirds and turkey vultures. 

W. P. Dittus received his Ph.D. in August 1974 on work done 
in Sri Lanka on the tocque macque. Dr. Dittus, at that time a mem- 
ber of the research department staff, is presently continuing his 
work in Sri Lanka under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute. 

In April, Victoria Guerrero received her Ph.D. degree on studies 
concerning the hormone control of courtship behavior in the green 
acouchi. All of her investigative work was done at the Zoo. 

In May 1975, Dr. Montgomery chaired a conference on arboreal- 
folivore at Front Royal. The conference gathered together thirty 
international scientists to discuss the impact of vertebrate and 
invertebrate feeding on the leaves of the tropical forest and the 
co-evolution of animals and plants in the tropical forest. The pro- 

Science I 127 

ceedings of the conference will be published later as part of the 
Smithsonian series. 

Under the joint auspices of the National Zoological Park and the 
National Institutes of Health, about forty scientists participated in 
a conference on the behavior and neurology of lizards held at Front 
Royal in May 1975. 

Work in this department has continued with daily treatment and 
disease investigation throughout the Zoo. Studies described in last 
year's annual report have continued. Dr. Robert M. Sauer resigned 
as pathologist and has been replaced by Dr. R. Montali, from Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Of interest was the initiation of a cooperative study with Dr. 
U. S. Seal, of the Veterans Hospital in Minneapolis, on contraceptive 
techniques in lions and other cats. Dr. Gray and Dr. Bush have 
participated in this project, most of the work being done at the Lion 
Country Safari at Doswell, Virginia. The study will continue for the 
next several years. 

A veterinary intern position was established. This will be a fif- 
teen-month appointment with the purpose of giving practical 
clinical experience to young veterinarian graduates wishing to 
specialize in exotic animal medicine. Dr. P. K. Ensley has been 
appointed to fill the first internship. 

The program of seminars, as described in last year's annual 
report, continues with growing success and participation by veter- 
inarians associated with exotic animal medicine in the eastern region 
of the United States. 

Probably the most noteworthy activity for the Office of Animal 
Health and Pathology occurred this late spring and early summer 
when there was a sudden outbreak of duck viral enteritis in the 
waterfowl ponds. An early diagnosis was made in cooperation with 
the Wildlife Disease Laboratories of the United States Department 
of Interior. Through the cooperation and assistance of the United 
States Department of Agriculture and the Cornell School of Veter- 
inary Medicine, vaccine was obtained and promptly administered. 
The outbreak was held to a loss of some forty birds. There has 
been no recurrence since the waterfowl collection was completely 
vaccinated. It is perhaps too soon to feel that all danger is over; 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

however, it does appear that this disease has been brought under 
control by the alert veterinary staff, the early diagnosis, and the 
preventative vaccination of the entire collection. 

The recently created Office of Education and Information is build- 
ing into the Zoo's visitor programs new dimensions in visitor 
learning and is guiding the Friends of the National Zoo in their 
active volunteer guide and docent program. 

The Office of Graphics and Exhibits undertook a wide-ranging 
program, highlighted by developing a new standard identification 
label and the counseling of designers on the new graphics master 
plan for the Zoo. This plan will go into production in 1976 with 
a unique trail system for visitors. 

In the Office of Protective Services a new health and safety unit 
was formed to focus on Zoo needs for improved visitor and em- 
ployee safety. New leadership of the police unit has emphasized 
officer training and service to visitors. 

In the central support group, the Office of Facilities Management 
continued to advance the skill levels of employees. A helpers'train- 
ing program was put into effect under capable management, giving 
unskilled employees an opportunity to progress in mechanical 
abilities, thereby enabling them to compete for positions as skilled 
tradesmen in the future. Maintenance programs were expanded, 
with the custodial force assuming responsibility for cleaning the 
public areas in the animal exhibit buildings; this action released the 
keepers for attention to the collections. Great credit must be given 
to the skill and devotion of the excellent trade and craft employees, 
who maintained the Zoo in an orderly fashion despite the disrup- 
tion caused by the construction program. 

At the core of the Zoo's administrative operation is a small but 
highly effective management services unit. The main emphasis of 
this office is to help develop administrative control and understand- 
ing within each Zoo office by assisting with good central informa- 
tion and guidance. There was an overall step-up in staff education 
efforts with more than a threefold increase in employee participa- 
tion in training over fiscal year 1973. During the year, 118 em- 

Science I 129 

ployees accomplished 191 educational improvement experiences. 
Major emphasis is being made to increase knowledge and skill by 
wider participation in this educational program through all areas 
of the Zoo. Such noteworthy successes in management^ throughout 
the Zoo, left the Office of the Director free to concentrate on the 
broader problems of guidance and overall management. 

As noted earlier in this report, construction was visually domi- 
nant within the Zoo in fiscal year 1975. Plans are proceeding for 
construction next year in the peripheral areas of the Zoo and the 
eventual complete modernization of the entire Zoo. Despite the 
turmoil, 1975 has been a busy and exciting year with many notable 
advances. The Zoo is anticipating a Bicentennial year that is mean- 
ingful and educational for all its visitors. 

Office of International Programs 

The Office of International Programs provides support to United 
States institutions of research and higher learning, including the 
Smithsonian, through Foreign Currency Program grants; provides 
for the rapid communication of data on natural and environmental 
phenomena of short duration through the Center for Short-Lived 
Phenomena; provides assistance to Peace Corps environmental and 
natural resources programs; and provides liaison services and 
assistance in foreign affairs for other offices of the Smithsonian. 


The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (sfcp) awards grants 
to support the basic research interests of American institutions, 
including the Smithsonian, in those countries where the United 
States holds blocked currencies derived largely from past sales of 
surplus agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. The Pro- 
gram is active in countries where the Treasury Department deems 
United States holdings of these currencies to be in excess of normal 
federal requirements, including at present India, Pakistan, Egypt, 
Tunisia, and Poland. The Smithsonian received a fiscal year 1975 
appropriation of $2 million in "excess" currencies which was used 
to grant support to over seventy-five projects in the disciplines of 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

archeology and the anthropological sciences, systematic and en- 
vironmental biology, astrophysics and earth sciences, and museum- 
related fields. Since its inception in fiscal year 1966, the sfcp has 
awarded more than $26 million in foreign currency grants to some 
eighty-seven institutions in thirty-two states and the District of 
Columbia. Within the framework of the program, the Smithsonian 
this year made a second contribution of $1 million in support of 
international efforts to save the submerged temples at Philae, Egypt. 
The SFCP participated in interagency negotiations leading to the 
establishment of a United States-Polish Joint Board to fund scien- 
tific and technical cooperation. This Joint Board, similar in purpose 
to the United States-Yugoslav Joint Board, makes it possible to 
extend the period for which Polish funds will be available for 
research under the sfcp. 


The International Liaison Section (ils) provides liaison and assist- 
ance to individuals and units of the Smithsonian in dealing with 
the Department of State and with foreign governments. It handles 
international matters involving travel and research abroad, and 
foreign participation in domestic programs of the Smithsonian, ils 
provides passport and visa services for Smithsonian staff, and 
assists in research arrangements for foreign visitors, ils has been 
working closely with the Division of Performing Arts in arranging 
Bicentennial-related foreign participation in the Festival of Ameri- 
can Folklife, and has been involved with foreign participation in 
other special Bicentennial activities of the Institution. 

The Center operates a worldwide electronic alert system for rapid 
communication of scientific data on phenomena of short duration 
involving significant changes in biological, ecological, and geo- 
physical systems, including rare or unusual animal migrations, 
population changes, major floods, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, 
earthquakes, landslides; pollution events such as oil and chemical 
spills, gas and radioactive substance leaks; and occasional astro- 
physical events such as meteorite falls and fireballs. During the 
year, the Center reported 235 short-lived events that occurred in 
forty-five countries, islands, and ocean areas. Scientific field teams 

Science I 131 

investigated 160 of the events. The reporting network consists of 
2874 scientists, scientific research institutions, and field stations in 
185 countries, and is augmented by an International Environmental 
Alert Network of 60,000 secondary school and university students 
in 691 schools in the United States and twenty-three other coun- 


The Smithsonian-Peace Corps Environmental Program provides 
assistance in two general areas. It develops Peace Corps projects 
and assignments dealing with environmental and natural resource 
problems in the developing countries, and it recruits and places 
applicants skilled in the environmental biological sciences. Over 
800 applications were received in fiscal 1975^ and 203 volunteers 
with environmental skills were assigned to twenty-six countries. 
Within the framework of Peace Corps agreements, host govern- 
ments assigned these environmental sciences volunteers to scien- 
tific and natural resource conservation programs. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Sunlight is important for the maintenance of life on the earth. The 
energy from sunlight is used by biological systems in two principal 
ways: either the energy is converted to food^or the energy is used 
to regulate growth and development. 

In order for the sunlight to be used in these two ways it must be 
absorbed by pigments. A large portion of the laboratory research 
this year has been directed toward research on plant pigments 
involved in these processes. 

Specifically, the laboratory has continued its investigations in: 
(a) regulatory processes of plants, such as membrane synthesis and 
pigment synthesis; (b) environmental processes and energy flow in 
biological systems, such as photosynthesis and phosphorus metabo- 
lism; (c) the measurement of the amount, duration and color quality 
of sunlight present in the environment; and (d) the age estimation 
of biological artifacts based upon their radioactive carbon content. 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

As they evolved, aerobic photosynthetic organisms adapted to the 
environment in various ways. In order to harvest a maximum 
amount of light from the sun, many organisms evolved pigments 
in addition to the principal photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a. 
These additional pigments absorb sunlight in regions in which there 
is only partial absorption by chlorophyll a. Thus, these accessory 
pigments extend the range of light available for growth and confer 
a survival advantage upon the organisms where they are present. 

In the red and blue-green algae, for example, these accessory pig- 
ments are packaged in structures known as phycobilisomes. The 
phycobilisomes are light-harvesting aggregates of protein pigments 
and are arranged on membranes in such a fashion that energy 
caught by them from sunlight is transferred to chlorophyll for 

These phycobilisomes can be seen in electron micrographs of red 
and blue-green algae, and methods for isolating and purifying them 
have been developed in our laboratory. Analyses of the purified 
phycobilisomes have been made by electron microscopy, immuno- 
chemistry, fluoresence and absorption spectra, and selective disso- 
ciation in various ionic strength buffers over a wide range of pH. 
These measurements led to a detailed structural model for light- 
harvesting antennae in the red alga, Porphyridium cruentum. 

It was found that the physical dissociation, i.e., the sequential 
release, of the phycobiliprotein pigments corresponded directly 
with the decreased activity of the aggregate in energy transfer. The 
phycobilisome, in confirmation of the previously proposed model, 
is structured for maximum light energy absorption and unidirec- 
tional transfer of this energy to the chlorophyll, where it is utilized 
for photosynthesis. 

The pathway discovered is a transfer of energy from the shorter 
wavelengths of sunlight toward the long wavelength absorption 
maximum of chlorophyll a in the following sequence : phycoerythrin 
to R-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin to chlorophyll a, which is 
attached to the photosynthetic membranes of the algae. 

The biosynthesis of the photosynthetic membranes of chloro- 
plasts is also being studied, using a polyribosome-membrane com- 
plex isolated from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A 
principal component of biological membranes is protein. Proteins 

Science I 133 

are synthesized on ribosomes, some of which are tightly attached to 
the photosynthetic membranes. These membrane-bound ribosomes 
contain incomplete proteins, that is, proteins in the process of being 
made. If synthesis of these incomplete proteins is artificially ter- 
minated, for example, by inhibitors, the prematurely completed 
protein chains remain with the membrane and not with the ribo- 
somes as might be expected. This observation has led us to con- 
clude that ribosomes attached to the photosynthetic membranes 
make membrane proteins that become part of the membrane as the 
proteins are made. This system probably is part of the process by 
which the total amount of photosynthetic membrane is increased. 
It may also apply to the formation of other biological membranes. 

Another pigment system investigated this year is the carotenoids. 
Carotenoids are found in all families of both plants and animals. 
For example, they are responsible for the yellow-orange, and red 
colors of carrots, tomatoes, leaves in autumn, starfish, flamingos and 
other birds. We have been investigating the biosynthesis of carote- 
noids in an orange bread mold, Neurospora crassa. This organism 
has the interesting property of requiring blue light to initiate syn- 
thesis. At least eight different carotenoids are produced after the 
light treatment. 

Considering the temperature requirements and the effects of 
various inhibitor compounds, we have proposed that an inducer 
used to activate a gene is produced by the light reaction. The 
genetic code contained in the activated gene is used to specify the 
amino acid sequence of an enzyme required for carotenoid syn- 
thesis. The hypothesis was proposed that this enzyme is absent in 
dark-grown cultures. However, the interesting possibility remains 
that a whole series of genes is activated by light, and, as a result, 
more than one enzyme is produced. 

Two approaches are being used to test this hypothetical model: 
genetic and biochemical. The genetic study involves the use of 
ultraviolet light to mutate wild type Neurospora. Using this muta- 
gen, we have obtained four different types of strains. These are 
albinos that do not make pigment even in the presence of light, 
yellow-orange mutants that synthesize a different distribution of 
pigments, mutants in which the sensitivity of carotenoid synthesis 
to temperatures above 6C has been reduced, and mutants that can 
make pigment in the dark. We are in the process of determining the 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

location of these mutants on the seven chromosomes of Neuro- 

From a biological standpoint, phytoene, a colorless compound 
which accumulates in dark-grown Neurospora, is a likely precursor 
of the carotenoid pigments. Since phytoene can be synthesized by 
Neurospora in the dark, it is predicted that light induces the syn- 
thesis of enzymes for the conversion of phytoene to the carote- 
noids. Furthermore, one might predict that the level of enzymes 
involved in phytoene synthesis itself would be unaffected by a light 
treatment. However, preliminary results using radioactive pre- 
cursors of phytoene indicate that a blue light exposure of two 
minutes does induce in vivo the de novo synthesis of one or more 
of the enzymes involved in phytoene synthesis. Thus, blue light 
may affect both the synthesis of phytoene, as well as the synthesis 
of carotenoids from phytoene. 

The single-celled fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus, demon- 
strates a phenomenon known as light-dark adaptation. That is, it 
has the ability to change its sensitivity to light stimuli, depending 
upon the previous history of light exposure it has received. The 
nature of the pigment receiving the light stimuli in the cells is as 
yet unknown. However, by measuring the bending responses of 
these cells to unilateral light stimuli of varying irradiance (in- 
tensity), it is possible to measure the time constants of the dark- 
adaptation rate after very high intensity blue light exposures 
(> ImW-cm--). 

Experimentally, it is found that the cell can adapt to a new, 
lower intensity at the rate of a factor 2 in intensity about each four 
minutes, in agreement with previous data from light-growth re- 
sponse measurements. Surprisingly, it has also been found that in 
the range of intensities so large that no responses can be observed 
physiologically, such as bending or light-growth responses, the 
adaptation mechanism still functions. This was demonstrated by 
adapting the cell to intensities many fold higher than it can respond 
to and then measuring the time it takes for the cell to become 
sensitive to a standard lower intensity in the responsive range. 
Even for intensities not effective in producing responses, the cell 
has a method for evaluating the intensity. We conclude that these 
data indicate that a photobleaching of the pigment itself is oc- 
curring, which is used by the cell for intensity measurement, and 

Science I 135 

that the sensitivity changes of the cell in light-dark adaptation are 
not simply due to limitations in the capacity of responding systems. 


From a photosynthetic standpoint salt marshes are thought to be 
among the world's most productive plant communities. It is also 
thought that this productivity (excess carbon matter after neces- 
sary growth and maintenance) is exported from the marsh to be 
utilized by consumers living in the estuary subtended by the marsh. 
One of our objectives has been to understand the capacity of the 
marsh to utilize light. We have studied carbon dioxide assimilation 
in the light and dark in sections of salt marsh communities that 
were enclosed in a plexiglass chamber of approximately one cubic 
meter. A system for monitoring the in situ rate of CO2 exchange 
which utilizes an infra-red gas analysis system has been constructed 
in the marsh. During the night, metabolism of organisms in the 
community evolves CO-, but when there is sufficient light, the 
green plants and algae on the surface of the marsh assimilate CO2 
at a rate that exceeds CO2 evolution and is dependent on light 
intensity. Figure 1 shows results of measurements of net CO2 ex- 
change in the light over a two-hour period in a community that 
includes approximately 60 percent of one species, a sedge Scripus 
olneyi, and approximately 40 percent of a mixture of the two 
grasses Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. 

Analysis of many such records (Fig. 2) has shown that the com- 
munity light saturation for net CO2 exchange occurs near four 
moles of quanta m^- h~^ (about 5/7 of full sunlight intensity), 
suggesting that the community is adapted to utilize rather high 
light intensity. Efficiency of the light utilization (the ratio of energy 
received to energy stored in carbon compounds) is about 60 percent 
of that of agricultural crops, such as corn and potatoes, and this 
adds to the earlier evidence that salt marshes are highly productive 
and, therefore, valuable natural resources. 

Plants have also evolved special mechanisms to enable them to 
survive harsh environments of temperature extremes. During the 
past year, studies of the effects of chilling on the photosynthetic 
apparatus of leaf cells were continued. It has been found that it is 
possible to isolate from whole leaves cells which, by two criteria, 
are able to carry on photosynthesis independently of the leaf struc- 

136 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Community type Sedge ( Scirpus oineyi . Sportino potens . Distichlis spicoto ) 

August 3, 1974 

Irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm) and photo- 
synthetic uptake of CO2 in a section of a sedge community contained within 
a plexiglass chamber on the Rhode River, Maryland. The photosynthesis 
record is interrupted periodically to establish an instrument baseline. The 
instrument measuring irradiance responds in a few miUiseconds but the sys- 
tem for measuring net photosynthesis requires several minutes to respond. 


£■= 0.5 

o ^ 
o O 






(Solar Maximum 1 





6.0 7.0 



6.0 7.0 

Irradiance (400-700 nm) (moles quanta m-2 hr-i ) 

The dependence of net photosynthesis in two salt marsh communities in the 
Rhode River, Maryland, upon irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation 
during August 1974. The maximum solar irradiance during this time of year 
is 7.2 moles quanta m"" hr'\ The grass community is a mixture of Spartina 
patens and Distichlis spicata, and the sedge community is approximately 40 
percent of this grass mixture and 60 percent of the sedge Scirpus oineyi. 

Science I 137 

ture. They evolve oxygen and assimilate CO2 in the light in the 
absence of artificial electron donors or acceptors. The conditions for 
obtaining such a preparation of cells are that a high molecular 
weight compound, polyvinylpyrolidone (40,000), be included in the 
initial medium in which the leaves are bathed during the brief (35 
sec) grinding, and that the pH be controlled by a buffer (at 
7.0 ± 0.2 pH units). Whole and broken cells are separated by mild 
centrifugation. Using this method to obtain active cells from whole 
leaves that have been exposed to a succession of cool (5°C) nights, 
we were able to show that the reduction in oxygen evolution occurs 
at the same time and to the same extent as does the loss in capacity 
for carbon dioxide assimilation in whole leaves. Rates of oxygen 
evolution with this cell system are of the order of 25 percent of 
those for carbon dioxide assimilation in whole leaves. It has been 
suggested by some workers that the plant hormone abscisic acid 
(ABA), which is known to effect photosynthetic CO2 assimilation 
by closing the stomata of leaves, may also have a direct effect on 
the photosynthetic apparatus within the leaf. However, we could 
find no immediate effect of abscisic acid on oxygen evolution in 
whole green cells separated from the leaf by our methods. 

As part of the studies investigating the flow of energy in the Bay 
area, the relationship is being investigated between land use prac- 
tices on lands in Maryland adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay and the 
composition of the runoff waters flowing from these lands into the 
estuary. The water discharge rates and volume-integrated concen- 
trations of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon) 
were monitored for a year on five watersheds. The watersheds were 
mapped in detail with respect to land use, and the nutrient data 
were analyzed to give mean seasonal area yield loading rates for 
each of five land use categories (cultivated cropland, pastureland, 
forest, swamps and freshwater marshes, and residential). Rainfall 
was also monitored for amount and nutrient composition. It was 
found to contain high levels of both nitrate and organic nitrogen. 
A quantitative analysis was computed of the sources of organic 
matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the Rhode River, a subestuary 
of Chesapeake Bay. Rainfall and the exchange of water masses 
with Chesapeake Bay proper were found to be the principal sources 
of nitrogen, while residential areas and cultivated cropland were 
the largest sources of phosphorus. In the case of organic matter. 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

less than one percent was derived from the watersheds and air- 
shed, and the greatest source was primary production by phyto- 
plankton in the estuary. 

Studies were also conducted of phosphate uptake by bacteria 
and phytoplankton in the Rhode River. Uptake was closely cor- 
related with cell biomass, but bacterial uptake rates were between 
10^ and 10^ times higher per biomass. Thus, although bacterial 
biomass was usually much lower than phytoplankton biomass, bac- 
teria usually accounted for over 90 percent of total planktonic 
phosphorus uptake. 

Phosphorus compounds which are biologically important are 
polymers of phosphate commonly called polyphosphates. In the 
laboratory these polyphosphates have been isolated from syn- 
chronously dividing Chlorella cells. Two classes of polymer have 
been characterized. The first, a, is formed in large amounts during 
the cell expansion phase of the cell cycle and then decreases rapidly 
in amount. The second, (i, increases when a decreases. Radioisotope 
labeling studies have shown that a is labeled twice as fast initially, 
but both become labeled with the same specific activity as the 
medium within two cells' cycles. 

Neither class of polymer is homogeneous with respect to mo- 
lecular weight, but « has a molecular weight range of 50,000- 
125,000, while fi has a range of 5000-25,000. A true polyphos- 
phate is inert to alkaline hydrolysis, but both a and (i give the same 
size product upon alkaline hydrolysis, a smaller more homogeneous 
polymer of about 5000 daltons. Both a and /? release about 80-85 
percent of their phosphorus as orthophosphate upon mild acid 
hydrolysis under conditions which give 100 percent orthophosphate 
from true polyphosphates. The molecular structures of a and (i, as 
well as their degradation products, are unknown but are currently 
under investigation, 


One of the pigments which controls a wide range of diverse bio- 
logical responses from flowering to seed germination is phyto- 
chrome. Phytochrome is a photochromic pigment which can exist 
in two major absorbing forms (wavelength maxima in the red or in 
the far red regions of the spectrum). It is believed that many sea- 
sonal phenomena in plants are regulated through this pigment. If 

Science I 139 

only the far red form is physiologically active, then plants having 
this pigment would be sensitive to subtle changes in the naturally 
occurring amounts of red and far red light from sunlight. 

We know from laboratory experiments that changes in red and 
far red do cause marked developmental responses when all other 
conditions of the environment are maintained constant. Therefore, 
measurements of sun and sky light have been made, and the ratio 
of the amounts of red and far red light occurring naturally deter- 
mined. The data from the monitoring stations for the years 1968 to 
1973 have been published in tabular form showing the amount of 
energy in each spectral region, as well as the percentage of the 
total energy. 

Ozone is a naturally occurring trace gas of the earth's atmos- 
pheric envelope. It is concentrated primarily in the stratosphere be- 
tween fifteen and thirty-five kilometers altitude. Ozone is also 
formed near the earth's surface from man-made and naturally 
occurring sources. Ozone concentration in the stratosphere varies 
with latitude from about 2.4 mm at standard temperature and 
pressure (stp) at the equator to about 4.5 mm at high latitudes. 
There are also seasonal and geographical variations. This layer of 
ozone is the principal absorber of ultraviolet radiation from the sun 
for wavelengths of 320 nm down to about 225 nm and serves as a 
shield for terrestrial organisms. 

In view of the recent concerns about ozone and ultraviolet radia- 
tion and the admitted uncertainties that now exist, the Radiation 
Biology Laboratory has developed and recently installed at several 
monitoring sites ultraviolet measuring instruments to measure 
energy in narrow bands from 280 nm to 320 nm. 

In the skin of mammals there are a number of pigments present. 
One of these, as yet not clearly identified, is involved with the 
reddening of skin (erythemal response) and is associated in some 
way with the induction of skin cancer. Previously, the short wave- 
length limit of ultraviolet light, reaching the earth, which produces 
these responses was thought to be about 290 nm. During the past 
year, we have detected energy below 290 nm at the surface of the 
earth on a relatively consistent basis, using the rbl radiometer. 

All living organisms are in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon 
dioxide until death, when radioactive ^^Carbon begins to decay. By 

140 / Sj-iiithsonian Year 1975 

measuring present ^^Carbon activity in dead biological specimens, 
it is possible to determine the age, or time of death, of those orga- 
nisms, and thus provide chronologies necessary for the researches 
of archeologists, geologists, palynologists, etc. A small portion of 
the research time of the Carbon Dating Laboratory is devoted to 
basic research of the method itself, such as the development of 
chemical pretreatments to extract the most representative and reli- 
able fractions of sample materials. Major efforts, however, are 
devoted to providing chronologies for the research staff of the 
Smithsonian Institution, to the investigation of the relationships 
between environmental change and cultural change, and to the 
problem of the early occupations of the Americas. 

In collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution staff, as well as 
cooperative research with some twenty other institutions and uni- 
versities, the laboratory has been engaged in such studies as late- 
glacial and post-glacial sea-level rise along the Middle Atlantic 
coast, cultural change in response to environmental change along 
the New England and Labrador coasts, and the early occupations 
of coastal Labrador some 8000 years ago. 

Recent discovery of sea current reversal at the Strait of Gibraltar 
about 10,000 years ago conjures up visions of drastic environmental 
and cultural changes within the Mediterranean Basin, and studies 
are continuing to determine the extent of such changes throughout 
the basin. To the south, the dating of ancient lake levels at Alex- 
andersfontein near Kimberley, South Africa, has led to the study 
of climatic changes in that area and their possible correlation with 
Middle and Late Stone Age occupations around the lake. 

A cooperative sampling program by United States and Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics scientists has involved the laboratory in 
a joint dating effort with Russian laboratories in the investigation 
of late-glacial and post-glacial climates of east-central Siberia. A 
joint U.S.S.R.-U.S. expedition provided the laboratory with samples 
confirming a continuous occupation of the Aleutian chain beginning 
some 8000 years ago, and the dating of materials from several sites 
in southeastern Alaska indicates initial occupations there by 10,000 
years ago. 

The most striking project recently undertaken is the dating of 
materials from the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in western Pennsyl- 
vania. Several samples from hearths in the lowest occupation levels 
of the site indicate that man was already in northeastern North 

Science I 141 

America by 16,000 years ago. Since the most recent, and generally 
accepted, entry to North America by way of the Bering land bridge 
could have taken place only between 14,000 and 17,000 years ago 
when land was exposed there, the ^^Carbon dates from Meadow- 
croft suggest that man's entry must date to the prior land bridge, 
some 25,000 to 30,000 years ago. Archeologists are now quickly 
revising their estimates of man's antiquity in the New World as a 
result of this project. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Since 1973, the related research activities of the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory (sao) and the Harvard College Observatory 
(hco) have been coordinated under a single director. This coopera- 
tive venture, combining the facilities of both observatories in a 
Center for Astrophysics at Cambridge, Massachusetts, has as its 
primary goal "the conduct of excellent astrophysical research in a 
variety of interdependent subfields." 

Recognizing the limitation to the amount of resources currently 
available as well as to the potential growth in these resources, a 
plan has been drawn up, covering the next five years, for utilizing 
the available resources effectively in attaining scientific goals and 
objectives. In brief, this plan calls for specific steps to strengthen 
the research in each division, by provision of new staff and re- 
sources, as well as by phasing out programs which are of less scien- 
tific interest or could not contribute directly to the overall goal. 
They also call for greater effectiveness in the administrative opera- 
tion of the observatories. 

During 1974, major new research appointments were made in 
high-energy astrophysics, theoretical astrophysics, planetary sci- 
ences, and solar physics. New programs were started in x-ray 
astronomy. A major objective for the next few years is the pro- 
vision of institutional funds to undergird these new programs and 
other ongoing programs deemed to be excellent. 

Certain scientific programs have been instituted at the Center, 
including a Visiting Scientist program and a Center Postdoctoral 
Fellowship program. Under the latter program, six fellows were 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

SEPT 1 1.1973 ieOOGMT 


977 A 

Mq X 62e 

Three views of the solar surface as seen in different wavelengths by the Extreme 
Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount aboard the Skylab. A 
team of Harvard and Smithsonian scientists are now analyzing data from this experi- 
ment to understand the physical processes at work in the solar body. Photo: Harvard 
College Observatory. 

The Skylab 3 Satellite photographed from the command module prior to docking. 
Harvard experiments aboard the Apollo Telescope Mount (located just above the main 
docking port) have provided data for research on solar processes now underway by 
Harvard and Smithsonian scientists at the Center for Astrophysics. Photo: National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

appointed in July 1974 for a two-year period, to pursue research 
of their choosing. It is expected that four more fellows will be 
appointed in July 1975, with interests in radio astronomy, solar 
physics, and theoretical astrophysics. 

More detailed discussion of the current research objectives of 
each of the Center's eight divisions follows. 


This division embraces the spectroscopy laboratory at hco and the 
theoretical atomic physics group, largely at sao. Experimental work 
includes the measurement of photoionization cross sections and 
oscillator strengths for species of astrophysical interest. Theoretical 
work covers the calculation of atomic and molecular structure and 
the associated cross sections for interaction with radiation, using 
such techniques as model-potential methods. The resulting data are 
being used in studies of processes in the upper atmosphere and in 
interstellar clouds. 

Future directions include the development of an ion-beam ap- 
paratus to measure the interaction of multiply-charged ions with 
electrons and radiation; currently supported by sao. 


This division utilizes a worldwide network of tracking stations to 
observe precise positions of artificial satellites (using optical tele- 
scopes and laser ranging) and employs the resulting data to extract 
information about the earth's shape and gravitational field. Previous 
results have been summarized in a publication called "The Smith- 
sonian Standard Earth." 

The French Starlette satellite, placed in orbit in March 1975, 
and the Geos-c satellite, launched in April 1975, are being tracked 
now; it is planned to analyze radar altimeter data from the latter 
satellite to determine the ocean geoid. Lageos, a satellite conceived 
by the group, is expected to be launched in February 1976. Using 
laser ranging to its corner reflectors, it is hoped that 2-cm range 
accuracy can be achieved. The resulting data will be used, as part 
of NASA's Earth and Ocean Physics Application Program (eopap), 
to deduce basic information about the earth, including the direct 
measurement of continental drift. Emphasis will be placed on 
dynamics of the earth, including plate tectonics and the response to 
loading by tides and glaciation. 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Starlette, a satellite designed specifically for research in geodesy and geo- 
dynamics and launched in February 1975, is currently being tracked by the 
worldwide laser and camera network operated by the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory. Starlette is a solid sphere with an extremely low 
area-to-mass ratio which minimizes all non-gravitational effects on its orbit. 
Extremely precise ranging from ground stations is facilitated by the complex 
laser array on the satellite. The resultant orbital data should allow study of 
long-period perturbations of gravitational origin as well as provide precise 
positional determination of the ground stations for tectonic purposes. Photo: 
cnes/grgs, France. 

Another project in this division is to fly an extremely precise 
hydrogen maser clock in a high-altitude rocket probe to check 
Einstein's prediction that such a clock will "tick" faster than an 
identical clock on the earth. This prediction, fundamental to the 
theory of relativity, has so far been verified at the 1 percent level; 
this experiment should be one hundred times more accurate. 

Finally, the division is conducting an experiment aboard the joint 
USA-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project scheduled for launch in July 
1975. One of the very few experiments selected for this flight, it 
will permit accurate determination of gravitational anomalies by 
extremely precise monitoring of the distances between the United 
States and Soviet spacecraft. 

Science I 145 

Future directions include a long-term commitment to the eopap 
program, and further work aimed at increasing the stability of 
hydrogen maser clocks beyond the current 10~^^ level with a num- 
ber of possible applications in astronomy. 

The twenty-year Moonwatch program involving an international 
network of volunteer visual satellite observers was disbanded at the 
end of June 1975. Since the first observations of Sputnik I in 1957, 
the network has made approximately 400,000 observations of 
artificial satellites in support of the federal space program. 


In 1967, SAO started a small group working with a novel Cerenkov 
detector at Mt. Hopkins Observatory to detect gamma rays of 
10^^-10^" eV from celestial sources. This project succeeded in de- 
tecting gamma rays from the Crab pulsar, placing severe constraints 
on theoretical models. More recently, the group has used equip- 
ment in Australia to demonstrate that the Centaurus-A radio source 
(ngc 5128) also emits high-energy gamma rays. 

In 1973, a major new program of x-ray astronomy, using rocket- 
and satellite-borne detectors, was added at sao. This group is 
analyzing the data acquired by the uhuru x-ray instrument. Many 
stellar x-ray sources have been discovered, which appear to be 
associated with collapsed stars orbiting normal stellar companions. 
Black holes are predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity, but they 
had never been observed before. 

Extragalactic sources were also found, including many clusters 
of galaxies. The source of x-rays in clusters appears to be extremely 
hot gas, whose origin and heating may be connected with basic 
processes in cosmology. 

Current projects include rocket flights and participation in ex- 
periments aboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, launched 
in August 1974. Observations of increased x-ray activity in the 
object Cygnus X-1 between May 1 and May 5 by the Smithsonian 
experiment aboard that satellite sparked a series of ground-based 
searches leading to the detection of increased radio emissions by 
astronomers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (nrao). 
The corresponding activity in two wavelengths confirms observa- 
tions of dual intensity changes from Cygnus X-1 first seen four 
years earlier, thus supporting the contention that the object is a 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

black hole and suggesting physical mechanisms unique to such 
stellar systems. 

Investigators at the Center are also involved in the experiments 
aboard Sas-c an x-ray observatory launched in May 1975. A 
laboratory facility for the design and calibration of x-ray detectors 
and telescopes is being built at the Center. 

Future plans heavily emphasize participation in a program of 
High-Energy Astronomy Observatories (head), with major effort 
going into the design of a large x-ray telescope on heao-b, which 
will have a resolution better than two arcseconds. This experiment 
will be launched in 1978. Instruments to be placed at the focus of 
this telescope are being designed by various groups around the 
country, including the one at the Center. 

In addition to using Harvard's 61-inch reflector at Agassiz Station 
and Smithsonian's 60-inch reflector at Mt. Hopkins, observational 
astronomers in this group enjoy guest privileges at a number of 
observatories in the United States and abroad. They also use a 
40-inch balloon-borne telescope developed jointly by hco, sao, and 
the University of Arizona for observations in the far infrared. This 
division utilizing numerous facilities has made observations of 
comets and asteroids, planets, stars, x-ray sources, nebulae, inter- 
stellar clouds, pulsars, quasars, and galaxies. Some recent high- 
lights include the study of halos of spiral galaxies at one-micron 
wavelength, discovery of high winds in the atmosphere of Venus, 
high-resolution mapping of the Orion nebula in the far infrared, a 
demonstration that the brightest x-ray source in the sky (Sco X-1) 
exhibits regular light variations with a period of approximately 
nineteen hours, and the discovery that for a brief period the quasar 
3C 279 exceeded the luminosity of 100 trillion suns. 

The future activities of this division are heavily oriented toward 
the completion of the Multiple-Mirror Telescope, which is being 
constructed jointly by sao and the University of Arizona on Mt. 
Hopkins. A telescope of novel design based on altitude-azimuth 
mounting of six lightweight 72-inch mirrors, the mmt will have an 
equivalent aperture of 175 inches, and an optical resolution better 
than 0.7 arcsecond; it will be optimized for operation in the infra- 
red. The MMT is scheduled to draw first light in 1976; some of the 

Science I 147 

major components are already complete and await assembly, while 
others are in various stages of construction. However, full-scale 
operation will not take place until 1977. A high priority for this 
project is its successful observation of faint optical and infrared 
objects, especially extragalactic ones. 

In this division observations of the smaller bodies in the solar 
system — comets, meteors, asteroids, and satellites — are empha- 
sized, as are studies of meteoritic and lunar material. Theoretical 
work centers on the origin of the solar system and of various bodies 
within it. Recent studies include a campaign to study stellar occulta- 
tions by Eros, which led to new estimates of the size and shape of 
that asteroid. Mutual occultations of the satellites of Jupiter are 
leading to better estimates of their sizes. Theoretical work indi- 
cates that the obliquity of the earth may increase dramatically in 
the future, and that the presence of resonance gaps in Saturn's rings 
implies that the particles making up the rings must be of the order 
of ten meters across. 

Several research programs involving lunar and meteorite samples 
are continuing, including mineralogical and petrological studies on 
a complex brecchia boulder from the Apollo 17 site and on particles 
from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, as well as isotopic in- 
vestigation of lunar material. In a related program, inexpensive 
detectors to determine the neutrino fluxes from various cosmic 
sources have been developed. The Prairie Network, a ten-year 
project to photograph fireballs, is being discontinued. 

Future directions will probably emphasize further the origin of 
the solar system, including cosmochemistry and theoretical analysis. 

In spring 1975, a new asteroid discovered by two members of 
this division using the telescope at Agassiz Station was named 
"Whipple" in honor of the former director of sao. Dr. Fred L. 

This group is comprised of both hco and sao scientists. The Cen- 
ter's efforts include the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station at Ft. 
Davis, Texas, where studies of extragalactic radio sources and of 
solar radio bursts are made. Center scientists are also heavily 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Several hundred Southern Arizona astronomy buffs take advantage of the 
annual Mount Hopkins Observatory Open Days each year to visit the varied 
facilities at the 7600-foot level of the mountain site, including the large 
10-meter gamma-ray detector shown above. Photo: Smithsonian Astrophysical 

involved in studies of the interstellar mediunn and maser sources at 
microwave and millimeter wavelengths. Observational facilities at 
Agassiz, Haystack, nrao, and the Texas Millimeter Wave Observa- 
tory are used in this work. 

Recent studies include the detection of ethanol (grain alcohol) in 
interstellar clouds and CH in Comet Kohoutek. Isotopic abundances 
were studied in the Orion nebula, and heavy ions were identified 
in the recombination-line spectrum of H I clouds. Evidence has been 
presented both from vlbi and single-dish measurements that milli- 
gauss magnetic fields exist in Orion. If confirmed, this would imply 
energy densities a million times greater than in the typical inter- 
stellar medium, suggesting interesting new effects. 

A new program has been initiated in response to the recent find- 
ing that chlorinated hydrocarbons released into the atmosphere 
may, via a series of photochemical reactions, attack the ozone in 
the earth's upper atmosphere, with potential dire consequences for 
living things. Experiments in Texas have demonstrated the feasi- 
bility of detecting some of the key molecules in the stratosphere 
by their millimeter lines. 

Science I 149 

The 84-foot dish used at Agassiz Station, Massachusetts, in the joint 
Harvard-Smithsonian program of radio astronomy. Photo: Harvard 
College Observatory. 

The Fort Davis (Texas) Radio Astronomy Station, with 28-foot and 
85-foot antennas, operated by the Harvard College Observatory as 
part of the joint Harvard-Smithsonian program of research in radio 
astronomy. Photo: Harvard College Observatory. 


Emphasis in future research will be placed on short millimeter 
and submillimeter wavelengths, where good work can be done at 
a more moderate cost. This spectral range is rich in molecular fea- 
tures of prime interest to various groups at the Center. 

This division comprises the hco Solar Satellite Project, an hco 
solar x-ray group, and a variety of studies, many of them theo- 
retical, at SAO. The Solar Satellite Project is deeply involved in the 
analysis of the large amounts of solar ultraviolet data gathered on 
Skylab. All the evidence points to strong magnetic control of the 
chromosphere and corona, evidenced by prominent arch structures 
and bright points. Recent work has developed evidence for wave 
propagation from lower to upper layers; if expectations are fulfilled, 
the long-sought heating mechanism for the corona will be found. 

Starting in 1974, the ultraviolet data at the Center have been 
complemented by x-ray observations from the same spacecraft 
obtained by a group that joined hco last year. Among the more 
striking findings is confirmation of the fact that "coronal holes/' 
regions where the coronal density and temperature are low, appear 
to be the source of streams of solar wind. Further work concerns 
the high densities and temperatures along magnetic coronal arches. 
This work will lead to a better understanding of the solar corona, 
and how the solar wind originates in it. 

Theoretical work among the sao members of the division con- 
tinues on a variety of problems involving non-LTE radiative transfer. 
This work is being applied to models of the chromosphere and 
corona and, in particular, to the analysis of the region of the tem- 
perature minimum. 

Stellar research is being carried out using orbiting ultraviolet 
telescopes such as the Princeton instrument aboard Copernicus. 
A recent finding is that Capella, a nearby star of solar type, may 
have a stellar wind. By applying the analytical tools developed for 
the sun, we hope to infer the properties of this wind. In the future, 
the division expects to participate in the International Ultraviolet 
Explorer and Large Space Telescope missions of nasa. 

Finally, there is increasing interest in solar-terrestrial relations, 
based on recent studies that seem to show correlation between 
indices of solar activity and meteorological changes. Because of the 

Science I 151 

Center's involvement with research on the sun and the upper at- 
mosphere, it may be possible to make significant contributions to 
this controversial but exciting field. 


Members of this division are engaged in a wide variety of theo- 
retical studies, ranging from stellar atmospheres to cosmology. Re- 
cent work has included studies of the equilibrium and stability of 
galaxies and clusters of galaxies, novel methods of integration of 
the equation of transfer, molecular processes in interstellar clouds, 
weak interactions in supernova explosions, the heating of the inter- 
galactic medium, the physics of neutron stars and pulsating white 
dwarfs, deuterium production in supernovae, and tidal effects in 
binary systems. 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. 

The Exchange has experienced a considerable expansion of its 
activities during the year, both with regard to an expansion of the 
services provided and in terms of internal improvements designed 
to enhance the value of its services to users and to incorporate the 
latest technological improvements which distinguish the Exchange 
as a major scientific and technological information center. 

The Exchange undertook a series of projects for various Federal 
Agencies which were directed toward meeting national needs in 
major areas of research interest. Among these were the designation 
of ssiE as the Current Cancer Research Project Analysis Center 
(ccRESPAc) by the National Cancer Institute as a part of its Inter- 
national Cancer Research Data Bank (icrdb) Program. In its role 
as such a center, the Exchange will be involved in the collection, 
storage, and retrieval of comprehensive information about current 
research projects in cancer and cancer-related fields from both 
national and international sources; transfer of this information to 
the National Cancer Institute for use through cancerline (an on- 
line computerized file searchable through the medline network) 
which will make this information available to thousands of users 
engaged in research or the management of cancer projects and 

152 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

programs. In addition, the Exchange will be developing new vocabu- 
lary tools for the indexing and retrieval of such information and 
will prepare a number of catalogues for publication by the National 
Cancer Institute intended for dissemination on a worldwide basis. 
The ssiE will also be providing direct search services to investigators 
in the cancer field who do not have access to remote terminals. 
This activity is expected to continue and expand over the next 
several years and could serve as a prototype for future international 
centers of ongoing research information in selected areas. 

In the field of energy research the Exchange has engaged in a 
major effort to expand its data base in this field. New input has 
been obtained from state governments as well as industry. At the 
international level the Exchange has negotiated arrangements with 
five European countries and Canada to obtain information in whole 
or in part on their ongoing energy research projects for input into 
the system. A directory of international research in energy will be 
produced during 1975 under a grant from the National Science 
Foundation, at the request of the Intergovernmental Committee on 
International Cooperation in Energy Research and Development. 
The information collected is expected to be helpful in the review 
and planning of new international efforts in this area. 

With support from the National Science Foundation and in an 
effort to expand United States knowledge of other ongoing research 
information systems worldwide, and to facilitate the exchange of 
information, ssie has taken a series of steps designed to identify 
and subsequently expand its coverage in selected areas of major 
national interest. As an important part of this effort the unisist 
Program of unesco in conjunction with ssie has organized a three- 
day International Symposium on Information Systems and Services 
in Ongoing Research in Science to be held in Paris in October 1975. 
Dr. Hersey has been designated as symposium chairman and head 
of the program committee, which has outlined the purpose of the 
symposium as threefold: 

1. To expand international understanding of the need and uses 
for information about research in progress, 

2. To stimulate the development of improved data collection and 

3. To encourage worldwide exchange among national and inter- 
national systems working in this field. 

Science I 153 

Speakers from all over the world will be representing their organi- 
zations and countries. More than forty papers will be presented in 
addition to two panel sessions involving discussions on problems 
of operating such systems and meeting user needs. 

In addition to the International Symposium, the Exchange has 
begun discussions with a number of countries which now have, or 
are in the process of developing, information systems of ongoing 
research, with the possibility of developing bilateral agreements for 
the exchange of information in selected areas. These discussions 
involve problems of compatibility, language, indexing techniques, 
and the economics of exchange methods. It is particularly note- 
worthy that an increasing number of countries are developing data 
bases comparable to ssie at the national level. The Exchange, which 
had its inception some twenty-five years ago, is providing other 
countries with information about its experience gained over that 
period of time regarding the problems and pitfalls which can be 
encountered in the operation of such a system. It is expected that 
the Exchange's discussions in this area will result in making infor- 
mation about ongoing research more widely available not only to 
United States users but throughout the world in consonance with 
the Smithsonian's raison d'etre, "the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." 

Among other activities designed to increase the availability of 
information to the research community, the Exchange completed 
an agreement with the System Development Corporation of Cali- 
fornia to make its data base available for remote interrogation 
throughout the country for on-line searching. The new sdc/ssie 
service is designed to give quick, easy, and economical access from 
remote computer terminals to a file of over 125,000 summaries of 
ongoing research projects in the life and physical sciences. 

SDc's retrieval program, called orbit, permits subscribers to con- 
duct extremely rapid searches through two-way communication 
terminals located in their own facilities. Searchers may specify their 
search information inquiry by subject terms, names of researchers, 
performing organizations, or a number of other access points, or 
by any combination of these. 

After examining the preliminary results of inquiries, searchers 
will be able to refine their questions further to make them broader 
or narrower in scope. This interaction between searcher and com- 
puter is conducted in simple, English-language statements. 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The SDC system is tied into a nationwide communications net- 
work, so that most subscribers can hnk their terminals to the com- 
puter through the equivalent of a local telephone call. The sdc 
Search Service is the world's largest with over five million items 
(mostly bibliographic) on file for daily use. Users of other sdc 
services are expected to find access to ssie an important adjunct to 
their regular bibliographic searches of such data bases reinforcing 
the importance of ongoing research information as well as biblio- 
graphic information in the overall research management process. 

In other major research program activities, the Exchange has com- 
pleted a number of directories of ongoing research for several 
federal agencies designed to support research management in such 
areas as water resources, pesticides, and disaster-related technology. 
This latter project is particularly noteworthy since it combined 
information about both ongoing research and abstracts of published 
technical reports. The Exchange has also developed in conjunction 
with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration the first 
federal semimonthly publication containing both ongoing research 
and bibliographic information. The inclusion of ongoing research 
in this publication has been well received and is expected to be 
continued for another year. 

The Exchange has continued to develop new techniques in data 
processing in order to achieve optimum utilization of its staff and 
equipment. Several of these, such as machine-aided indexing, have 
already been published and may prove useful to information sys- 
tems on an international level. The ssie also produced during the 
current year several output products in computer output microfiche 
which may open a whole new approach to improving the use of 
the Exchange's information. It remains to be seen what kind of 
user acceptance this type of output receives from the science com- 
munity. Improved internal operational methods have allowed the 
Exchange to accomplish its largest input ever, over 130,000 research 
projects in fiscal year 1975, with only minimal increases in staff. 
Improved computer programming changes have not only reduced 
processing costs but increased the speed with which information is 
now processed through the system. Overall demand for the Ex- 
change's services continues to rise as greater realization of the use- 
fulness of ongoing research information in the research process 
becomes evident to both governmental and nongovernmental 

Science I 155 

In summary, the Exchange has taken a major leadership role in 
the awareness of ongoing research information^ not only in terms 
of developing and testing a variety of new modes to enhance use 
of the data collected but in the international area of scientific 
research in selected special areas. The identification of and ex- 
changes of information which are expected to come from these in- 
ternational activities are expected to benefit not only the United 
States but the entire worldwide research community as well. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Research at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (stri) is a 
multi-faceted compound of the individual efforts of the scientific 
staff, research fellows, and associates. A deliberate policy of bring- 
ing together a community of permanent staff, who are intrigued 
and fascinated by the complexity of tropical biotas, has achieved 
a unity of purpose in seeking to explain this intricacy at all levels 
of biological organization. They have found the interactions of a 
variety of disciplines to be a powerful aid to studies of the eco- 
logical and evolutionary adaptations of tropical organisms. In a 
field as relatively unexplored as tropical biology, the work of 
analysis and synthesis can go on more or less simultaneously; this 
is certainly the case with the stri research. This simultaneous 
approach is illustrated by a sampling of our studies, here reported 
in brief outline. 

The complexity of systems of sexual reproduction and sexual 
behavior are fundamentally important to organic evolution. Among 
vertebrates the greatest diversity of patterns of sexual reproduction 
occurs in the fishes, where several types of hermaphroditism have 
evolved. Two groups of marine fishes, common on the Caribbean 
coasts of Panama, are protogynous hermaphrodites (i.e., individuals 
are first functional females and then become functional males). 
These fishes, the wrasses and parrotfishes, have been intensively 
studied by a multidisciplinary group of stri scientists and fellows. 
D. R. Robertson, R. W. Warner, D. Diener, and S. Hoffman have 
conducted extensive field and laboratory research into the behavior, 
ecology, and physiology of these fishes and E. Leigh has worked 

156 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

with them to develop mathematical models of the evolution of 
protogyny and protandry. Models of protogyny have been tested 
by studying the mating system of one species in great detail. Alto- 
gether eighteen species of protogynus hermaphrodites have been 
the subject of stri comparative studies. These studies have revealed 
that there is a great deal of variability in the population structures 
of the hermaphrodites; in sex ratios, sexual color-phase ratios, and 
in the proportions of hermaphroditic and nonhermaphroditic indi- 
viduals present. Alongside studies of the ecology and behavior of 
free-living fishes, studies have been made of the role of hormones 
in the process of sex change and also of their role in the equally 
interesting process of color-phase change. These investigations 
show that there is much variation between species in the effects of 
hormones on these two processes and that, in fact, the two processes 
are often independent. 

These studies of hermaphroditism have already yielded an ac- 
cumulation of basic information on the many aspects of the phe- 
nomenon that were previously unknown and at the same time they 
have led to syntheses of comparative data that permit evolutionary 
generalizations. Off the coasts of Panama another kind of her- 
maphroditism is found in the relatively abundant groupers. These 
fishes are synchronously hermaphroditic, individuals may be male 
and female at the same time. Work is already in progress on the 
possible adaptive value of this type of system and E. Fischer will 
shortly begin a year's pre-doctoral study. 

A really basic question about tropical ecology is being asked, 
and studied, by H. Wolda. He is concerned about fluctuations in 
the abundance of insects in tropical forests. Many scientists have 
argued that since tropical forests are extremely complex they should 
be ecologically much more stable than forests of temperate regions, 
and insect populations should, accordingly, fluctuate less than in 
the temperate zone. Wolda's work suggests strongly that this is not 
true. His data are derived from studies of two separate groups of 
insects, lepidopterans and homopterans. In the first case, Wolda 
studied the caterpillars feeding on a tropical violaceous plant and 
others feeding on figs. Over a period of four years the populations 
of caterpillars in the Barro Colorado forest showed very consider- 
able fluctuations. One species reached outbreak densities — plague 
proportions — during two of the study years. Data from homopteran 

Science I 157 

catches at light traps shows that the lepidopterans are not merely 
exceptional cases that prove the general rule of constancy and sta- 
bility. Wolda has taken data from light traps operated at the same 
sites on Barro Colorado for several years and calculated ratios that 
highlight changes in abundance from year to year. Data from 110 
species have presently been converted to ratios of annual variability. 
These can be compared with data on temperate insects that are 
already available in the ecological literature. The results of this 
comparison are very striking indeed. The variability in the insects 
in tropical forest is of the same order of magnitude as that for the 
various groups of insects from the temperate zone. Further studies 
of other groups on tropical insects are in progress. In these studies 
Wolda is collaborating with specialists in the groups concerned. He 
recently communicated his findings at the symposium on Tropical 
Ecology held at Lubumbashi, Zaire. 

Work on adaptive aspects of plant morphology is a comparatively 
recent focus of tropical biology. At stri, Alan P. Smith is actively 
pursuing researches into several problems where preliminary studies 
of morphological patterns lead directly into quantitative studies of 
life history and physiological adaptations. Smith is studying adap- 
tive aspects of leaf form in tropical lowland forests, the support 
systems of tropical trees and has embarked on a long-term study 
of the life form and life history of tropical alpine plants belonging 
to the genus Espeletia. Three aspects of leaf form are being studied: 
the elongation of leaf tips into characteristic "drip tips" — long 
believed to be correlated with the heavy rainfall occurring in tropi- 
cal forest, lateral asymmetry in leaf shape, and variegation in leaf 
color. In the latter case. Smith is testing the hypothesis that varie- 
gation may be a defense against the leaf-eating larvae of insects, 
that it may function to deter insects from laying their eggs on the 
leaf by simulating the effects of insect attack. Smith's studies of 
Espeletia species are being carried out in the Andes of Venezuela 
and Colombia where the plants are a conspicuous feature of the 
alpine regions. It is distinguished by a large-leaved rosette sup- 
ported by a central unbranched or little-branched stem. Beneath 
the rosette of hairy living leaves the plant accumulates dead leaves 
as growth takes place. The dead leaves are retained around the stem 
and persist for many years. This bizarre growth form has evolved 
repeatedly in tropical alpine areas but is absent in alpine areas to 

158 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

the north and the south. It is thus an ideal subject for studies aimed 
at determining the selective forces that operate in tropical alpine 
environments. Smith has initiated long-term studies of Espeletia 
species, concentrating on growth form and demography. His studies 
include species with unbranched stems and rosettes of leaves, 
branched stems and rosettes of leaves, and forms that are simply 
arborescent. Early results are revealing exciting correlations between 
growth form, life history, and environmental constraints. 

Most studies of animal communication have involved visual and 
acoustic signaling systems. These are certainly the types of signals 
most readily understood, and studied, by humans. Michael and 
Barbara Robinson are studying the courtship and mating behavior 
of web-building spiders where the signals involved are almost 
entirely tactile or vibrational. In a broad comparative study they 
have so far investigated over thirty species in detail. Their aim is 
to understand the types of signals involved in the contact between 
male and female, the functional significance of the signals used, 
and to elucidate the evolutionary stages through which the court- 
ship of spiders has passed. The Robinsons' studies have already 
shown that early generalizations about spider courtship, based on 
data from temperate regions, were inaccurate and premature. As in 

Espeletia timotensis (Compositae) at 4200 m in the Venezuelan Andes, 
specialized plants under study ^y Alan Smith. 



t -.v -^» 





all tropical studies, the overwhelming impression from this investi- 
gation is that of staggering complexity. The courtship behavior of 
the male spider has two very important functions; he has to iden- 
tify himself as nonfood and then stimulate the female into accept- 
ance of his mating attempts. This twofold function of courtship 
has led to some bizarre behavioral adaptations. In one case the male 
spider leads the female out onto a line that is directly connected 
with his silk-producing organs, and, as she rushes towards him he 
pays out silk so that she never quite catches him. Eventually the 
female abandons the futile pursuit and either accepts a mating or 
goes back to her web. While in New Guinea the Robinsons cen- 
sused all the trap-building spiders in 200 square meters of coffee 
plantation. With the census data and the results of their previous 
studies on the prey-consumption of tropical spiders they were able 
to work out an estimate of the insecticidal effect of the spiders in 
a hectare of coffee. They calculate that the spiders consume a mini- 
mum of forty million insects per hectare annually. This suggests 
that spiders have an important ecological role and may be of con- 
siderable economic importance. 

During the past year, Jeffrey Graham was a visiting investigator, 
for two months, at the National Marine Fisheries Service Labora- 
tory in La Jolla, California. There he collaborated with John L. 
Roberts of the University of Massachusetts in a study of red and 
white muscle temperatures and electromyograms of fast-swimming 
scombrid fishes. Roberts and Graham perfected a technique for 
surgically implanting thermocouples in fish swimming muscles to 
enable them to measure muscle temperatures as the fish swam at 
controlled speeds in a respirometer. In addition, while at La Jolla, 
Graham completed his study of the types and distribution of retial 
countercurrent heat exchangers in scombrid fishes. This study has 
shown that for the seven known species of tuna (Thunnus) there 
is a relationship between the level to which the body temperature 
is raised and both the type of heat exchanger and the latitudinal 
distribution of a species. Tropical and subtropical tunas and skip- 
jacks have the most primitive arrangement of heat exchangers, they 
have small central heat exchangers, and, in some cases poorly de- 
fined lateral ones. On the other hand the three high latitude tuna 
species have lost central heat exchangers, but have highly developed 
lateral systems. 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Other work on fishes has been carried out by stri postdoctoral 
fellow Donald Kramer. Kramer has studied the ecology and be- 
havior of freshwater fishes in Panama, concentrating on detailed 
studies of feeding behavior and feeding strategies. He has also 
carried out cooperative studies with Graham on air-breathing fresh- 
water fishes. Graham and Kramer have discovered a phenomenon 
that they call "synchronous air-breathing." Fishes that exhibit syn- 
chronous air-breathing rise together in groups to break the water 
surface and breathe in air. They break the surface either simul- 
taneously or in rapid succession. Graham and Kramer believe that 
synchronicity of air-breathing constitutes an antipredator adapta- 
tion. Graham, Kramer, and E. Pineda (a graduate fellow from the 
University of Panama) have recently discovered populations of the 
characin Piabucina festae which is an air-breather and are studying 
this species and the closely related Piabucina panamensis, which is 
not an air-breather. 

The STRI program on human adaptations to tropical areas began 
this year with an exciting week-long seminar at Barro Colorado 
Island, where a number of distinguished anthropologists and biolo- 
gists were invited for informal discussions of new research and 
recent methodology. Representing the Institute Venezolano de 
Investigaciones Cienti'ficas were Dra. Erika Wagner, and Dra. 
Alberta Zucchi, who is working on the ridgefield systems of the 
Venezuelan Llanos. From Colombia came Drs. Gerardo and Alicia 
Reichel-Dolmatoff, well known for their pioneering work on the 
archeology of northern Colombia, and on the ethnology of various 
Colombian Indian groups. Representing the biological disciplines 
were Dr. C. Earle Smith of the University of Alabama, and Dr. 
Alan Covich of Washington University, who together discussed 
the dynamics of plant domestication and their interaction with 
faunal communities in the tropics. 

Besides holding discussions with the stri staff and graduate stu- 
dents, as well as with Panamanian professionals, the visiting scien- 
tists were taken on a tour of archeological sites in the central 
provinces. On hand to discuss his own research on the transition 
from hunting-gathering to agriculture on the Isthmus was Dr. 
Anthony J. Ranere, a stri associate, who led the group to show 
them the Aguadulce preceramic rockshelter, where he is continuing 
excavations this year. A second morning was spent visiting the 

Science I 161 


— §-— !?5' 


Martin Moynihan and Arcadio Rodaniche entering a "wet" submarine used 
in studying the behavior of pelagic squid. 

Laborides dimidiatus fighting at the mutual border of their territories on the 
Great Barrier reef of Australia, where they were studied by Ross Robertson. 

site of Sitio Sierra, being excavated at the time by Dr. Richard 
Cooke, a University of London archeologist and one of stri's post- 
doctoral fellows. 

Sitio Sierra began as a snnall prehispanic maize-growing village 
located on the shores of the Santa Maria river. Code province, 
during the first centuries after the Christian era (circa a.d. 200). 
Despite having to work one step ahead of bulldozers ready to level 
off the mounded area in order to plant sugarcane. Dr. Cooke was 
able to recover an impressive sample of the faunal and floral re- 
sources exploited by the riverine group in the drier section of the 
Isthmus during pre-Sitio Conte days. This was accomplished by 
fine-screening, excavating housefloors, and concentrating on the 
horizontal exposure of activity areas. Comparisons of the Sitio 
Sierra materials with those excavated by Dra. Olga F. Linares of 
STRi, and members of her research team, is resulting in a volume 
on the evolution of differential adaptations to the wet versus the 
seasonal tropics of Panama. 

STRI makes an important contribution to interbureau cooperative 
science programs at the Smithsonian through its support of the esp 
(Environmental Sciences Program) Tropical Projects. These are 
being conducted at stri facilities, with stri logistic and technical 
support, and involve several stri scientists. The appearance of the 
465-page report Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data — 
1973 — Tropical Studies in December 1974 marked a major step in 
the development of the esp program in Panama. 

The ESP is a long-term study of natural fluctuations in several 
contrasting environments on Smithsonian-controlled preserves. The 
tropical projects are sited in the Canal Zone, on a coral reef at 
Galeta Point, and in forest on Barro Colorado Island. 

Even the proverbially stable tropics are not unchanging but are 
in dynamic rather than static equilibria. They undergo considerable 
and important fluctuations within each year and also from year to 
year. To understand the magnitude and impact of these fluctuations 
careful and repeated measurements must be made at different times 
of the year and for a number of years. The most valuable results 
of these studies will not come until a number of years have been 
studied and the data analysed and compared. The data that have 
already been collected and published are valuable both to investi- 
gators working at the esp sites and to ecologists studying other 
environments elsewhere in the world. 

Science I 163 

Dr. Richard Cooke and assistant excavating at Sitio Sierra, 
Code Province, Panama. 

The report for 1973 is intended as the first in a series of annuals 
which will make available the results from a wide range of en- 
vironmental measurements. These include solar radiation, me- 
teorological, hydrological, botanical, and zoological variables. These 
data, particularly those collected by the core, or baseline, monitor- 
ing programs of N. Smythe on Barro Colorado Island, and D. Meyer 
and C. Birkeland at Galeta, are presented in considerable detail for 
1973 and also summarized in various ways to facilitate comparisons 
with other years and places. Though the report concentrates on 
measurements that will be repeated in successive years, it also in- 
cludes other kinds of baseline data such as maps and species lists. 

In this first report the editor, R. Rubinoff, put strong emphasis 
on developing a format that would allow direct comparison between 
the tropical marine and terrestrial environments under study, as 
well as with the temperate esp projects being conducted at cbces. 
A second in the series of annual reports, that for 1974, is currently 
in preparation. 

Investigators from the Smithsonian Institution involved in the 
ESP Tropical Projects during fiscal year 1975 included: W. Klein, 
rbl; T. Erwin, M. Hale, C. Handley, R. Heyer, R. Thornington, and 

164 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

G. Zug, all of MNH; G. Montgomery, nzp; as well as C. Birkeland, 
E. Leigh, D. Meyer, 5. Rand, R. Rubinoff, N. Smythe, and H. 
Wolda, STRi. Several investigators from outside the Smithsonian 
were partially supported by esp, particularly R. Foster, University 
of Chicago, and J. Lawrence, Harvard University. A number of 
students and visiting scientists at stri have also made important 
contributions to the projects. 

During April, Drs. Glynn and Birkeland accompanied by Martin 
Wells of Cornell University made an expedition to the Galapagos 
Islands where a survey of the coral reefs was initiated in coopera- 
tion with G. M. Wellington of the Charles Darwin Research Station. 
Through the cooperation of the cdrs and the Ecuadorian National 
Park Service, about twenty species of corals were identified, at least 
three of which are new to science, and a preliminary analysis of 
the distribution and ecology of Galapagos corals was begun. 

Based upon a visit to Papua, New Guinea, by Rubinoff and Rand, 
the Smithsonian became a sponsoring member of the Wau Ecology 
Institute. With support from the International Environmental Pro- 
gram and the Fluid Research Fund, stri sent Dr. Tyson Roberts to 
initiate an ecological investigation of the fishes of the Fly River 
and Dr. Alan Smith to begin studies of tree ferns on Mt. Wilhelm 
in Papua, New Guinea. 

Our program of providing short-term fellowships to introduce 
students to tropical research was continued with grants from the 
Henry L. and Grace Doherty and the Edward John Noble founda- 
tions. More than twenty-four students from the United States, 
Panama, Colombia, Canada, and the Virgin Islands participated in 
the program during fiscal year 1975. 

Dr. D. R. Robertson, a fish behaviorist, has accepted an appoint- 
ment as our newest staff member. He will continue his work on the 
sexual behavior of fishes. 

During 1975, major rebuilding was begun on the main laboratory 
on Barro Colorado Island. When completed, the building will in- 
clude a series of centrally air-conditioned individual laboratories, 
a classroom, instrument room, and dark room. The first phase of 
the Tivoli laboratory has been completed. The first wing includes 
space for the herbarium which occupies what we hope will be its 
final home. A contract has been awarded for the second phase of 
the Tivoli renovation. 

Science I 165 

.»^. -«r''i,'-y«-,*ji»i«E«5;-i 

S» if-*-'!* 1*taF"<S!K •»«».'r, •T'Mfo'ti,- 

The opening on October 1, 1974, of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden was a 
major event of fiscal year 1975. The view above is from the Mall. 

Smithsonian Year • 1974 


In HIS RECENT VOLUME of reminiscences, charmingly and most ap- 
propriately titled Self-Portrait with Donors, the former Director of 
the National Gallery of Art laments a change he has observed in 
the thinking of museum directors. "Until recently the directors of 
European and American museums have had the same basic phi- 
losophy," John Walker writes. "Their primary interest has been 
the acquisition of masterpieces." Of late, he observes, this interest 
has been subordinated to a concern for "relevance" and for rather 
vaguely defined programs of "social service." Mr. Walker leaves no 
doubt where his sympathies lie: "I fervently hope my colleagues 
will regain faith in their original mission, which once was to as- 
semble and exhibit masterpieces." 

Despite the survival in the art museum world of a few individual 
directors who compete flamboyantly for the title of Grand Acquis- 
itor, Mr. Walker's characterization is evidently correct for the 
profession as a whole. In a survey conducted last year for the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts, a national sample of museum 
directors was asked to evaluate in order of importance ten specified 
functions of museums. In the resulting hst, "acquiring works or 
specimens" was rated fifth by the respondents; art museum di- 
rectors rated acquisition as fourth in importance, history museum 
directors rated it as fifth, and art/history museum directors rated 
it as fifth. ^ Exhibitions, conservation, the education of children, and 

1 Museums USA, published by the National Endowment for the Arts, 1974, 
page 28. 


service as a "scholarly and information resource" were all deemed 
to be more important. The current attitudes of the public seem to 
reflect a similar skepticism about the overwhelming importance 
of acquisitions. Understandably, a would-be visitor who finds his 
favorite museum closed due to financial difficulties is apt to be less 
than enthusiastic when that same museum purchases a multimillion 
dollar object or collection; and he is not very interested in talk of 
restricted endowments and earmarked purchase funds. 

Granting that Mr. Walker's explicit emphasis on the acquisition 
of "masterpieces" severely limits the generality of his message, 
which is primarily addressed to the directors and trustees of great 
and wealthy art museums, there does seem to be an element of 
paradox in the results of the Arts Endowment survey. For the fact 
is that each of the functions regarded as more important than the 
acquisition of collections presupposes the existence of collections. 
One is reminded of a similar paradox that at least used to exist in 
colleges and universities: the marriage of a faculty member and 
a student tended to be viewed with great pleasure in the com- 
munity, but the courtship of a student by a faculty member was 
generally thought to be improper if not positively indecent. Simi- 
larly, it is assumed that museums have collections, but there is 
some uneasiness about the notion that they should get collections. 

In all fairness one must admit that attitudes in the museum world 
are no less pendulum-like than those in other areas of human en- 
deavor. The results of the Arts Endowment survey mirror a rather 
recent shift of emphasis from the goal of acquiring objects to the 
goal of preserving and using them. Mr. Walker himself applauds 
the development of long-term loan programs, through which mu- 
seums with vast collections in storage can help to fill the galleries 
of less fortunate museums. The growing concern for conservation of 
museum objects should undoubtedly lead to a welcome redis- 
tribution of museum resources. Similarly, a persuasive case can 
be made for the variety of activities designed both to widen and to 
deepen the use of objects that museums already have in their col- 
lections. The Smithsonian is proud of having participated in each of 
these developments, and intends to continue to do so. 

But perhaps the pendulum has swung a trifle too far? Perhaps we 
should heed Mr. Walker's advice and regain faith in our original 
mission of acquiring? To do so, to maintain an active interest in 

168 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

acquisitions, would seem to be required as part of our obligation to 
posterity, to the future generations who will then be able to use 
what we have collected as we use what earlier generations 

Various branches of the Smithsonian Institution illustrate in very 
concrete terms some of the forms this obligation can assume. The 
case of the National Zoological Park is admittedly unique, for here 
the mortality of living animals absolutely requires constant re- 
plenishment of the collections. But the case of a museum of con- 
temporary art is not so very different; the necessity of keeping 
abreast with interesting and important new artistic developments 
is absolute if such a museum is to fulfill its role. Similarly, unless 
we assume that the history of American art and the history of 
technology are somehow going to come to a halt, museums devoted 
to these subjects must continue to acquire objects of historical sig- 
nificance in their fields. A national gallery of portraiture, repre- 
senting men and women who contribute to the development of our 
Nation, must assume that such men and women will continue to 
appear on the scene, although their likenesses may increasingly be 
photographs, films, and videotapes rather than paintings and 
sculptures. Even in museums less obviously committed to keeping 
up with new developments, the case for filling the gap in the record 
of the past is powerful indeed. It is precisely because we are con- 
cerned with the use of our collections that we feel so strongly the 
need to make them more useful, which more often than not means 
making them more complete. And this, of course, is what acquisi- 
tion is. 

The Smithsonian can also serve to illustrate, however, the fact 
that acquiring does not necessarily mean purchasing. Again the case 
of the National Zoo is unique, for its collections have the happy 
ability to reproduce themselves — an ability that will presumably be 
enhanced by the Zoo's new breeding farm. In many other cases, 
notably those covered by the rubric Natural History, objects are 
typically acquired by scientific expeditions. But, in the arts, and to 
a very large extent in the various fields of history, the usual options 
are gifts (including bequests) and purchases. Throughout its his- 
tory, the Smithsonian has relied overwhelmingly upon gifts in 
forming the national collections, and it continues to do so. The fact 
that virtually every imaginable sort of object is now avidly col- 

History and Art I 169 

lected by someone, and the fact that the prices of things that are 
collected rise at a rate considerably in excess of the general rate 
of inflation, have combined to make our reliance upon gifts and 
bequests more important than ever. The day when the knowledge- 
able and energetic curator could find objects of museum quality 
in attics or rubbish heaps, or could purchase them for a pittance 
because they were out of fashion, is surely gone and will not return. 

The Smithsonian's dependence upon gifts, and its very notable 
success in attracting them, is surely not unrelated to its performance 
in using what it has been given. In a sense, then, we are led to 
another paradox, one which perhaps resolves the apparent conflict 
between acquisition and use. Donors, who should not be assumed 
to be any less intelligent and sensitive than other people, want to 
know that what they give to museums will be cared for, will be ex- 
hibited, and will be used by scholars and perhaps even school 
children. Thus acquisitions may well be the result of other activities, 
not an alternative to them. If the age of sheer acquisitiveness, of 
acquisitiveness for its own sake is over, museum officials must not 
react to its excesses by turning their attention away from a prudent 
and measured program of acquisitions, acquisitions for use. 

In the case of the Smithsonian, this will involve several things 
apart from encouraging our Zoo animals to reproduce and our 
natural historians to collect in the field. It will involve continuing 
efforts to demonstrate that what we acquire is properly cared for 
and imaginatively used. It will involve continuing requests for funds 
to be used in the acquisition of objects that are urgently needed to 
fill gaps in our collections, objects that complete the historical record 
or make possible an important exhibition, which might never come 
to us if we were to rely solely upon the uncertainties of gifts and 
bequests. It means also that we will continue to hope for a change 
in the tax laws that will once again encourage artists to donate their 
own works to musuems. To the extent that these efforts are suc- 
cessful and this hope is realized, future generations will be able 
to build upon our achievements as we endeavor to build upon those 
of our predecessors. 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Archives of American Art 

That research in American art is a thriving activity is clearly re- 
flected in the growing use of documentary resources at the Archives 
of American Art. During the past year students and more advanced 
scholars made 1750 visits to consult Archives holdings at the five 
regional offices in Boston, New York, Washington, D.C., Detroit, 
and San Francisco, an increase of more than 400 over the number 
in 1974. Researchers in thirty-two states and three foreign coun- 
tries borrowed 550 rolls of microfilm through interlibrary loans. 

In serving the needs of art historians, the Archives continues 
to seek out and assemble the records of artists, dealers, critics, and 
art societies. Over 250 collections were accessioned this year, 
some of them of major significance for investigations of American 
art in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The papers of the 
contemporary sculptor Joseph Cornell, the largest single group 
received, include quantities of notes, correspondence, clippings, 
and the objects and artifacts that comprised the elements of 
Cornell's work. Other especially useful collections were the papers 
of the art historian William Seitz; of the painters Philip Evergood, 
Abraham Rattner, and Moses Soyer; of the dealers Martin Birn- 
baum and Betty Parsons; of the architect Albert Kahn; and of the 
photographer Imogen Cunningham. Diaries kept by the painter 
Robert Henri over a fifty-year period were lent for microfilming, 
as were important groups of letters from Frederick Remington, 
Charles Burchfield, Frank Duveneck, and Bernard Berenson. 

'Trom Reliable Sources," the first exhibition of letters, photo- 
graphs, and other documents selected from Archives holdings, 
commemorated the Archives' twentieth anniversary. Installed in 
an attractively designed room made available by the National 
Portrait Gallery, the exhibition opened in November to enthus- 
iastic acclaim from both press and public. An illustrated catalogue 
published for the occasion includes transcripts of the documents 
shown, together with introductory essays on the Archives and on 
the significance of historical papers. 

The Archives staff devoted much effort during the year to the 
preparation of a comprehensive checklist of Archives holdings. 
Over 3000 entries incorporate information on quantity, inclusive 
dates, and forms of documentation. The checklist will be pub- 

History and Art I 171 

Robert Henri whose diaries, covering 1881-1928, were microfilmed by the 
Archives of American Art. 

lished for distribution to libraries and art history departments on a 
national basis. The Archives continues to bring its resources to the 
attention of the scholarly community through its quarterly Journal, 
which carries articles based on Archives holdings and describes 
recent acquisitions. In another move to inform students of useful 
research material at the Archives, the Area Directors instituted a 
series of talks at university art history departments in Massachu- 
setts, Michigan, and California. 

The Archives Oral History Project carried on its work of 
recording reminiscences and thoughts of persons involved in 
American art. Taped interviews with two elder statesmen of the 
museum world, Bartlett Hayes and William Milliken, provide 

172 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

detailed information on their careers. Among artists interviewed 
during the year were Andrew Dasburg, Jimmie Ernst, Robert 
Motherwell, Isama Hoguchi, and Claes Oldenburg. 

More than fifty books, articles, exhibition catalogues, disserta- 
tions, and theses completed in 1975 acknowledged assistance from 
the Archives. These included published monographs on Albert 
Bierstadt, Ward Lockwood, and Everett Shinn, catalogues on Cecilia 
Beaux and David Smith, articles on Raphael Peale and Benjamin 
West, and dissertations on Alexander Calder and Max Weber. 
Articles on the Archives appeared in the Neio York Times and 
several art periodicals, including three published in California. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

of Decorative Arts and Design 

Renovation was begun in the summer of 1974 on the Andrew 
Carnegie Mansion — future home of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
of Decorative Arts and Design — at 91st Street and Fifth Avenue 
in New York City. Work is scheduled for completion by October 
1975 at which time the Museum will install its collections, library, 
and exhibitions for a March 1976 opening. The opening exhibition 
is being designed by architect Hans Hollein, with significant inter- 
national participation. In conjunction with the main exhibition, 
the Museum is organizing thirty satellite exhibitions in museums, 
libraries, and universities in New York — lending collections which 
are particularly suited to those institutions. The satellite exhibitions 
will serve as an "homage" to the Cooper-Hewitt. 

The Museum organized the first full-scale exhibition of Winslow 
Homer drawings, water colors, and paintings to appear in Europe. 
The exhibition opened at the Victoria and Albert in London in 
November 1974 to great acclaim. Other exhibitions of Cooper- 
Hewitt material during the year were "Thomas Moran: Drawings 
of the West," "Frederic E. Church Oil Sketches and Drawings," 
"Italian Drawings and Master Printmakers," and "Prints by 
Whistler, Hassam, and Moran." In addition, the Cooper-Hewitt 
participated in exhibitions at twenty museums and galleries. 

A first in a series of exhibitions outside the Museum's walls took 
place in June. The exhibition "Immovable Objects" invited visitors 

History and Art I 173 

to view objects in Lower Manhattan — buildings, plazas, piers, 
parks, street furniture — either for their intrinsic architectural 
quality or for their effect on the design of the city. A catalogue 
was published which served as a guide to the objects and which 
listed a series of events — parades, tours, special exhibitions — in 
the area. 

The Museum accepted 886 gifts for the collections and 39,317 
items for the library. Among the most important were a large 
group of designs by Simon Lissim for porcelain, silver, playing 
cards, and screens; an eighteenth-century altar frontal embroidered 
in China for the Western market; and seventeen pieces of art 
deco and Tiffany glass and metalwork. In addition, McDonnell 
Aircraft Company has donated equipment necessary to establish 
a holography laboratory. An Advisory Committee for the 
Museum's Holography Program is headed by Dr. Denis Gabor, 
the Nobel Laureate. 

174 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Facing page: 

Red Grooms and helpers adjusting the 
Customs House which he constructed 
for the "Immovable Objects" parade. 


John Dobkin, Administrator ot the 
Cooper-Hewitt, in the Singer Building, 
constructed by Peter Wilson ot the 
architectural firm of Hardy Holzman 
and Pfeiffer. The parade inaugurating 
the "Immovable Objects" exhibition 
moved from City Hall to Chase 
Manhattan Plaza at noon on June 18, 

During the year, the Museum has given five objects to the 
Metropohtan Museum of Art, twenty to the Royal Ontario 
Museum, and twenty-three objects were transferred to the 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 

A second annual benefit auction was held in May in the Museum 
garden, with Mrs. Gerald Ford as honorary patron. Proceeds of 
the auction, approximately $125,000, were contributed to the 
renovation of the Carnegie Mansion. In addition, the Museum re- 
ceived major grants from the New York State Council on the Arts, 
the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Mobil Foundation. 

Two members have been added to the staff: as Librarian, Mr. 
Robert Kaufmann, former librarian of the Art and Architecture 
School at Yale; and, as Curator of Decorative Arts, Mr. J. Stewart 
Johnson, former curator of decorative arts at the Brooklyn Museum. 
Sadly, we must report that Mrs. Mary Blackwelder, Museum 
Registrar for eighteen years, died in April, after a long illness. 

History and Art I 175 


K^-^ I 

Gala night at the Freer Gallery of Art as an exhibition of Islamic art — "Art of the 
Arab World" — is opened. The Freer Gallery of Art was assisted in arranging this 
exhibition by a grant from the Mobil Oil Corporation. 

Dr. Esin Atil, Associate Curator, Near Eastern Art, Freer Gallery of Art, shows Mobil's 
President William P. Tavoulareas (on the right) the unique decoration on one of the 
eighty objects of art displayed in the "Art of the Arab World" exhibition. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Recent international developments continue to stimulate interest 
in the cultures of the Near and the Far East. Understandably, that 
interest is reflected in the increasing number of visitors to the Freer 
Gallery of Art. In addition, members of the curatorial staff have 
noted a sharp increase in requests for information relating to the 
Near and Far Eastern collections during fiscal year 1975. 

Members of the Freer curatorial staff served as consultants in 
the organization of the Exhibition of Archaeological Finds of the 
People's Republic of China, which was shown at the National 
Gallery of Art from December 13, 1974, through March 30, 1975. 
The Chinese curators who accompanied the exhibition made a 
number of lengthy visits to the Freer Gallery of Art, studying 
Chinese art objects in the galleries and in storage. Attendance at 
the Freer Gallery of Art increased significantly during the period 
of the Chinese exhibition. To meet the unusually large number of 
requests for docent service, the Gallery added a new docent to 
the staff thereby supplementing the existing educational program 
by offering gallery tours on a regular basis. 

For many years the Technical Laboratory of the Freer Gallery 
of Art has been engaged in research relating to metal corrosion. 
W. T. Chase, Head Conservator, was asked by the John D. Rocke- 
feller III Fund to survey the major conservation facilities and 
bronze collections in Asia and to recommend ways in which some 
of the more pressing problems of bronze conservation might be 
alleviated. Mr. Chase strongly advised that an organized program 
of bronze treatment and care be established in Thailand to prevent 
the further deterioration of the extraordinary number of objects 
infected with bronze disease. At the same time, a project was 
also begun on an exhibition to be shown in Bangkok which would 
demonstrate the importance of a national conservation program 
in Thailand. Mr. Chase assisted in the selection, planning, and 
organization of the exhibition. He also wrote the text used in 
the catalogue. 

Dr. Esin Atil, Curator of Near Eastern Art, organized a special 
exhibition entitled, "Art of the Arab World." In the catalogue 
written by Dr. Atil, each of the eighty objects included in the 
exhibition is illustrated in color and discussed in detail. Approxi- 

History and Art I 177 

mately 1000 people attended the opening of the special exhibition 
on May 8. A grant from Mobil Oil Corporation helped defray the 
costs of the exhibition. 

The large collection of American paintings is among the most 
important included in the original Charles Lang Freer bequest. 
The numerous works by James McNeill Whistler make the Gallery 
a focal point for any study of that artist. Dr. Susan Hobbs joined 
the Smithsonian Institution during fiscal year 1975, serving as 
Joint-Curator of American Art both in the Freer Gallery of Art 
and in the National Collection of Fine Arts. Dr. Hobbs is cur- 
rently reviewing the entire American collection in the Gallery 
preparatory to writing the catalogue for a special exhibition of 
American paintings scheduled for 1976. Dr. Hobbs is also pre- 
paring entries on a select group of American paintings to be 
illustrated in the Freer handbook. 

The Oriental painting mounting studio at the Freer Gallery of 
Art has been in operation since the Gallery opened to the public 
in 1923. For many years, the Freer studio was the only such 
facility in the United States. The three mounters who constitute 
the present staff are among the delegates who will attend the 
Japan-America Cultural Conference at the Freer Gallery of Art 
in August 1975. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss ways of 
improving mutual exchange of exhibitions, especially as relates 
to the proper conservation of art objects. 

In the course of fiscal year 1975, the collections were expanded 
by the accession of twenty-two objects. Of those, several fine items 
were acquired by gift from Mr. and Mrs. Province Henry of 
McLean, Virginia. Over 300 volumes, catalogues, reports, period- 
icals, bulletins, and notebooks were given to the library by Mrs. 
Rutherford J. Gettens, Colonel F. B. Hoffman, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Province Henry. 

The Cultural Department of the Imperial Embassy of Iran and 
the Freer Gallery of Art presented a series of four lectures on 
"The Art and Civilization of Iran." A lecture on Japanese culture, 
jointly sponsored by the Embassy of Japan and the Freer Gallery 
of Art, was included in the Gallery's 22nd Annual Series of 
"Illustrated Lectures on Oriental Art." 

178 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Japanese wood sculpture; Kamakura 
period, a.d. 1185-1333. Zocho-ten 
(one of the set of Shitenno); poly- 
chrome. Height 31 V2 inches. Freer 
Gallery of Art. 

Below left: 

Chinese bronze ritual vessel of the 
type yu; Shang dynasty, ca. 1523-1028 
B.C. Height: 12y2 inches. Freer 
Gallery of Art. 

Below right: 

Persian metalwork; Achaemenid 
period, fifth century B.C.; made for 
Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, grand- 
son of Darius. Silver Phiale with 
repousse decoration representing 
radiating stems and lotus flowers. 
Inscription on the rim: Artaxerxes, 
the Great King, King of Kings, King 
of Countries, son of Xerxes the King, 
of Xerxes (who was) son of Darius 
the King, in whose royal house this 
silver saucer was made. Height: 
1% inches; diameter: 11% inches. 
Freer Gallery of Art. 




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Opening night speech by Mr. Hirshhorn, October 1, 197A. 

Distinguished visitors admire lighted fountain in the inner circular court of the 
Hirshhorn Museum on opening night, October 1, 1974. 


Although the status of Hillwood remained that of an unopened mu- 
seum during the past fiscal year, much activity was taking place 
behind the scenes. The several thousand objects contained in the 
Marjorie Merriweather Post collections were classified and recorded 
by the staff. 

Records were made of all objects of art after checking the estate 
inventory, and polaroid pictures were taken of all objects which 
had not been previously photographed. A large number of gifts, 
notably those from members of the Post family, were recorded. 

The assistant curator established a special system for assigning 
accession numbers to the objects in the art collection. Since this 
collection consists predominantly of the decorative arts, the system 
is based on the materials out of which the objects are made, e.g., 
gold, porcelain, wood, etc. A card file, arranged according to these 
categories, is being prepared with the assistance of a part-time 
volunteer. Another card file records the location of the object. 
Thus far, approximately 2200 cards have been made for objects in 
Mrs. Post's bequest of September 1973. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

A major contribution to the cultural life of both Washington and 
the Nation was marked by the opening of the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden on October 1, 1974. 

In the first six months of its operation, over one million visitors 
were attracted to this new national museum of contemporary art. 
The substantial percentage of repeat visitors indicated that this 
enthusiastic public response comes from an interest far deeper than 
mere curiosity about the Smithsonian Institution's newest museum 
on the Mall. 

During the Museum's first six months, the following public 
services were initiated: 

(1) A thrice weekly film program, including evening presenta- 
tions and Saturday matinee special features for children; 

(2) A monthly Sunday lecture series given by outstanding art 
historians, critics, and scholars; 

History and Art I 181 

Left: Sculpture removal by helicopter from Greenwich, Connecticut, in August 1974, for 
placement in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Right: Installation of Two 
Disks by Alexander Calder, August 1974, at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 
Below: Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden as seen from the Mall. 

Outer court of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

(3) A special four-part lecture series supported by a grant from 
the National Endowment for the Humanities; 

(4) A guide program utilizing 135 specially trained docents, 
providing regularly scheduled special tours for the public, as well 
as tours for visiting national and international dignitaries; 

(5) A series of concerts of contemporary music presented in 
collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution's Division of Per- 
forming Arts; 

(6) Two intern programs, one of which provides an opportunity 
for university-enrolled students to earn applicable credits at the 
graduate level and the other of which establishes a summer 
program for a group of five undergraduate students. 

The transfer to Washington of the Museum's collection of more 
than 6000 works of art from storage in New York, Toronto, and 
the Hirshhorn estate in Connecticut was completed in September 
1974. Painting and sculpture not included in the Inaugural 
Exhibition were unpacked, examined, and stored in the painting 
and sculpture study-storage areas, located on the fourth floor 
and lower level of the Museum, respectively. Many aspects of 
this move, as well as of the installation of the Inaugural Exhibition, 
were captured in a film entitled A Life of Its Own. 

A catalogue of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden's 
Inaugural Exhibition was published in both hard cover and paper- 
back editions at the time of the opening. This volume, now in its 
second edition, includes 1019 reproductions — 290 in color — of 
paintings and sculpture in the Museum's collection. Also included 
is a foreword by S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian; 
an introduction by Abram Lerner, Director of the Hirshhorn 
Museum; and essays by six outstanding art scholars. The docu- 
mentation of 1001 works of art was supervised by Curator Cynthia 
J. McCabe. A souvenir booklet. An Introduction to the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, was also published for the opening. 

Since the opening, the Museum's Department of Painting and 
Sculpture has actively continued its research on the Museum's 
collection. An archive on the collection has been set up under the 
supervision of Curator Inez Garson; material in the archive will 
be available to scholars in the field. In addition, basic information 
on the collection has been entered in the Smithsonian Institution's 

184 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Coinciding with the Museum's pubUc opening, a loan exhibition, 
"Sculptors and Their Drawings: Selections from the Hirshhorn 
Museum Collection," opened at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library 
of the University of Texas in Austin. A catalogue was published 
for this exhibition, which was viewed by 95,000 visitors between 
October 4, 1974, and January 5, 1975. 

Other loans from the museum collection included a Man Ray 
painting to the Delaware Art Museum; three paintings by Arthur 
B. Davies to the Knoedler Gallery; two paintings by Thomas Eakins 
and one by Ernest Lawson to the National Collection of Fine Arts; 
two paintings by Yasuo Kuniyoshi to the University of Texas Art 
Museum in Austin; and three paintings by Ralph Albert Blakelock 
to the University of Nebraska Art Galleries. In addition, twenty- 
two paintings were loaned to the White House for use in the 
Executive Offices and the Residence. 

From December 15, 1974, to January 13, 1975, an exhibition of 
works honoring the ninetieth birthdays of sculptor Jose de Creeft 
and painter Ben Benn was held in the Hirshhorn Museum's lower- 
level lobby. 

"Artist-Immigrants of America 1876 to 1976," the Museum's 
Bicentennial exhibition, is being organized by Curator Cynthia 
J. McCabe. It will consist of more than 230 works by approxi- 
mately 70 foreign-born painters, sculptors, architects, photog- 
raphers, and filmmakers. The exhibition, which will open in May 
1976, will be shown in the second-floor exhibition galleries and on 
the outdoor plaza. 

Also in preparation are the two exhibitions that will inaugurate 
the Hirshhorn Museum's program of temporary exhibitions: 
"Soto: A Retrospective Exhibition," September 25 to November 9, 
1975, and "The Sculpture and Drawings of Elie Nadelman," 
December 18, 1975, to February 15, 1976. 

The personnel of the new Conservation Laboratory began to 
prepare condition reports on the over 6000 works of art in the 
Museum, and at the same time planned and developed an overall 
laboratory layout, which will provide the necessary facilities for 
a program of professional conservation and preservation of the 
permanent collection. 

Since the official opening last October, the Department of Ex- 
hibits and Design has been conducting a systematic program of 

History and Art I 185 

i h 


Curving sculpture hall in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden rings 

inner circular court. 

daily gallery inspection and maintenance. In addition, the Depart- 
ment is supervising the repainting of gallery walls and pedestals, 
as well as the installation of Plexiglas vitrines, as deemed necessary 
for the protection of paintings and sculpture. 

The Education Department of the Hirshhorn Museum has the 
task of interpreting the collections of the Museum to a broad and 
varied public. Programs initiated by the Education Department in- 
cluded a series of docent tours for school groups, organized adult 
groups, and walk-in visitors; the preparation of printed material 
for museum visitors; and the installation of Telesonic electronic 
guided tours. 

Fifty-five volunteer docents completed the first docent training 
given between January 15, 1974, and the opening of the Museum; 
guided tours in the Museum's galleries commenced on October 7, 
1974. During the nine-month period through June 1975, the 
following tours were given: 

186 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Elementary Schools 229 tours 10,018 students 

Secondary Schools 105 tours 4,876 students 

Adult Groups 385 tours 13,775 adults 

General (unscheduled) 789 tours 12,084 adults/ children 

Total 1,508 tours 40,753 visitors 

During this period, the Museum's docents gave over 4500 hours of 
volunteer service. 

To meet the increasing needs for additional docents, particularly 
during the Bicentennial year, the Museum undertook a second 
docent training program. Two hundred and fifty applications were 
received and ninety persons were selected for this second program, 
which began on January 7, 1975, and continued through April 15. 
Seventy-six docents successfully completed this second course. At 
the present time, the Museum has a total of 131 docents available 
for touring. 

Prior to the Museum's opening in October, work was completed 
on five special illustrated leaflets for free public distribution 
throughout the Museum. To date, over half a million of these 
brochures have been distributed to Museum visitors. Also under 
the auspices of the Education Department was the Museum's 
auditorium program of films, lectures, and concerts. Through April 
a total of sixty-seven film programs were presented. Ten lectures 
on art were given between November 1974 and June 1975. In- 
cluded among the lecturers were Dore Ashton, Irving Sandler, 
Anne Hanson, Milton Brown, Daniel Robins, and Walter Rosen- 
blum. A special series of four lectures on Twentieth-Century Art 
was given by Professor Robert Rosenblum of New York Uni- 
versity: "Sexism: Picasso as a Male Chauvinist;" "High Art Versus 
Low Art: Cubism as Pop/' "War: Art From Sarajevo to Hiro- 
shima/' and "Religion: The Deities in Abstract Art." 

As an adjunct to the film program, talks on film as an art 
medium were given by Derek Lamb, Rosalind Schneider, Doris 
Chase, Robert Breer, John and Faith Hubley, Frank Mouris, and 
Lillian Schwartz. 

Among the major new American works performed in the 
auditorium concert series were "Four Butterflies" by Morton 
Subotnick, "Black Angels" by George Crumb, and "Conflicts '74" 
by Lloyd Ultan. 

History and Art I 187 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Volume two of The Papers of Joseph Henry, now in the hands of 
the Smithsonian Press, will appear in print in December 1975. 
Documented in this volume are Henry's first three years at Prince- 
ton (1832-1835), where his systematic pursuit of earlier discoveries 
in electromagnetic induction brought him increased prominence 
and into direct rivalry with his great British contemporary, Michael 
Faraday. The volume includes extensive selections from personal 
and professional correspondence, detailed laboratory notes, and 
lengthy diary entries on the contemporary scientific scene. Publica- 
tion ceremonies are being planned for Princeton in December. 

The next installment of The Papers of Joseph Henry series is 
now in progress, tracing Henry's career at Princeton through mid- 
1838. Of paramount interest in volume three are diary entries on 
Henry's first European tour in 1837. With his usual curiosity and 
candor, Henry compares European and American science and 
culture. Especially noteworthy are detailed observations on Euro- 
pean technological installations, such as lighthouse systems, that 
foreshadow Henry's later involvement with comparable American 
projects. In addition to preparing the letterpress series, the Henry 
Papers' staff continues to work toward a special volume of Henry's 
lectures and addresses, designed to reach both a scholarly and 
popular audience. 

During the last year, the Institution received title to the surviv- 
ing library of Alexander Graham Bell, a major section of which 
comprises the Joseph Henry Library, which had been on loan to 
the Henry Papers project for over five years. An inventory of the 
Bell books revealed about 150 additional Henry volumes. The 
entire collection, amounting to some 2800 volumes, will be formally 
installed at the Smithsonian as the Bell-Henry Library. Major 
steps have been taken toward developing a publishable catalogue 
of the Henry Library, with the use of a computer index. An index 
to the Henry annotations contained in the books and pamphlets 
has also been prepared. Bell's valuable collection of scientific books 
will also be indexed by computer. 

The appearance, in 1972, of the first volume in The Papers of 
Joseph Henry series has made scholars increasingly aware of the 
Henry Papers as an important data resource for the history of 

188 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

science. Copies of the vast bulk of private manuscripts relating to 
Henry's career are now on hand at the project and indexed by 
computer. The collections have attracted numerous students and 
outside scholars to work at the Henry Papers over the past year; 
research topics included studies of the French physicist Ampere, 
of the American explorer and naturalist Kennicott, and of the 
geologist G. K. Gilbert. The nineteenth-century seminar, sponsored 
by the Henry Papers, continues to draw scholars from both within 
and outside the Institution. 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

At its meeting on December 16, 1974, the National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board approved a report to the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution concerning its participation 
in an investigation and survey of lands and buildings in and near 
the District of Columbia suitable for the display of military collec- 
tions, pursuant to the provisions of Section 3(a) of the Act of 
August 30, 1961 {75 Stat. 414, 20 USC 80-80d), which established 
the Board. 

The Advisory Board noted that its participation in the investiga- 
tion and survey was lengthy and thorough, extending from 1962 
to 1974. During those years, with the assistance of the Advisory 
Board and with the approval of the Board of Regents, the Smith- 
sonian Institution made a series of efforts, without success, to 
acquire a suitable site on which to establish a National Armed 
Forces Museum as a separate entity with facilities as were sug- 
gested in Section 3(b) of the Act of August 30, 1961. The Advisory 
Board recommended that, in view of recent history, the Smithsonian 
not renew such efforts until circumstances materially change. 

The Advisory Board expressed its satisfaction at the establish- 
ment, in the National Museum of History and Technology, of the 
study center — known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for 
Historical Research — authorized under Section 2(a) of the Act of 
August 30, 1961. The Board stated its conviction and recommended 
that this study center, working in concert with the curatorial and 
exhibits components of the National Museum of History and 

History and Art I 189 

Technology, can and should play a vital part in the development 
of future Smithsonian programs toward portrayal of the historic 
contributions of the Armed Forces of the United States to American 
society and culture. 

The Advisory Board recommended further that the Smithsonian 
act (1) within the National Museum of History and Technology 
and (2) in concert with the Department of the Interior, at Fort 
Washington, Maryland, to carry out to the fullest extent possible 
the purposes of Section 2(a) of the Act of August 30, 1961, which 
calls for the creative display of military artifacts to further the 
public's understanding of the role of the military forces in our 
national life. The Advisory Board stated its readiness to advise and 
assist the Board of Regents toward the furtherance of all programs 
to carry out this goal. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Over the years, from the very beginning of the Smithsonian, the 
collection which is now the National Collection of Fine Arts has 
acquired a wide and representative range of American art, including 
not only works by the acknowledged great, but also those by artists 
who were acclaimed in their time but ignored by succeeding genera- 
tions. Now numbering over 17,000 works, the ncfa continues 
to be concerned with all aspects of American art. It searches for 
works to fill areas poorly covered in the past and acquires a broad 
cross section of contemporary material. It is rare, however, that it 
has the pleasure of adding to the Collection such masterpieces as 
the two superb portraits by Ralph Earl, painted in 1792, acquired 
by purchase and partial gift this year. According to the descendant 
from whom the works were acquired, the stern-faced Mrs. Mary 
W. Alsop took over the family importing business on the death of 
her husband, using her helpful mother, the subject of the other 
portrait, as a kind of watchful lieutenant. The carefully specific 
landscapes in the backgrounds are among Earl's finest. 

Notable among the other 995 paintings, graphic works, and 
sculpture added to the Collection this year were Charles Willson 
Peale's portrait of Mathias and Thomas Bordley, probably his most 

190 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Ralph Earl, Portrait of Mrs. Mary W. Alsop, 
1792, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Gertrude Stein by Red Grooms, 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 

important miniature painting; William Rimmer's evocative little 
painting, Af the Window; Roger Brown's World's Tallest Disaster 
(from the "Made in Chicago" exhibition) ; and many fine twentieth- 
century prints and drawings including Red Grooms's three-dimen- 
sional print of Gertrude Stein. Special attention has been given to 
graphic works from the 1920s and 1930s, a period in which the 
NCFA has a particular interest, such as its Louis Lozowick's 1928 
lithograph Crane. 

Since many paintings acquired by the collection or shown in its 
exhibitions represent forgotten aspects of American art, they often 
have suffered physical neglect and must be restored before they 
regain their rightful historical content, ncfa's conservation staff — 
a conservator of paper was added this year — is kept busy not only 
maintaining the health of the works of art but revealing the true 
appearance of the past. Many brown-tinged paintings selected for 
the "American Art in the Barbizon Mood" exhibition emerged 
fresh and brilliant in hue, forcing a reevaluation of some historical 
assumptions. A large percentage of the works in the exhibition 
"Academy" were cleaned for the first time in many years and again 
could dazzle the eye as they originally did. 

The physical space and context in which works of art are seen 
is of major concern to the ncfa. All exhibitions, including those in 
the Renwick Gallery, are mounted so that the individual works 
can have the space, color, and general atmosphere necessary for 
their full appreciation. The temporary exhibitions that were pre- 
sented this year in the large third-floor gallery were especially 
striking, from the shadowy motel -like complex of "Made in 
Chicago," in which each artist had a room painted with the color 
of his choice, to the rich soft colors and free flowing space of 
"American Art in the Barbizon Mood," and finally to the formal 
dignity of "Academy: the Academic Tradition in American Art," 
with its effect of an atrium with diffused light and four surrounding 
galleries painted in colors sympathetic to works from the periods 
they represented. All designs were by Val Lewton of the Depart- 
ment of Exhibition and Design, who also held a one-man exhibition 
of his paintings in June. This year's temporary exhibitions at the 
Renwick were just as dramatic, ranging from the rather sombre 
dignity of "The Goldsmith," to the sprightly and irreverent "Figure 
and Fantasy," and to the elegantly proportioned display of "A 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Modern Consciousness/' showing the furniture introduced over 
the years by D. J. Dupree and Florence Knoll. These installations 
were designed by Renwick Curator Michael Monroe. 

In all, eighteen exhibitions were produced by the ncfa during the 
year, including sculptures and drawings by "Chaim Gross"; works 
by "Ilya Bolotowsky" (produced with the Guggenheim Museum); 
"Two Decades of American Prints: 1920-1940"; paintings by the 
Httle-known "Horatio Shaw (1847-1918)"; "Art for Architecture," 
photographs and studies of murals from the turn of the century 
in Washington; "Pennsylvania Academy Moderns," showing early 
twentieth-century modern painters from Philadelphia; and the 
"24th National Exhibition of Prints," a juried print exhibition 
sponsored jointly with the Library of Congress. 

Exhibitions from abroad shown in the Renwick included "Con- 
temporary Nigerian Art: Craftsmen from Oshogbo" and "Con- 
temporary Textile Art from Austria," the latter produced in 
association with the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 

Exhibition view, "Academy: The Academic Tradition in American Art," 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 



Service. Exhibitions sent to other countries through ncfa's Office 
of Exhibitions Abroad included CatHn's paintings of American 
Indians shown in the Middle East, "Calder's Circus" sent to the 
Far East, and "Variations on the Camera's Eye," an exhibition of 
recent paintings, circulated in South and Central America. "Made 
in Chicago," which circulated in South America, returned after a 
very successful showing in Mexico City and, expanded and pro- 
vided with a new catalogue, was shown in Washington and 

Two exhibitions highlighted the year: "American Art in the 
Barbizon Mood" and "Academy." The first, directed by Dr. Peter 
Bermingham, Curator of Education, who wrote the authoritative 
publication accompanying the show, explored the work of those 
late nineteenth-century American painters who painted with the 
French painters in Barbizon or were attracted by the "Barbizon 
Mood." This, the first thorough look at these painters, who were 
shown here side by side with their French colleagues, proved reveal- 
ing in both quality and variety. 

The exhibition, "Academy," directed by Dr. Lois Fink, Curator 
of Research, and commemorating the founding of the National 
Academy of Design in 1825, was produced with the extensive co- 
operation of that institution. The 271-page publication. Academy: 
The Academic Tradition in American Art, is based on a new study 
of the Academy's records, which have now been microfilmed. Many 
paintings from the Academy's collection, unseen for years, were 
restored for the show. 

The staff also has participated in professional activity outside the 
Museum. Several have juried exhibitions in various parts of the 
country and presented lectures either on the museum or in their 
special field. Mrs. Edith I. Martin of the Renwick Gallery was 
active in both the local and national organization of the National 
Conference of Artists. Miss Abigail Booth, who heads the Bicen- 
tennial Inventory of American Painting Before 1914, met with 
volunteer groups in many cities who are actively studying works 
in local collections at the behest of the Inventory. The Inventory 
is in touch with some 2500 individuals and agencies, and has now 
registered descriptions of 150,000 paintings. The museum's educa- 
tional activities have been much studied by professionals from here 
and abroad, and, in August, Miss Margery Gordon of the education 

194 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

staff spoke at the International Conference on Art Education in 
Split, Yugoslavia. Mr. Walter Hopps, Curator of Twentieth- 
Century Painting and Sculpture, lectured in Paris and Vienna and 
served on the jury of the Paris Biennial. Mr. Lloyd Herman, 
Director of the Renwick Gallery, spent several weeks in Europe 
visiting craft museums and discussing the possibility of future 
exhibition exchanges. Dr. Taylor lectured in various cities, con- 
ducted museum workshops in the Northwest, and spent two 
weeks in Caracas, Venezuela, lecturing and advising on the forma- 
tion of a new gallery of national art. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The collections of the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, which touch on virtually every aspect of American life and 
history, have led the Museum in many directions as it prepares to 
commemorate the Nation's Bicentennial. In five major exhibits, two 
of which were recently opened, more than 22,000 objects will be 
displayed for visitors as part of the national celebration. Four of 
the exhibits will be on view in the Museum, and one, "1876: A 
Centennial Exhibition," will occupy the four bays and central 
rotunda of the Arts and Industries Building. 

"Suiting Everyone," the Museum's first Bicentennial exhibition, 
was launched in September 1974. It chronicles the democratization 
of clothing in America through 200 years of evolution and revolu- 
tion in design, production, and marketing. Demands for a traveling 
exhibit on the theme were so great that five duplicate copies were 
made, each now on a two-year tour. The range of the exhibition 
was further extended by an illustrated catalogue, written by 
Claudia Kidwell and Margaret Christman, and a handbook on 
costume conservation by Karyn Harris. 

The project was a multidisciplinary effort, based upon two years 
of research by Mrs. Kidwell, coordinator of the exhibit, assisted 
by Donald Kloster, Assistant Curator of Military History, and 
Grace Cooper, Curator of Textiles. An Apparel Advisory Group 
made up of fashion designers, clothing manufacturers and retailers, 
and fashion editors assisted curators in the selection of the con- 
temporary fashions shown. Some of the clothing on display was 

History and Art I 195 

acquired through a nationwide appeal for period clothing, which 
drew responses from 4500 Americans from California to Maine. 

The exhibition is in four sections. The first, "Clothing for Some- 
body/' contrasts the elegant fashions of wealthy eighteenth- 
century Americans with the simple, utilitarian homespuns worn by 
the majority of the people. The second and third sections, "Cloth- 
ing for Anybody" (1800-1860) and "Clothing for Everybody" 
(1860-1920), trace the development of the "ready-made" clothing 
industry made possible by the Industrial Revolution. The last 
section, "Something for Everybody," presents the variety of cloth- 
ing, textiles, and styles available to Americans over the past 
fifty years. 

In addition to the clothing displayed, the early tools of textile 
manufacture and of the "ready-made" dress trade are shown, includ- 
ing Samuel Slater's original spinning frame and a model Eli 
Whitney made about 1800 showing minor adjustments to his 
original cotton gin. Later and more sophisticated machines, which 
speeded up production of textiles, fabrics, and designs, as well as 
factory machines for sewing, cutting, and pressing, are included. 
By the turn of the century, the American consumer was able to 
rely upon the "ready-to-wear" market for clothing for his entire 

In early April, "Suiting Everyone" served as the focus for a two- 
day symposium on early American clothing manufacture, spon- 
sored by the Costume Society of America. 

With introspection befitting the Nation on its two-hundredth 
birthday, the Museum's second Bicentennial exhibition, "We The 
People," which opened on June 4, takes a reflective look at the 
American people and their government. Its title derived from the 
Constitution, the exhibit's three major sections explore the mean- 
ing of Lincoln's phrase, "government of the people, by the people, 
for the people." "Of the People" asks who we are as a people; 
"By the People" asks how we have governed ourselves; and "For 
the People" asks what we as citizens have asked of our government. 

Seeking first to define Americans as a Nation, the exhibition 
opens with an exuberant display of symbols by which the United 
States is recognized around the world. "Of the People" also looks 
at the tools of census by which Americans have defined themselves 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

statistically since 1790. With the growth of the United States came 
stature as a nation among nations. Gifts presented to American 
presidents by many nations, on view in "Of the People," range 
from a pair of muskets inlaid with coral and gold presented to 
President Jefferson by the Emperor of Morocco to the famous 
"Resolute Desk" used at the White House by every president from 
Hayes through Kennedy. 

The section on "By the People" illuminates the struggles of the 
disenfranchised for the right to vote. The pre-Civil War era saw 
voting by American immigrants, and the Civil War brought voting 
by Union soldiers and freed slaves, and resulted in the temporary 
disenfranchisement of Southern whites. Dramatizing the right to 
petition is a painted view of the East Capitol Steps, in front of 
which protestors march petitioning the Nation's legislators for 
social, economic, and political change. Its Ufe-size scale makes 
visitors feel a part of historic protest movements. The first major 

"We the People," a Bicentennial exhibit at the National Museum of History 
and Technology. View of the East Capitol Steps, in front of which protestors 
march petitioning the Nation's legislators for social, economic, and political 













history in artifacts of the right to petition, the exhibit displays such 
present-day symbols of protest as a canvas-and-plywood hut from 
Resurrection City and a Vietnam War Veterans Against the War 
banner, with the familiar red shawl of women's rights advocate 
Susan B. Anthony, John Quincy Adam's abolitionist cane, and, 
from the Revolutionary era, a Stamp Act box which once carried 
the King's seals. 

The Preamble to the Constitution, which broadly defines areas of 
responsibility the American people wished their government to 
assume, provides the basis for the final section, "For the People." 
Nineteenth-century America saw steady territorial expansion 
beyond the original states, beginning with the acquisition of the 
Louisiana Territory. The panoramic painting "Grand Canyon of 
the Yellowstone'/ by landscape artist Thomas Moran, suggests the 
vastness of the wilderness which awaited nineteenth-century 
settlers. Various objects tell the story of government exploration 
of new lands and government programs for settlement, culminat- 
ing with twentieth-century explorations, exemplified by a lunar 
sample box which carried rocks collected on the moon's surface 
by Apollo 11 astronauts. 

"We The People" was funded with a special appropriation from 
the Congress, and was researched and produced by Margaret Klap- 
thor, Curator-in-Charge, and Herbert Collins, Curator, assisted by 
the able staff of the Division of Political History and the nmht 
Office of Exhibits. The Hall was designed by the Washington firm 
of Staples & Charles. A catalogue accompanies the exhibit. 

Three remaining Bicentennial exhibitions have been progressing 
rapidly, with the majority of the Museum staff redirected toward 
these endeavors. "American Banking," the Museum's first major 
exhibit on this vital aspect of American life, will open on September 
17, 1975. This exhibition, made possible by a grant from the 
American Bankers Association, is being prepared under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Vladimir and Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Curators of 
Numismatics, and designed by the firm of Joseph A. Wetzel of 
Stamford, Connecticut. The exhibit will be installed in the 
Museum's third-floor special exhibits gallery. 

Almost 5000 objects — from buttons to buildings — have been 
assembled for inclusion in "A Nation of Nations," opening early 
in 1976. One of the largest exhibits ever produced by the Smith- 
sonian, "A Nation of Nations" will tell of the early settlers and 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

later immigrants who populated the United States, making it a 
nation of many nations whose peoples created a diverse cultural 
heritage. Two period buildings have been installed and work has 
been started on two others. With the exhibit area already through 
structural alterations, work on individual exhibit cases is now 
underway. The design has been completed for approximately two- 
thirds of the exhibit. "A Nation of Nations" will impart a full 
array of museum experiences — original three-dimensional objects, 
graphics, posters, moving exhibits, music and sound effects, and 
audiovisual presentations. A team of twenty-two museum staff 
members are actively engaged in the development of the project 
under the direction of a committee chaired by Carl H. Scheele, 
Division of Philately and Postal History, and including Richard 
E. Ahlborn, Division of Ethnic and Western Cultural History; 
Grace R. Cooper, Division of Textiles; Harold D. Langley, Division 
of Naval History; Otto Mayr, Division of Mechanical and Civil 
Engineering; C. Malcolm Watkins, Department of Cultural History; 
and John H. White, Jr., Division of Transportation. The exhibit 
is being designed by the New York firm of Chermayeff and 

In 1975 virtually all collecting and design was completed for 
"1876: A Centennial Exhibition" — nmht's microcosmic recreation 
of the Philadelphia Centennial slated for the restored Arts and 
Industries Building. Well over half the curatorial staff has been 
involved in "1876," with overall planning delegated to a com- 
mittee comprised of Robert M. Vogel, Curator-in-Charge; Benjamin 
Lawless, the Museum's Assistant Director for Design and Produc- 
tion; William Miner, Project Manager; Nadya Makovenyi, De- 
signer; and Robert Post, Historian. In February, Jon D. Freshour, 
formerly Registrar at the National Portrait Gallery, joined "1876" 
as Collections Manager. 

Having completed restoration of an impressive array of century- 
old machine tools, the nmht Technical Laboratory turned to a 
diversity of other large objects for "1876." Among the major 
projects were several field pieces from nafmab, and two Rodman 
Guns — one with a 15-inch barrel weighing nearly 25 tons — that 
once defended Chesapeake Bay; a Nasmyth forging hammer 22 
feet high; a sorghum mill, grist mill, and wooden windmill; and a 
Brayton Ready Motor, an oil-burning, flame-ignition engine 
patented in 1874. 

History and Art I 199 

One of several projects ably handled by a group of volunteers 
headed by Lieutenant Comniander Stanley Stumbo, U.S.N., was 
the restoration of an Otis steam elevator engine. A period freight 
platform is being rigged to operate in the West Hall of the Arts and 
Industries Building, thanks to a generous donation by the Otis 
Company in New York. 

Important restoration projects include a steam locomotive built 
in 1876 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Santa Cruz 
Railroad in California. Its acquisition ends a fifteen-year search 
by Curator of Transportation lohn H. White for an authentic 
American-type locomotive (4-4-0 wheel arrangement). Formerly 
owned by O. Roy Chalk, who had it on exhibit in a Washington 
playground, it was exchanged with a newer steam locomotive in 
May 1975. Refurbishing, under the direction of lohn Stine, in- 
cludes fabrication of a new wooden pilot and cab. 

A less awkward but equally difficult project was the restoration of 
hundreds of dental tools, surgical instruments, prosthetic devices, 
and pharmaceutical specimens undertaken by Michael Harris and 
Everett lackson of the Division of Medical Sciences. In many 
instances, displays of these objects will be faithful replicas of 
Philadelphia exhibits a century ago. 

A variety of objects representing foreign nations has been 
located by Anne Golovin. Herbert Collins and Peggy Bruton 
showed great resourcefulness in putting together exhibits repre- 
sentative of the states of the union, as did Deborah Warner in 
developing a miniature version of the Women's Pavilion. All in all, 
"1876" may well be the most diversified, evocative, and colorful 
exhibition the Smithsonian has ever done, and its opening next 
May is expected to be one of the outstanding events of our 
Bicentennial year. 

Between major hall openings the Museum has produced a num- 
ber of important temporary exhibits. Notable among these was the 
first showing anywhere of a selection of original folios from the 
long-lost Madrid Manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, on loan from 
the Spanish government. Arrangements for the loan and exhibition 
of these important manuscripts were initiated and carried forward 
by the Deputy Director of the Museum, Silvio A. Bedini. The manu- 
scripts formed a portion of two volumes once part of the private 
collection of King Philip V of Spain. Codex Madrid I includes 
Leonardo's sketches of devices that were not to find application for 

200 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The National Museum of History and Technology has acquired a ninety-nine- 
year-old "American type" steam locomotive whose kind dominated the 
Nation's railways in the nineteenth century. Built in Philadelphia in 1876 as a 
wood burner, the engine is one of about 25 in existence today of the approxi- 
mately 25,000 manufactured. The engine will be exhibited in "1876: A Centen- 
nial Exhibition." 

many years, or that were to be reinvented centuries later. In this 
notebook, Leonardo also developed a systematic analysis of the 
concepts and elements of machines. Codex Madrid II is more of a 
daily notebook, with sketches and remarks covering a multitude 
of topics. 

The manuscripts on display were written in Leonardo's curious 
"mirror" or reverse script. A number of objects from the Museum's 
collections were shown, together with several models, based on 
Leonardo's drawings, produced by International Business Machines. 
The exhibit was opened with a lecture by Professor Ludwig M. 
Heydenreich of Munich on "Visualized Knowledge," an interpreta- 
tion of the Madrid codices. Following display at the Museum, the 
exhibition was loaned to the American Museum of Natural History 
in New York City for a brief showing at the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science meetings. 

In "America Set to Music," a selection of songsheets from the 
collection of Mr. Lester S. Levy of Pikesville, Maryland, were dis- 
played with objects in the Museum's collections suggested by the 
musical scores. The sheet music evoked vivid pictures of nine- 
teenth-century American life, ranging in theme from national issues 
and politics to romance, fashion, parlor games, and popular sports 
for men and women. Some of the sheet music related to American 

Histori/ and Art I 201 

technological achievements, from the first drilling for oil to the 
invention of Bell's "Wondrous Telephone" and "Edison's phono- 
graph." Notable cover illustrations were a striking lithography of 
two girls, orphaned by the Boston fire of 1872, pictured on the 
cover of "Homeless To-night, or Boston in Ashes;" humorous 
portrayals of the latest fashions; and a political cartoon for the 
song "Inflation Galop" which depicted a despondent President 
Grant in 1874 watching political opponents fill a huge balloon. 

From January to May, the nmht was host to "Steuben, Seventy 
Years of American Glassmaking," a traveling exhibition, organized 
by the Toledo Museum of Art, featuring more than 100 of Steuben's 
greatest accomplishments since 1903. Highlighted in the exhibit 
were major pieces which had served as gifts of state, such as the 
"Great Ring of Canada," America's gift to the people of Canada 
on that nation's centennial in 1967, and the "Merry-Go-Round 
Bowl" which President and Mrs. Truman presented to Queen 
Elizabeth II at her marriage in 1947. 

Finally, construction was begun on the Hall of American Mari- 
time Enterprises in which will be told the story of America's inter- 
action with the sea from the colonial period to the Nation's 
emergence as a major sea power. The first exhibit for the new 
Hall, the 3-ton triple expansion steam engine of the United States 
Coast Guard tender Oak, was restored, rebuilt, and placed in the 
Hall, where it will provide the Museum visitor with an engineer's 
view of a ship's operating powerplant. 

The Museum's popular Van Alstyne Collection of American Folk 
Art, which was removed from the second floor to make room for 
the "A Nation of Nations" exhibit, has been installed in new space 
on the first-floor rotunda and opened in time for the Festival of 
American Folklife. 

A modest but unusual exhibit installed with virtually no cost, 
which drew impressive press and public comment, was the 
"Whatsit" case, a continuing display of a variety of objects, the 
identity of which had not been positively established by the 
Museum staff. These items had been assembled from the Museum's 
collections over a period of years, and comments solicited from the 
public led to positive identification of several of the objects. 

The popular Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures, Frontiers of 
Knowledge, continued to draw on the world's leading thinkers and 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

At the exhibition "Steuben, Seventy Years of American Glassmaking," Paul N. 
Perrot (right). National Museum of History and Technology's Assistant Secre- 
tary for Museum Programs, and Paul V. Gardner (left). Curator, Division of 
Ceramics and Class, National Museum of History and Technology, admire 
The Great Ring of Canada (height: 40 inches), a unique creation of Steuben 
artists. Inscribed 'Tor the People of Canada on the Centenary of Canada's 
Nationhood from the People of the United States of America," it was presented 
in 1967 to Prime Minister Lester Pearson by President Lyndon B. Johnson. 

shapers of events to speak on themes reflecting the broad concerns 
of the National Museum of History and Technology. This year's 
series, "The Modern Explorers," looked at explorations made 
possible by twentieth-century advances in technology, from expedi- 
tions to the last untouched regions of earth to probes of the 
galaxies and, in some senses, the past. Speakers were New Zealand 
explorer Sir Edmund Hillary, British astronomer and mathematician 
Sir Fred Hoyle, a leading theoretician on the origin and nature of 
the universe, and Nobel Prize-winning American chemist Willard 
Frank Libby, discoverer of the radiocarbon dating technique. Bio- 
chemist and science fiction writer Isaac Asimov ended the series 
with a look at explorations yet to come, his topic being "The 
Moon as Threshold." 

A special lecture sponsored by the Division of Electricity on 

History and Art I 203 

"Superconductive Energy Storage For Large Electric Power Sys- 
tems" featured Professor H. A. Peterson who holds the Electric 
Utilities Chair in Power Engineering at the University of Wisconsin, 
Professor W. C. Young, and Professor R. W. Boom, all of the 
University of Wisconsin. 

The continuing philatelic lectures presented in cooperation with 
the United States Postal Service featured four stamp issues; 
Greever Allan on "The Universal Postal Union 1874-1974"; Dr. 
Keith E. Melder on "The Chautauqua Centennial"; and Mr. 
Sinclair H. Hitchings on "Currier and Ives, and Their Art." Subse- 
quent lectures looked at the stamp series "Contributors to the 
Cause," with speakers Dr. Lillian B. Miller and Mr. Rodney H. C. 
Schmidt, and finally the quartet of stamps issued by the Postal 
Service depicting "Military Uniforms of the American Revolution." 
Edward T. Vebell, designer of the stamps, was the evening's 

The National Museum of History and Technology's one o'clock 
Tuesday Presentations offered a wide range of free films for the 
visiting public, as well as occasional lectures. Especially popular 
films included the prize-winning "Rube Goldberg ... Or Doing It 
the Hard Way," produced by the Museum in conjunction with a 
past exhibit, and Charles Eames's shorts, "Tops" and "Toccata for 
Toy Trains." Lectures ranged in theme from "Women Astronomers 
in America" and "The Evolution of the Drug Store" to "Restora- 
tions for the Smithsonian's Centennial Exhibition," about the 
readying of heavy machinery from America's early industrial age 
for viewing in the Bicentennial retrospective, "1876: A Centennial 

The National Museum of History and Technology's Division of 
Public Information and Education recently completed its first year 
of independent existence following decentralization of the Smith- 
sonian's Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Respon- 
sible for educating and informing the public about the Museum, 
the Division has continued regular school tours and greatly ex- 
panded its offerings of prescheduled and walk-in programs for 
other museum visitors. 

During the 1974-1975 school year (October through May), 155 
volunteer docents specializing in varied interest areas such as 
Colonial Experience, Energy, Transportation, and Needlework con- 

204 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

ducted school tours for 26,855 students, 212 Outreach programs 
in area schools, and 1557 tours for general visitors. In addition, 
another group of docents conducted 380 Highlights Tours for 
weekend visitors. In all, more than 60,000 people had the oppor- 
tunity to participate in the Museum's docent-conducted educa- 
tional program. 

New tours in "Suiting Everyone" have been added and other 
tours, such as "Newsmaking," "Medical Sciences," and "Techno- 
logical Change," have been modified to appeal to the walk-in 

A new feature of the Educational Program has been the Spirit of 
1776 Discovery Corner located in the Armed Forces Hall. Within 
this area docents offer short presentations while encouraging 
visitors to touch and handle artifacts relating to the common 
soldier in the American Revolution. This exhibition served 3395 
visitors in 178 sessions during its first six weeks of operation. 
Other "discovery corners" are planned to bring the visitor into 
contact with the Museum's wide-ranging collections. 

During the summer of 1974, the Division and the nmnh's Office 
of Education participated with the D. C. Public Schools in a Title 1 
enrichment program designed to bring museum experiences into 
the classroom. Museum-trained high school students presented 
"touch-it" talks relating to colonial America and natural history 
to elementary school students, giving children the opportunity to 
handle and examine related objects. 

The Division also worked with the Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education to provide workshops for area teachers. From 
these programs have come greater cooperation and understanding 
of the needs of the local schools. 

This year the Museum was called upon to repair the ceremonial 
mace of the House of Representatives. Under the supervision of 
Mr. Robert M. Organ of the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory, 
the historic mace was examined and repaired by Mr. Robert Klinger 
and Mr. Donald Hoist of the Office of Exhibits Model Shop. The 
mace, not originally designed to stand upright, when first presented 
to the House of Representatives 133 years ago, was altered so 
that it could stand upon a marble base when the House was in 
session. In the course of the years the tenon fitting into the 
marble had loosened. Repair included replacing the original wooden 

History and Art I 205 

Robert Klinger with ceremonial mace of the House of Representatives which 
was repaired in NMHT's Office of Exhibits Model Shop. 

core with a bronze rod. None of the structural repairs altered the 
outer appearance of the mace, which was further cleaned and re- 
furbished, and shortly returned to the House. 

Additions to the collections of the National Museum of History 
and Technology were numerous and varied, ranging from thirty- 
seven grain testing devices for the Division of Agriculture, an 1898 
single truck street car and 1892 cable car trailer for the Division 
of Transportation, to an early nineteenth-century orchestral horn 
by Courtois of Paris and a gourd fiddle from St. Mary's County, 
Maryland, for the Division of Musical Instruments. The Division 
also arranged for a long-term loan of a harpsichord by Joseph 
Johannes Couchet, dated 1679. 

In the Division of Political History, the generous gift of ap- 
proximately 15,000 more objects relating to political campaigning 
from Mr. Ralph E. Becker brings together the entire Becker collec- 
tion. Combined with more than 4000 objects from the Honorable 
Michael V. Disalle and 665 objects from the estate of the late 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Presentation of Rush Tray to the Smithsonian, February 1975, in the Secretary's 
Parlor, Smithsonian Institution Building. Left to right, Colonel Benjamin Rush 
III, Curator Anne Golovin, Curator James M. Goode, and Mrs. Benjmain 
Rush II. 

William F. and Edith R. Meggers, the Museum's collection of 
political campaigning memorabilia becomes not only the largest 
but the most important in the country. A large number of these 
new acquisitions are featured in the exhibit, "We the People." 

Among the most important single items acquired was a Chinese 
export porcelain bowl decorated with the insignia of the Order of 
the Cincinnati from the set purchased by General George Wash- 
ington in 1786. Continuously owned by Washington's descendants 
to the present, the bowl has been on loan to the Museum since 

The Division also acquired an engraved silver platter inscribed 
to Dr. Benjamin Rush in 1798 for his services to Philadelphia's City 
Hospital during that year's yellow fever calamity. America's lead- 
ing physician until his death in 1813, Dr. Rush, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, was Surgeon General during the 
American Revolution. His son, Richard, who inherited the platter, 
was Minister to France and England, and was instrumental in ob- 

History and Art I 207 

Chinese export porcelain bowl, decorated with the insignia of the Order of 
the Cincinnati, from the set purchased by General George Washington in 1786, 
acquired by the Division of Political History, National Museum of History and 

taining the bequest which estabUshed the Smithsonian Institution. 
The tray is the work of Philadelphia silversmith John Myers, and 
was donated to the Museum by Mrs. Benjamin Rush and the late 
Mr. Rush, a sixth generation descendant of the doctor. 

Among the 331 pieces of ceramics and glass acquired by the 
Division of Ceramics and Glass were two extremely rare pieces 
of early Chelsea porcelain, 1745-1752, an American porcelain 
vase made for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, and 
rare pressed glass made in Wheeling, West Virginia, late in the 
nineteenth century. 

Notable acquisitions for the Department of Cultural History 
include a pair of painted Hepplewhite-style side chairs of a Phila- 
delphia type predating 1800, an Empire-style wardrobe of the 
1830s with the label of Joseph Meeks and Sons of New York 
City, and two fine eighteenth-century side chairs from New York. 

An important addition to the Museum's Warshaw Collection of 
Business Americana was a gift of the New York advertising firm, 
N. W. Ayer ABH International, of more than 400,000 proofs of 
advertisements published in newspapers and periodicals between 
1889 and 1960, including the firm's first advertisements of the 

208 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

A rare American porcelain vase, ot a type especially produced for the 1876 
Centennial by the Union Porcelain Works of Greenpoint, Long Island. Height: 
21% inches. National Museum of History and Technology. 

Model A Ford. A selection of early telecommunications and com- 
puting devices and electronic components was presented to the 
Division of Electricity by Akio Morita, founder and president of 
Sony Corporation, among them the first transistor radio manufac- 
tured in Japan and the world's first transistorized portable video- 
tape recorder. 

The Division of Medical Sciences obtained a large collection of 
obstetrical forceps representing two centuries of development, and 
a large variety of American dental office equipment and tools as 
well as a homeopathic pharmacy including fixtures. The Division 
of Electricity and Modern Physics acquired a nuclear adiabatic 
demagnetization apparatus and an atomic beam apparatus, soon to 
be exhibited, while the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineer- 
ing's acquisitions ranged from Helen Keller's gold touch watch 
to a collection of approximately 14,000 drawings from the former 
Southwark Machine Works of Philadelphia, representing that firm's 
activities as a major nineteenth-century machine builder from 
circa 1880 to 1910. 

During the past year, the Museum has branched out more 
actively into academic realms with the establishment of new 
centers of learning and fellowship opportunities designed to make 
it a living museum. With the decentralization of the staff of the 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, two of its 
members have joined the staff of the recently established Dwight 
D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, which has spon- 
sored several important conferences and meetings. 

In April the Institute served as host at the Smithsonian for a 
conference with representatives of various Federal agencies and 
services to establish the historic vessel. Monitor, as a marine 
sanctuary. In April a meeting sponsored by the Institute and held 
in the Museum brought together representatives of the Ford 
Foundation, leading television corporations, telecommunications ex- 
perts, historians, representatives of the Library of Congress, the 
National Archives, and the National Education Association. The 
purpose of the meeting, which was chaired by Dr. Eric Barnow, 
was to suggest guidelines for preserving television footage which 
would save vital materials for future historical purposes. 

The Institute will sponsor the annual meeting of the Interna- 
tional Commission of Military History, to be held at the Smith- 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Helen Keller's gold touch watch and case. 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

sonian in August 1975. Dr. Pogue, chairman of the committee on 
organization that wrote the constitution of the United States 
Commission, has served as a member of the executive committee, 
and was one of the trustees to sign the charter for the United States 
Commission in the spring of 1975. 

The Institute has announced plans for three conferences on 
United States occupation poUcies to be held under its sponsorship 
at the MacArthur Memorial Library, in Norfolk, Virginia; the 
Marshall Research Foundation of Lexington, Virginia; and at the 
Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Pogue has been working with planning 
committees of the cooperating institutions. 

A new position of Visiting Scholar was created to bring to the 
Museum a succession of eminent historians and individuals of dis- 
tinction in the museum world to pursue their own research and to 

History and Art I 211 

serve the Museum in an advisory capacity. The first appointee was 
Dr. A. Hunter Dupree, on sabbatical leave from Brown University, 
where he has been the George L. Littlefield Professor of History 
since 1968. Prior to his appointment to the Brown University 
faculty. Dr. Dupree was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study 
in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, California, and previously 
in the History Department of the University of California at 
Berkeley. Author of Science in the Federal Government (1957) and 
of a biography of Asn Gray (1959), Dr. Dupree is Secretary of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. During his six-month 
appointment at the Museum, Dr. Dupree continued his research 
on the history of premetric measurement, and served as an advisor 
on the Museum's plans for a new Hall of American Science. 

In 1974 Dr. Robert P. Multhauf, former Director of the Museum 
and presently Senior Scientific Scholar, was elected by the National 
Academy of Sciences to chair the American delegation to the XlVth 
International Congress of the History of Science held in Tokyo 
and Kyoto, Japan, in August. 

Seven Smithsonian fellows were appointed in the National 
Museum of History and Technology during fiscal year 1975, and 
developed research on various projects related to the Museum's 
interests. Among the predoctoral candidates, James A. Borchert 
of the University of Maryland conducted research on American 
mini-ghettoes, alleys, alley dwellings and alley dwellers in Wash- 
ington during the period from 1850 to 1970. Mark Lindley of 
Columbia University has been at work on organological aspects of 
keyboard temperament, and Philip T. Rosen of Wayne State Uni- 
versity conducted a study on the search for order: radio broadcast- 
ing in the 1920s. The postdoctoral fellows included Stanley Gold- 
berg of Harvard University who is conducting research on the 
social character of science in Germany and America in the late 
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; Kenneth J. Hagan of 
Claremont College who worked on American naval diplomacy 
1845-1861; and Bernard Mergen of the University of Pennsylvania 
whose work is on shipbuilding and shipbuilding labor 1917 to 
1933. William J. Simon of the City University of New York devel- 
oped a study of the Ferreira Expedition in Brazil and its contribu- 
tions on the natural history of Brazil in the late eighteenth century. 

A Committee on Academic Activities, under the chairmanship 

212 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

of Walter F. Cannon, has been established and is charged with 
responsibility for developing the Museum's Fellowship program 
and plans for a variety of professional relationships, including 
teaching activities by staff members in colleges and universities, 
scheduling of seminars in the Museum, and staff exchange pro- 
grams with other museums. 

One of the most important academically related events was the 
gift to the Museum of the Dibner Library of the History of Science 
and Technology. This collection contains from 20,000 to 25,000 
published works, including a great number of rare books, more 
than 300 incunabula, and a large number of historic manuscripts 
and letters of important scientists. Included also in the gift are 
approximately 800 portraits in the form of prints and engravings, 
as well as collections of science medals and scientific instruments 
and apparatus. 

The Dibner Library will be temporarily housed in a special 
faciUty under construction on the Museum's first floor, where it 
will be used by visiting scholars and students and the Museum 
staff. The Museum foresees future expansion of the Dibner Library 
as other collections in specialized aspects in the history of science 
and technology are acquired. The Dibner Library represents the 
major holdings of the Burndy Library in Norwalk, Connecticut, 
which will continue to function as a resource for study for the 
Connecticut-New York region with a full collection of research 
materials, consisting primarily of duplicates presently in the collec- 
tion and copies of the more important materials transferred to the 

The core of the collection consists of the 200 books which were 
epochal in the history of the physical and biological sciences, and 
which proclaimed new truths or hypotheses which redirected 
scientific thought, brought understanding of natural laws, and at 
times introduced industrial change. Notable among the treasures 
are a manuscript copy, circa 1385, of the Physics of Aristotle, 
several manuscripts of Sir Isaac Newton's including a quarto on 
chemistry, and a large manuscript leaf of Darwin's Origin of 
Species, one of only ten that have survived. The copy of Coper- 
nicus's Narratio Prima (1540) sent by Rheticus to Schoener is 
featured in the collection, as well as a copy of Pliny's Historia 
Naturalis (Venice 1469), which was the first book on science to 

History and Art I 213 

be printed. Among the treasures are also a manuscript of Cecco 
d'Ascoli dated 1461 presenting his views on the natural history 
of the world, an autograph letter from Galileo Galilei to Nicolas 
Claude de Peiresc dated 1635 describing the invention of a mag- 
netic water clock, and forty letters written by Michael Faraday. 
Included also is the Armin Weiner Collection of more than 1000 
manuscripts and correspondence of many of the world's foremost 
scientists, including Regiomontanus, Kepler, Boyle, Euler, Priestley, 
Frauenhofer, Mach, and Planck. Featured is a collection of more 
than 100 of Louis Pasteur's own copies of his publications, numer- 
ous autographed scientific notes and letters, and his laboratory 

The donor of the Library, Dr. Bern Dibner, founded the Burndy 
Corporation in 1924 and the Burndy Library in 1936. He has long 
been recognized as a leading collector of source material on the 
history of science, and, as Director of the Burndy Library since its 
founding, has patiently assembled the more than 40,000 works 
which form its collections and which make it one of the largest 
single collection of books in this subject field. 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Facing page: 

Rembrandt Peale, Martha Washington 
and Gtorge Washington, ca. 1853, oil 
on canvas. Height: 36 inches; width: 29 
inches. Gift of an anonymous donor to 
the National Portrait Gallery. 


Elisha Hammond, Frederick Douglass, 

oil on canvas. Height: 26 inches; 

width: I7V2 inches. 

National Portrait Gallery. 

National Portrait Gallery 

The affairs of the National Portrait Gallery (npg) revolve around 
acquisitions and exhibitions. Although the Gallery's permanent 
collection (which now includes more than 800 portraits) has grown 
significantly since acquisitions were first actively pursued a decade 
ago, the primary objective of the Gallery continues to be the 
building of a collection worthy of this Nation's history. 

During the past year, sixty portraits came to the Gallery by gift 
and purchase. Clearly the most important of the gifts were "port- 
hole" portraits of George and Martha Washington (so-called be- 
cause they were painted within trompe I'oeil architectural ovals) 
by Rembrandt Peale, presented by an anonymous donor. Also 
worthy of special mention are a pastel portrait of Gouverneur 
Morris by James Sharpies, given by Miss Ethel Turnbull; an oil 
sketch of Cyrus McCormick by Charles Loring Elliott, the gift of 
The Chauncey and Marion Deering McCormick Foundation and 
Mrs. Anne B. Harrison; and a bust of William Lloyd Garrison by 
Anne Whitney, presented by Lloyd Kirkham Garrison. 

History and Art I 215 

The most noteworthy acquisitions by purchase were portraits of 
two great Chief Justices of the United States; a three-quarter- 
length oil of John Jay, begun by Gilbert Stuart and finished by 
John Trumbull; and a small, cabinet-size canvas of John Marshall 
by William J. Hubard. The Gallery also acquired by purchase one 
of only two known life portraits of Frederick Douglass. The por- 
trait was painted in 1844 by Elisha Hammond, a member of a 
Utopian community in Florence, Massachusetts, visited by Douglass. 
Extraordinarily evocative life masks of Helen Keller and her 
teacher Ann Sullivan Macy, made in 1916 by the sculptor Onorio 
Ruotolo, also were acquired by purchase. 

The Gallery's exhibition program focused primarily on the Bi- 
centennial with two extensive displays, "In the Minds and Hearts 
of the People, 1760-1774" and "The Dye is Now Cast, 1774- 
1776," each containing some 250 portraits and objects of other 
kinds. Full-scale catalogues (of 240 and 344 pages, respectively) 
accompanied each of these exhibitions, and materials specially in- 
tended for secondary school students were prepared by the 
Gallery's Education Department. The Gallery also mounted a 
special exhibition for the Archives of American Art entitled "From 
Reliable Sources," consisting of letters, documents, and photo- 
graphs from the Archives' collections. The 761 St.-Memin portrait 
engravings given the Gallery last year by Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
Mellon were installed in a gallery permanently set aside for the 
collection. A number of small exhibitions were also mounted, in- 
cluding one on John Brown and two devoted to the centennials of 
the births of Herbert Hoover and Winston Churchill. 

A replica by Gardner Cox of his portrait of Dean Acheson in the 
State Department was presented to the Gallery by Secretary Ache- 
son's former law partners. Secretary of State Kissinger and 
Averell Harriman were among the speakers on that occasion. 

The long-anticipated work on the Papers of Charles Willson 
Peale and his Family was begun this year under the editorship of 
Dr. Lillian B. Miller and with an initial two-year grant from The 
National Endowment for the Humanities. 

Finally, through the generosity of an anonymous donor, the 
Gallery acquired a British double-decker bus, which transports 
visitors to the National Portrait Gallery from the front door of the 
National Museum of History and Technology on the Mall, hourly, 
seven days a week. 

216 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Stuart Trumbull, John Jay, oil on canvas. Height: 50 V2 inches; width: 
41 V2 inches. National Portrait Gallery. Below: Secretary of State Henry 
Kissinger addressing the guests on the occasion of the presentation of 
Gardner Cox's portrait of Dean Acheson to the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, September 17, 1974. The portrait is the gift of Covington & Burling 
to the Gallery. 

Office of Academic Studies 

The Office of Academic Studies, with policy direction of the Insti- 
tution's Board of Academic Studies, develops and administers 
Smithsonian programs in higher education. These programs are 
designed to provide a regular flow of ideas and information be- 
tween the research faculty of the Institution and the international 
academic community. Students at all postsecondary levels are 
offered the opportunity to receive individual training and guidance 
in the Smithsonian's research centers. 

Predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows are appointed to pursue 
advanced research training in those scientific and scholarly 
disciplines studied by the faculty of the Smithsonian. They bring 
with them a provocative and stimulating enthusiasm, providing a 
constant leaven in the intellectual life of the Institution. Pre- 
doctoral fellows usually spend one year consulting the faculty 
and collections while completing dissertations for the doctorate. 
Postdoctoral fellows study closely with their advisors to expand 
and strengthen their university training. During the year 1974- 
1975, twenty-two predoctoral and twenty-three postdoctoral 
fellowships were awarded to advance the Institution's research 
and the intellectual development of the fellows. 

Graduate and undergraduate fellowships are awarded each year 
to students who require an opportunity to spend two to three 
months of directed research at the Institution. These shorter term 
fellowships are awarded primarily to graduate students who have 
not yet begun work on a dissertation. A period of consultation and 
exposure to research methods allows students to comprehend the 
broader discipline within which they are studying and to focus 
their interests toward individual research projects. In 1974-1975, 
seventeen students were awarded fellowships under this program. 
Three of these students were supported under a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. 

An increasing number of colleges and universities recognize the 
value of off-campus study at the undergraduate level. This recogni- 
tion is most often given in the form of academic credit awarded at 
the completion of a successful work project. Students conducting 
such projects are able to learn fundamental principles of scholarly 
and scientific disciplines while working under the direction of a 
Smithsonian staff member. The mutual benefit of such an ex- 

218 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

periential education program attracts a growing number of students 
each year. In 1974-1975, twenty students from across the country 
studied under this Museum Study Program at the Smithsonian. 

To complement these programs the Office of Academic Studies 
attempts to assist other individuals who desire a shorter period 
of study at the Institution. A Short-Term Visitor Program offers 
modest financial support to visitors at all academic levels who wish 
to consult staff members for a few days or weeks in the pursuit of 
their research problems. By offering this modest support to supple- 
ment the visitor's own resources, this program provides many 
opportunities for individuals to conduct necessary research at the 
Institution. In 1974-1975, twenty-seven visitors were offered sup- 
port under this program. Additionally, a Seminar Program offers 
Smithsonian research faculty the opportunity to organize seminars 
at the Institution. These seminars are designed to bring together 
distinguished scientists and scholars and students from around the 
world to discuss ideas and concepts of common interest. During 
fiscal year 1975 two such seminars were supported. Dr. Olga 
Linares conducted a seminar on Barro Colorado Island on the social 
transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the tropics as 
inferred from present-day replication experiments. The ten partici- 
pants included two scientists from Venezuela and one from 
Colombia. Dr. Richard Baumann, entomologist at the National 
Museum of Natural History, organized and chaired The Fifth 
International Symposium on Plecoptera. The thirty participants in- 
cluded visitors from Germany, Canada, Norway, New Zealand, 
Yugoslavia, India, and Japan. 

In addition to Institution-wide programs in higher education 
described above, the Office of Academic Studies frequently assists 
in planning and administering programs developed by the research 
bureaus of the Institution to meet their special needs, and offers 
advice on a wide range of higher education matters. 

A decade has passed since the inception of these formal educa- 
tion programs. During this exciting formative period some 950 
students have been appointed to study in the Institution's research 
centers. Many more have been supported for short-term research 
and seminar participation. The impact of these students upon the 
intellectual life here is evidenced by the continuing professional 
relationships which have developed. Undergraduate and graduate 
students have frequently returned to the Institution both formally 

History and Art I 219 

and informally. Many predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows have 
established a close collaborative relationship with their Smithsonian 
colleagues, often co-authoring papers with them and spending 
extended periods of research at the Smithsonian. These on-going 
collaborative efforts have assisted in the continuing expansion of 
the Institution's international network of scientific and scholarly 

Office of American Studies 

The American Studies Program continued its association with The 
George Washington University, the University of Maryland, and 
other institutions in the Washington area. Twenty-five graduate 
students participated in the fall seminar in "Material Aspects of 
American Civilization," taught by the Director with the assistance 
of Arthur Townsend, Executive Secretary of the Maryland Histor- 
ical Trust, and Smithsonian staff members. 

In the spring semester, twelve graduate students enrolled in the 
seminar in "Vernacular Architecture of Colonial America" taught 
by Smithsonian Research Associate Cary Carson, Coordinator of 
Research and Architectural Historian of the St. Mary's City Com- 
mission; nine students enrolled in the seminar in "Early American 
Decorative Arts" taught by Research Associate Patrick Butler; 
seven students enrolled in "Studies in American Art and History" 
taught by Lillian B. Miller, Smithsonian Historian and Editor of the 
Charles Willson Peale Papers; and five students enrolled in "The 
Art and Architecture of Washington, D. C, 1791-1929" taught by 
Michael Richman of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. 

As in past years, a Work-Study Program in Historical Archeol- 
ogy, offered by the St. Mary's City Commission in cooperation 
with the American Studies Program of the Smithsonian Institution, 
The George Washington University, and St. Mary's College of 
Maryland, was held from June 16 to August 22, 1975. In addition 
to these formal seminars, supervision of individual reading and 
research projects, thesis direction, and preparation of comprehen- 
sive examinations were undertaken by the Director and cooperating 
Smithsonian staff members. 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Students in Dr. Cary Carson's American Studies Program class, "Material 
Aspects of American Civilization: Vernacular Architecture," taking measured 
drawings of the Smithsonian Institution's Belmont House during weekend 
field trip, March 21-23, 1975. 

The Director spent the month of February as Regents' Lecturer 
at the University of California, Riverside. While in California, he 
presented a paper on "The Clash of Morality in the American 
Forest" at a conference on "The First Images of America: The 
Impact of the New World" at the 21st Annual Meeting of the 
Renaissance Society of America which was held at the University 
of California, Los Angeles. 

History and Art I 221 

The bronze portrait statue of Secretary Joseph Henry as it appeared about 1885, shortly 
after it was erected in front of the west wing of the Smithsonian "Castle" in the Insti- 
tution's park. The Conservation-Analytical Laboratory is concerned with the problems 
of combatting the deterioration of such statues. 

Smithsonian Year • 1975 


It HAS BEEN A TEMPTING CLICHE in the last few years to refer to the 
changing roles of museums and to suggest, by inference, that 
somehow museums in the past, if they had not betrayed their con- 
temporary pubhc, at least had been woefully deficient in providing 
a meaningful service to society. True, since World War II, museums 
have gone through a period of tremendous growth. Their numbers 
have proliferated, their audiences have doubled, redoubled, and 
doubled again, and they have been called upon to provide new and 
different services to the general public. They have become increas- 
ingly aware of the key and unique role they can and indeed do 
have within the educational fabric of society. Through increasingly 
flexible programs they have been able to reach segments of our 
population for whose forefathers museums were often unapproach- 
able monuments. Increasingly, they have become vehicles in which 
the self-motivated can explore new horizons, and refresh dim 
memories of early school days. They now provide building blocks 
for an understanding of new relationships between ideas, things, 
phenomena, and facts. In the most meaningful sense, museums 
have become the ideal vehicles for continuing education. They 
create a milieu in which, with no other compulsion than curiosity 
and delight, new meanings can be found for the commonplace 
and where a constantly shifting society can somehow graft itself 
to a historic continuum which bridges the centuries and spans 

Hence we can commend ourselves for the progress that museums 
have made and the acceptance they are receiving from society, but 


as we do so it is easy to overlook that unless museums continue to 
be museums in the most traditional sense of the word their ability 
to provide these other services will atrophy. 

What then is a museum? In essence it is an institution which 
collects and studies the tangible remains of the past, presents and 
interprets them for the information and delectation of the present, 
and conserves and transmits them for the future. If this definition 
is accepted, it follows that the museum is above all an institution 
concerned with the past whose primary relevance to the present is 
that it makes the past come to life in such a way that the present 
will leave a richer legacy for the future. 

The capacity of the museum to transmit this legacy is predicated 
on a variety of factors: (1) the manner in which it cares for its 
collections; (2) the system it develops for their registration, for 
assembling and cross-referencing the information that is either 
contained in the objects or which has been accumulated about 
them; (3) the care with which it houses them, researches their 
material nature and develops the necessary conservation measures 
designed to mitigate the unavoidable effects of time; (4) the re- 
search and interpretive materials that bolster these investigative 
processes, i.e., libraries and archives; and (5) the steps it takes to 
present the collections in the most successful way so as to educate 
the largest public to the importance of a past, which enriches the 
present for the benefit of the future. 

It is to these more traditional, but indispensable, aspects of 
museum management that the Office of Museum Programs is 

In virtually all areas the task is monumental. The Smithsonian 
has huge collections, virtually all of which are important not only 
because they are good but because they are large — their variety 
enables the scholar, in many cases, to study the varients and char- 
acteristics which are key elements in developing scientific classifi- 
cations, and in understanding stylistic evolutions. The larger the 
collections, the greater are the problems of conservation, classi- 
fication, retrieval, study, and storage and the larger the task for 
those units that provide the tactical or logistic support. 

Yet in their areas of prime concern. Office of Museum Program 
units, in spite of budgetary leanness, have made progress. Fiscal 
year 1975 was marked by improved cataloguing, ordering, and 

224 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

retrieval procedures in the Libraries. This has resulted in shrinking 
a backlog accumulation of several years' duration. A program was 
developed to care more efficiently for rare books and plans were 
made to house the scholarly rich and visually spectacular Dibner 

The Smithsonian Archives have developed plans to attain and 
maintain intellectual control over the tremendous outpouring of 
documents which must be retained for historical purposes. Oral 
history has become part of the data-gathering arsenal and im- 
portant personal insights have been gained by interviews of senior 
Smithsonian personnel. 

The Conservation-Analytical Laboratory, still facing thousands 
of man-years of work, has been given additional, if still inadequate, 
space, and has recruited actively additional conservators from the 
very few that come into the profession annually. The foundations 
are laid for smoother and more speedy output in 1976. 

The Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service virtually doubled 
in size and is readying about fifty new exhibitions a year in addition 
to coordinating an important series of exhibitions being lent to the 
United States under the "International Salute to the States" pro- 
gram, funded by the American Revolution Bicentennial Admin- 
istration. By 1976 over two hundred exhibitions of all kinds will 
be in circulation to museums and other organizations throughout 
the Nation and it is expected that the number and quality will con- 
tinue to grow as demands and needs from all parts of the country 
show no sign of abating. 

The Office of Exhibits Central, after a time-consuming re- 
organization, was consolidated in new facilities, without substantial 
loss of productivity, and from its specialized facilities made major 
contributions to the exhibit efforts of nmht, nmnh, sites, and 
nearly all bureaus. The Motion Picture Unit again received awards 
for the excellence of its productions. 

The Office of Museum Programs strengthened its coordinating 
and training capabilities by adding a highly experienced member to 
its staff. Mrs. Jane Glaser, former Director of the Charleston (West 
Virginia) Children's Museum, was named Manager of Training 
Activities. Under her direction the workshops on museum manage- 
ment will be expanded, and special training programs will be de- 
veloped, with emphasis on the special needs of the Indian com- 

Museum Programs I 225 

munity. This office will also serve as the focus for rendering 
assistance to museum professionals who seek guidance and/ or 
training from the Institution. The long announced series of slide- 
tape lectures on conservation practice were put successfully into 
circulation and the finishing touches completed on over one-half 
of the series of video-taped lectures on the chemistry of conserva- 
tion by Dr. Robert Organ, Chief of the Conservation-Analytical 

A study on visitor orientation at nmht, conducted by Dr. Gary H. 
Winkel, of the City University of New York, with staff assistance, 
was completed, and the first part of an analysis of The National 
Museum of Natural History as a Behavioral Environment by staff 
member Robert Lakota was readied. 

The renovation of the Arts and Industries Building entered in its 
decisive phase during the year. An extensive air-conditioning plant 
was installed and work started on restoring the main halls to the 
colorful, uncluttered appearance they had when the building opened 
in 1871. Simultaneously the nmht staff completed the design of the 
special exhibition commemorating the Philadelphia Centennial Ex- 
position of 1876, and which is expected to open in the Arts and 
Industries Building on May 10, 1976. Both the building and the 
exhibition will give visitors a unique opportunity to gain an insight 
into the boundless energy and happy exuberance which char- 
acterized the Centennial and the following decades. 

The well-known architect, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, was retained 
as consultant for the aesthetic aspects of the renovation. 

The National Museum Act administrative staff was reorganized 
and new procedures developed to better serve a growing number of 
applicants and grantees. The strengthened program in conservation, 
research, and training was well received. As in years past, the num- 
ber of applications found worthy of funding was considerably 
larger than the funds available. The increasingly large numbers of 
reports and research papers produced by grantees were examined 
and, wherever this seems of use to the museum community, the 
results will be issued in summary form. New and more explicit 
guidelines were prepared to announce the 1976 grant programs. 

From an administrative standpoint, a major and felicitous event 
occurred in the Office of Museum Programs when Mr. William N. 
Richards became Executive Assistant to the Assistant Secretary. 

226 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Mr. Richard's long experience in museum and governmental matters 
as Director of the Bureau of Museums for the State of Pennsyl- 
vania has, in the short time he has been with this office, already 
proved invaluable, and his guidance has been especially helpful in 
developing the revised procedures for the National Museum Act. 
In the management of the activities reported on above and in 
others, the Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs participated 
actively. In addition, he served as the Institution's designee on the 
Advisory Council for Historic Preservation, as Vice President of 
the American Association of Museums, Vice President of the Inter- 
national Council on Museums, and Vice President of the Interna- 
tional Centre for Conservation in Rome and United States Delegate 
to its General Assembly. 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

The activities of the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory (cal) sup- 
port conservation and research in many areas of the Smithsonian. 
An average of thirty Divisions in any one year call on cal for 
conservation and analytical services. This year these services have 
been severely hampered by construction work in the Laboratory 
and by delays in refining new computerized methods for more 
expeditious usage. 

A joint project with the Brookhaven National Laboratory has re- 
solved a long-standing analytical difficulty in radiocarbon dating 
from small samples. 

Equipment for thermoluminescence dating of ceramics has been 
acquired and a scientist is being sought to operate it. 

A large variety of projects were carried out. A few examples 
follow. For the National Museum of Natural History: A string 
of eleventh-century a.d. marbled beads, said to be from Mauritania, 
was found to be made of pyroxene mineral when examined by 
x-ray diffraction and other techniques. 

For the National Museum of History and Technology: Mortar 
from a brick cookstove of the privateer brigantine Defense, a war- 
ship of the period 1776, was analyzed by microscopy and infrared 
spectroscopy to determine its composition for comparison with 
mortars found in other comparable ships. 

Museum Programs I 227 

The Arts and Industries Building . 

Careful restoration is returning the interior of the Arts and Industries Building 
to its original 1881 appearance, preparatory to the recreation of the Phila- 
delphia Centennial as a Smithsonian exhibition celebrating the Bicentennial of 
our Nation's birth. 

A major phase of the restoration work in the Arts and Industries Building is 
completed as plans go forward for the Bicentennial exhibition, "1876: A Cen- 
tennial Exhibition," which will be shown there. 

Analytical studies of pottery from Spanish Colonial sites and of 
medieval glass by neutron activation methods, evaluated by multi- 
variate statistical analysis, are still in progress. 

Activities in conservation have been numerous. Methods for the 
cleaning and consolidation of the ceremonial mace of the House 
of Representatives were recommended, and a considerable contribu- 
tion was made toward the cleaning, polishing, and preparation of 
over thirty bronze and marble sculptures for the opening of the 
Hirshhorn Museum. 

An imitation bronze plaster cast sculpture, donated in 1919 by 
the Yugoslav artist Branko Oeskovic (1883-1939) to President 
Woodrow Wilson, has been restored for the National Collection 
of Fine Arts. As a good-will gesture, it is soon to be given by the 
United States Government to the town in Yugoslavia where the 
artist lived. 

In collaboration with the Conservation Coordinators of the 
National Museum of History and Technology and others, work is 
continuing on innumerable objects — documents and furniture — for 
their several Bicentennial exhibits. 

National Museum Act Program 

The National Museum Act, a specially funded grant program 
administered by the Smithsonian Institution, is intended to provide 
assistance to museums and their professional organizations, and 
to colleges, universities, and institutions of higher learning who 
wish to develop curricula in museum management or offer oppor- 
tunities for professional enhancement. The Act also funds research 
in museum management, conservation, exhibitions, and teaching 
techniques which can enable museums to render more effective 
service to the public and better protect that part of the national 
heritage which is in their care. 

Authorized in 1966, the Act was first funded in 1972. In 1975 
it was reauthorized for another three years. Grant applications 
from individuals or organizations are reviewed by an Advisory 
Council consisting of museum professionals from various parts 

230 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

of the country and representing different aspects of the museum 
field: art, science, history, education, conservation, and exhibition. 

Council members in 1975 were: 

William T. Alderson, Director, 

American Association for State and Local History 
Joseph M. Chamberlain, President, American Association 

of Museums, and Director, The Adier Planetarium 
W. D. Frankforter, Director, Grand Rapids Public Museum 
Lloyd Hezekiah, Director, Brooklyn Children's Museum 
Philip S. Humphrey, Director, 

Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 
Lawrence J. Majewski, Chairman, Conservation Center, 

Institute of Fine Arts, New York University 
Taizo Miake, Director of Programs, Ontario Science Center 
Arminta Neal, Curator of Graphic Design, 

Denver Museum of Natural History 
Bonnie Louise Pitman, Curator of Education, 

New Orleans Museum of Art 
Barnes Riznik, Vice President for Museum Administration, 

Old Sturbridge Village 
Mitchell Wilder, Director, Amon Carter Museum of Western Art 
Paul N. Perrot, Chairman, National Museum Act, 

Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, Smithsonian Institution 

In 1975 available funding amounted to $802,000. A total of 149 
applications were received, and the Advisory Council recommended 
funding for 56. They are divided as follows: 

The Travel/Exchange Program, intended to assist younger 
museum professionals to broaden their knowledge of the museum 
field by visiting other institutions and studying their methods: 16. 

Stipend Support for Graduate/Professional Training and Fellow- 
ships: 7. 

Seminar/Workshop Training Program organized by professional 
museums or history-related organizations in various communities 
across the Nation: 15. These will be attended by approximately 
1210 persons. 

Special Studies and Research Program: 7. 

Professional Assistance Program, which includes consultation 
services and technical training, especially in conservation: 10. 

Museum Programs I 231 

In the second half of fiscal year 1975 the administrative structure 
of the National Museum Act was reorganized and most operating 
procedures were refined. This will result in more expeditious 
handling of grant applications. New programs will be announced 
in the Guidelines for fiscal year 1976, which will be distributed in 
September 1975. 

Office of Exhibits Central 

More varied and more complete participation in the exhibition and 
exhibit-related programs of its clients, more international awards 
for its motion-picture productions, and the relocation and consoli- 
dation of most of its shops highlighted fiscal year 1975 for the 
Office of Exhibits Central (oec). Shops formerly located at the 
24th Street facility and in the Natural History building are now 
in full operation at the new Smithsonian Institution Service Center 
at 1111 North Capitol Street. The move, efficiently planned and 
executed in coordination with other Smithsonian staff, promises 
greatly improved working conditions and increased productivity. 
Early in fiscal year 1976 certain design staff will relocate from the 
Arts and Industries building to the Service Center. The consolida- 
tion of the Design and Production staffs will improve the super- 
vision of personnel and the coordination of work in progress; the 
consolidation of shop spaces, equipment, supplies, etc., will allow 
more efficient and economical management. 

The Exhibits Motion Picture Unit of the oec was awarded a Gold 
Plaque at the Chicago International Film Festival for its original 
three-screen motion picture, "Survival Depends on Man's Use of 
the Earth," produced for the National Museum of Natural History. 
A 30-second television "spot," developed by Karen Loveland, 
Director of the Unit, for the Smithsonian Resident Associates re- 
ceived a CLIO award. The work of oec's inhouse film unit has now 
been recognized by thirteen awards for a variety of museum- 
oriented film presentations. 

The Editor's Office of the oec received an award from the 
National Museum of History and Technology for its efforts on the 
exhibition "We the People." This office had a most active year 

232 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Bicentennial exhibition, "In the Minds and Hearts," being crated for travel in 
the United States. The original exhibition, at the National Portrait Gallery, was 
translated into a traveling version by the Office of Exhibits Central Editorial 
and Design Staff; then six copies were produced in oec shops. The exhibit is 
being circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
The photo appeared in a special article on the bicentennial in U.S. News and 
World Report and is reproduced here through its courtesy. 

working on traveling exhibitions and the special exhibits associated 
with the Festival of American Folklife. oec designers, Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service exhibit coordinators, and 
cognizant curatorial staff cooperated on translating two exhibits 
presented in Smithsonian galleries into traveling exhibitions to be 
reproduced in multiple copies. These were "In the Minds and 
Hearts," a Bicentennial presentation of the National Portrait 
Gallery, and "News Reporting," a permanent exhibit at the 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

Museum Programs I 233 

The Museum Lighting Unit, in addition to working on new in- 
stallations and maintenance, participated in energy conservation 
planning. Recommendations which included important modifica- 
tions in architectural and exhibition lighting have resulted in con- 
siderable energy savings and, in some instances, in improved 
lighting effects. 

Planning and preliminary production work for the Bicentennial 
programs of several Smithsonian museums and offices were carried 
out and this work will continue through fiscal year 1976. In 1975 
the OEC participated in 106 projects small and large, long range 
and short. Programs completed in fiscal year 1975 in which the oec 
contributed heavily included "In the Minds and Hearts" (npg/ 
sites), "News Reporting" (nmht/sites), "We the People" (nmht), 
"Ice-Age Mammals and the Emergence of Man" (nmnh), "Blacks 
and the Westward Movement" (anm/sites), "Zoo/100" (nzp/ 
sites), "Pandas" (nzp), "Bicycles" (sites), and signs and learning 
centers for the Festival of American Folklife. dec staff have also 
participated in a successful series of workshops run by the Office 
of Museum Programs and consulted with and for several govern- 
ment and private museums and exhibiting organizations. 

Office of Museum Programs 

The Office of Museum Programs is primarily responsible for 
coordinating a variety of activities relating to training in museum 
management, disseminating information on conservation principles 
and practices, and developing methods to assess the effectiveness 
of the museum as a learning environment. To achieve these aims, 
three distinct departments have been formed. 

The Museum Workshop Series takes advantage of the unique 
human resources of the various museums and research depart- 
ments of the Institution. The training office coordinates lectures, 
seminars, and workshops on various aspects of museum manage- 
ment. This program, which has been in existence for a number of 
years, has been reorganized in the past few months and will be 
presenting more frequent and a larger choice of offerings. Under 
the direction of Mrs. Jane R. Glaser, former Director of the 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Children's Museum in Charleston, West Virginia, new subjects 
will be introduced, and a special program will be developed to 
meet the needs of special constituencies, and particularly to offer 
training opportunities for the personnel of the various museums 
and cultural centers which are now under development in Indian 

This training department will also coordinate programs specially 
tailored to the individual needs of foreign museum personnel who 
wish to acquaint themselves with the methods in use at the Smith- 
sonian Institution and at other museums in the United States. 

The Conservation Information Program prepares, in cooperation 
with the Smithsonian Institution Conservation-Analytical Labora- 
tory, and with the assistance of other museum laboratories and 
research organizations when required, video tapes and slide pro- 
grams intended to demonstrate the basic principles of chemistry 
that apply to conservation and up-to-date methods in the handling 
of artifacts. Seventeen slide presentations, accompanied by taped 
narrations, have been announced, and others are in various stages 
of completion. These slide/tape presentations are available free-of- 
charge to museums, historical societies, training and research 
organizations throughout the United States and abroad. Editing 
has been completed on a series of eighty video-taped lectures, a 
half-hour to an hour in duration, presented by Dr. Robert M. 
Organ, Chief of the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory. Copies of 
these will be available in cassettes or reel-to-reel form. They 
present a unique panorama of the basic principles of chemistry 
and of conservation practice. The first twenty are now being 
distributed, and it is expected that the entire series will be available 
by the fall of 1975. 

A constant riddle to museum directors and their senior staffs 
has been the evaluation of exhibits and their effectiveness with the 
visiting public. The fact that museums are key elements in the 
learning apparatus of an enlightened citizenry is no longer ques- 
tioned, but there is still much uncertainty concerning the quantifi- 
cation of their effectiveness. Museums are experimenting with a 
wide variety of new exhibition techniques. These often combine 
sound, moving images, push buttons, and various other devices 
intended to attract the attention of the visitor and, in many cases, 
physically engage him^ in an interactive mode. How these new 

Museum Programs I 235 

-a^ /?, /97l 

The story told by the letters on this and the facing page is indicative of a 
growing nationwide interest in and support of the Smithsonian. The concern 
and generosity of these children at Onate Elementary School, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, gives encouragement to the Institution as it attempts to carry 
out its many programs. 

techniques add to the learning quotient, and which are most effec- 
tive in transmitting information, is still a matter of considerable 

In an attempt to provide museum administrators with more 
precise information upon which to base their decisions, the Office 
of Museum Programs has embarked on a multi-year psychological 
study of "The Museum as a Learning Environment." A small 
resident staff of professionals and para-professionals has been 
supplemented by expert consultants who have cooperated in 
developing new testing methods. Professor Chandler Screven, of 
the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, completed a study on 
the effectiveness of various audio devices in enriching the contents 
of what was an entirely visual presentation. The results of his 

236 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

r-, ^ ^ 


experiments with "The Glass of Frederick Carder" exhibition at 
the Renwick Gallery are soon to be published in a professional 
journal. His major monograph. The Measurement and Facilitation 
of Learning in the Museum Environment: An Experimental 
Analysis, announced in 1974, will be printed and available for dis- 
tribution in early October 1975. 

Dr. Gary H. Winkel, Associate Professor, Environmental Psy- 
chology Program, City University of New York, was retained as a 
special consultant to study the visitor flow and orientation patterns 
at the National Museum of History and Technology. His study, 
completed in June 1975, will be carefully analyzed prior to the 
introduction of new orientation devices at the National Museum 
of History and Technology. Other studies conducted in the last 
few months are attempting to gauge the effectiveness of nonuni- 
formed attendants in providing information and security in an art 
museum environment. Studies of Visitor Behavior in Museums and 
Exhibitions: An Annotated Bibliography of Sources Primarily in 
the English Language, by Dr. Ross J. Loomis, of the University of 
Colorado, and Miss Pamala Elliott, was also completed. 

Office of the Registrar 

Registration is an important aspect of the overall care and docu- 
mentation of the national collections. Each museum within the 
Smithsonian complex has, or is developing, its own registration capa- 
bility, responsive to the peculiar needs of that bureau. The Central 
Registrar and the Council of Registrars provide coordination of 
registration activities. The Council also provides a forum for pro- 
fessional discussion. 

During 1975, the Office of the Registrar focused its attention on 
the information management aspect of collections management on 
the Institutional level. Special attention was given to problems of 
development of Institution-wide information systems for access to 
the national collections. As each museum develops its registration 
and cataloguing information system, an Institutional system must 
emerge which provides information on related specimens wherever 
they may exist within the Smithsonian. Development of off-Mall 

238 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


buildings for care of specimens emphasizes the requirements for 
coordinated registration systems. Beyond this lies the potential for 
intermuseum computer networks. 

A major information management effort by the Registrar's Office 
began in the summer of 1975. A study of existing information 
systems, computerized and manual, was undertaken as a pilot 
project to test application of information science techniques to 
the Smithsonian on an Institutional level. A report resulting from 
this study will be submitted to the Assistant Secretary for 
Museum Programs during fiscal year 1976. 

Meanwhile, the Office of the Registrar continued its traditional 
function of registrar for the National Museum of History and 
Technology and the National Museum of Natural History. More 
than 2400 accession and 4500 transactions, involving the movement 
of about 550,000 specimens or objects, were processed during fiscal 
year 1975. The Shipping Office dispatched and received shipments 
for NMNH and nmht and for several other bureaus as well. 

The Council of Registrars met regularly during fiscal year 
1975. Major topics included: insurance, packing, security during 
exhibits, intra-Smithsonian movement of objects, cataloguing pro- 
cedures throughout the Smithsonian, decentralization of the 
Central Registrar's Office, computerization of registration processes 
in several Smithsonian bureaus, development of forms, and Silver 
Hill and other storage facilities. 

The Council also reevaluated its own functions and objectives, 
with the result that its members now have a better sense of the 
common goals to be pursued to improve registration at the 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

During fiscal year 1975 the Smithsonian Archives continued its 
effort to gain intellectual control of archives spread throughout 
the Institution. Work on the archives of natural history continued 
as did work with records of the National Museum of History and 
Technology. The computer index, which gives name and subject 
access to all processed collections in the Archives and to some 

Museum Programs I 239 

materials that have remained in the National Museum of Natural 
History, was completed. 

A major effort was made to establish archival programs for the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts. Two archivists spent a week at the Astrophysical 
Observatory in December surveying records, and a large accession 
from that bureau resulted. In addition, researchers from the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration are finding old 
Astrophysical Observatory data, housed in the Archives, valuable 
for their current atmospheric research. Records of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts are being processed and serviced by 
Archives staff, but are remaining in the custody of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts. 

The Archives' Oral History program was continued through a 
series of interviews with distinguished curators on the staff of the 
National Museum of Natural History. During fiscal year 1975 the 
program concentrated on documenting the history of the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Arrangement and microfilming of the accession records 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Nineteen hundred and seventy-five was notable because of the sig- 
nificant increase in the Libraries' staff. Priority in new personnel 
assignments was placed upon on-site service to users. New posi- 
tions were added to the bureau libraries in the National Air and 
Space Museum, the National Museum of History and Technology, 
and to the teams that serve the National Museum of Natural 
History, the Radiation Biology Laboratory, and the National 
Zoological Park. The key positions of bureau librarians for the 
National Museum of Natural History and the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum were established, and the Libraries assumed responsi- 
bility for funding the personnel assigned to the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute library. The creation of the rare book 
cataloguing and the hand binding positions testify to the im- 
portance of collection preservation and management as a vital 
library service. 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

This increase in staff size, and the concomitant growth of service 
responsibilities and funding for collection development heightened 
the need to attend to management issues. Implementation of the 
recommendations of the Management Review and Analysis Pro- 
gram (mrap), begun in the preceding year, continued, under the 
watchful eye of an Implementation Assessment Group composed 
of Libraries' staff members. Special studies were conducted of the 
Libraries Technical Services operation, and a survey of users' 
services was begun. The Libraries' experiences continued to be 
shared with several other major research libraries undergoing the 
MRAP process, chiefly through seminars and lectures given by 
Dr. Elaine Sloan, chairperson of the team that conducted the 
Smithsonian's study. The Libraries also conducted a one-day work- 
shop in cooperation with the Consortium of Universities in 
Washington and the Association of Research Libraries Office of 
Management Studies on the issues and problems of implementation 
of management change. In addition, the Director was appointed to 
the Management Commission of the Association of Research 
Libraries under whose aegis mrap was developed. As part of the 
implementation process, the Administrative Conference of the 
Libraries, composed of the managers of library units and Libraries' 
administrative staff, met at regular intervals to exchange informa- 
tion and to discuss management and operational concerns. A 
program was established to document policies and procedures for 
library management. 

For the first time the Libraries were funded sufficiently well to 
establish a base for a continuing budget for the acquisition of 
library materials, although the gains were somewhat muted by the 
severe inflation of book prices. The most significant event in 
collection development, however, was the acquisition by gift of 
the major titles in the Burndy Library devoted to the history of 
science and technology. The collections in this noted research 
library have been gathered by Dr. Bern Dibner, a manufacturer of 
electrical products in Norwalk, Connecticut. The Dibner collection 
matches precisely the programs of research in the National 
Museum of History and Technology and will be housed in that 
bureau. Mr. William Leugoud was recruited from the staff of the 
Rare Books Department of the Library of Congress to be the 
librarian of the collection. The Libraries received other important 

Museum Programs I 241 

gifts from Smithsonian staff members and other friends, many of 
which are hsted in Appendix 13. 

The experiment in cooperative cataloguing with other federal 
libraries, spearheaded by the Smithsonian Institution last year, was 
extended for a second year. Approximately 65 percent of the titles 
catalogued for the Libraries were processed through this system, 
which is based on computer facilities and machine-readable biblio- 
graphic records at the Ohio College Library Center (oclc) in 
Columbus. By year's end twenty-eight federal libraries with thirty- 
six computer terminals were joined in the network. An evaluation 
of the experiment, conducted for the Federal Library Committee, 
clearly indicates that the oclc system does decrease the rate of 
rise of the cost of processing library materials, and that preorder 
searching for bibliographic information and the location of titles 
for interlibrary loan are important byproducts of the system. A 
small group of federal libraries, including the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, has begun to examine additional products that might be 
obtained through cooperation in automation. 

The Libraries' contribution to the library profession included in- 
volvement of the staff in local, national, and international activities. 
Catherine Scott continued her service as a member of the National 
Commission on Libraries and Information Science. The Commis- 
sion's program statement for national library information service 
was completed during the year. The Director represented the 
Smithsonian Institution as an observer at the unesco Conference 
on national planning of library, archive, and documentation serv- 
ice in Paris. The Smithsonian Institution held a reception for the 
nearly 1000 delegates of the International Federation of Library 
Associations at its first United States meeting. The National Copy- 
right Conference, convened by the Register of Copyrights and the 
Chairman of the National Commission on Libraries and Informa- 
tion Science, met twice at the Smithsonian Institution as pub- 
lishers and librarians attempted to resolve issues raised by the 
proposed copyright law revision. The Director was elected to the 
Board of Directors of the Association of Research Libraries and the 
Executive Board of the American Library Association, and assumed 
the office of President of the United States Book Exchange of which 
the Institution is a sponsoring member. Dr. Elaine Sloan served 
as a consultant to the American Library Association's Collection 

242 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Development Committee and as a member of a joint American 
Library Association/Association of American Publishers Task 
Force on the Selection of Library Materials. William Walker be- 
came National Chairman of the Art Library Society of North 
America and served as program chairman for the Society's annual 
conference in Washington, D. C. Jack Goodwin was Chairman- 
Elect of the Museum, Arts and Humanities Division of the Special 
Libraries Association, and editor of the Division's Bulletin. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Major expansion characterized the twenty-third year of the 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service's (sites) program. New 
services were made possible by Bicentennial funds awarded by 
Congress and by the American Revolution Bicentennial Adminis- 
tration. These funds, together with income from rental fees, grants, 
and contracts, have : 

1. Developed a department for the coordination of Bicentennial 
Exhibitions drawn from the Smithsonian and other United States 

2. Initiated an "International Salute to the States" program of 
exceptional exhibitions loaned by other nations to honor our 200th 
birthday as a republic. 

These two additions have greatly enriched sites' diverse offerings 
of science, history, and art exhibitions; doubled the number of its 
staff; and greatly increased sites' ability to serve an ever-growing 

The planning of a program to interpret sites' exhibitions was 
completed this year. Two full-time, and two part-time program 
coordinators, and three interns are now assisting exhibitors of 
sites shows in making the viewing experience more meaningful to 
their visitors. The programs take many forms and vary from small 
give-away brochures, to grant-assisted lecturers. These efforts 
have helped in keeping sites focused on the needs of their 

A new format was developed to improve the usefulness of the 
reports received in Washington from exhibitors. The comments on 

Museum Programs I 243 

"Ride On!" The bicycle exhibit was viewed for the first time at the First Na- 
tional City Bank of New York, December 16, 1974, to January 12, 1975. "Ride 
On!" was made possible by a grant to sites from the Charles E. Merrill Trust. 

exhibition quality and the summaries of interpretive programs 
undertaken by borrowers, as well as their audience-building efforts, 
provide a base for determining future directions for sites 

Fiscal and administrative systems were improved, sites' registrar 
was joined by an assistant to cope with ever-enlarging responsi- 
bilities. An audit by the Smithsonian's Office of Audits produced a 
more consistent method for determining exhibition rental fees. 

Staff travel to important museum meetings and in the develop- 
ment of shows continued. A workshop on the circulation of exhibi- 
tions was sponsored by sites at the annual meeting of the American 

244 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Dr Henry E Wenden lectures on coverlets at the University of Cincinnati 
in December. "American Coverlets" is the prototype for sites' information 
core shows— shows that are expressly designed for the addition of local arti- 
facts. SITES will produce no less than fifty exhibitions for the Bicentennial, 
several in multiple copies. 

Association of State and Local History, sites' representatives at 
several regional meetings and at the national meeting of the 
American Association of Museums gained important insights of 
the concerns of museums and galleries. Staff members traveled to 
Yugoslavia, Italy, Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, 
Great Britain, Egypt, Cyprus, and Austraha to work on the devel- 
opment of new shows originating in those countries. Most foreign 
trips were taken to implement the "International Salute to the 
States" program announced to Washington's diplomatic corps at 
a reception in the Smithsonian Building's Great Hall in October. 

Museum Programs I 245 

At year's end, six exhibitions in this program were committed for 
tours beginning in 1976. Twenty additional nations are participat- 
ing in negotiations that will most Ukely result in tours of other 
unique shows created for United States audiences. 

sites' plan to place fifty exhibitions relating to the Bicentennial 
(many in several copies) on tour made great progress. It appears 
that this number will be exceeded. 

There are two types of Bicentennial exhibition: (1) those that 
contain original objects and (2) panel shows. Exhibitions with 
original objects are made up and borrowed for tour from the 
Smithsonian, other United States lenders, and from collections in 
other countries. Panel exhibitions are of two types: (1) those that 
stand alone — without the addition of artifacts (e.g., "Blacks in the 
Westward Movement," beginning its tour this year); and (2) the 
so-called "information core" exhibitions — shows that prompt ex- 
hibiting institutions to add objects from collections in their area, 
thus providing a conceptual framework which can be fleshed out 
from local resources. Information core exhibitions (e.g., "Suiting 
Everyone," beginning its tour this year) are a new dimension in the 
travel of shows. They save transportation costs and begin a new 
era of cooperation between the Smithsonian and museums through- 
out the United States. 

Year-End Totals 

Number of Bookings 498 

Number of States Served 45 

Estimated Audience 3,984,000 

Institutions Receiving Data on Show Availability 3,700 

Exhibitions (including copies) listed in last UPDATE 

(catalogue of sites exhibitions) 199 

Exhibitions Produced for Tour During the Year 53 

Exhibitions Refurbished for Extended Tour 4 

Exhibitions Beginning Tours in Fiscal Year 1975 

American Dolls 

Australia Goes Metric 

The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 

1770-1800 (6 copies) 
Blacks in the Westward Movement (5 copies) 
Contemporary Textile Art from Austria 

246 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Delacroix and the French Romantic Print 

Edwin Janss, Jr., Underwater Photography 

Egyptian Tapestries from the Workshop of Ramses Wissa Wassef, 

an Experiment in Creativity 
Folk Baroque in Mexico: Mestizo Architecture Through the Centuries 
Graphics by Rolf Nesch 
In the Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue to the 

American Revolution, 1760-1774 (6 copies) 
Jack Tar: Profiles of American Merchant Seafarers, 1794-1803 (3 copies) 
Lion Rugs from Fars 

The Magnificent West: American Heritage (2 copies) 
Manuscripts of the American Revolution (5 copies) 
New Zealand: A Nation's History in Stamps 
Population : The Problem Is Us (4 copies) 
The Poster in Puerto Rico 
Revival ! 

Ride On! The Bicycle Exhibit (original version with artifacts) 
Ride On! The Bicycle Exhibit (3 copies) 
Stephen Parrish: 19th-century Picturesque 
Suiting Everyone (5 copies) 

Exhibitions Refurbished for Extended Tours 

Indian Images (2 copies) 
Story of a Goblet 
Victorian Needlework 

Museum Programs I 247 

Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn being interviewed by WTTG's Channel 5 newscaster Maury 
Povich (left) and Frank Getlein (right), art critic of the Washington Star. 

Smithsonian Year • 7^75 


Over the past year the activities of the Smithsonian's pubUc service 
bureaus reached out to an unprecedentedly numerous and far-flung 
audience. In terms of statistics, several of our programs were im- 
mensely successful. By the end of the year, however, the Assistant 
Secretary for Public Service and his staff were engaged in a careful 
reassessment of where these successes were leading us in terms of 
the Smithsonian mandate for the diffusion of knowledge, and to 
what extent the Public Service bureaus were equipped and organized 
to sustain such a level of activity. The experience gained from this 
first year of the popular Smithsonian Television Specials, profes- 
sionally produced and presented on prime time with the backing of 
a major sponsor, revealed to us clearly the extent to which "knowl- 
edge" must be diluted in favor of "entertainment" to make it ap- 
pealing to the millions of viewers whom sponsors and networks 
require to justify their major investments in time and money. The 
three programs presented fulfilled these requirements. The first 
Smithsonian Special drew the highest audience rating ever achieved 
by a television "documentary" — over 50 million viewers — and the 
second and third programs maintained gratifyingly high appeal by 
commercial television standards. 

Many Smithsonian curators and staff members, however, were 
disturbed over the content of the shows — feeling that they did little 
to inform or educate their audiences as to what the Smithsonian 
was really about. Similarly, it was found necessary during the year 
to make a thorough reappraisal of some of the highly popular 


Resident Associates' offerings, and to refocus the lecture programs, 
in particular, away from the purely popular and toward topics 
more directly relevant to Smithsonian collections and interests. 

In the same context, the Secretary has asked the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Public Service and the Director of the Division of Per- 
forming Arts to consider carefully the post-Bicentennial future of 
our very popular summer Folklife Festival on the Mall, which will 
reach a crescendo in popular appeal with the elaborate eight to 
twelve weeks of presentations during the summer of 1976. These 
folklife programs are carefully and academically researched and 
designed by the Division of Performing Arts staff to deliver a 
thoughtful, cultural message, but again there is legitimate concern 
that the majority of the people who attend them regard them 
primarily as free public entertainment, and perhaps absorb little 
of the "knowledge" they are planned to convey. 

The educational efforts of other public service bureaus have been 
more fruitful in a less sensational way. The central Office of Ele- 
mentary and Secondary Education has made great strides forward 
this year in bringing the educational value of Smithsonian exhibits 
and collections to the attention of teachers throughout the greater 
Washington area through well-attended workshops and a strong 
publication program. The Resident Associate Program has devel- 
oped an adult education effort which has become a model for 
universities and colleges in the area. Over 7778 participants were 
enrolled in Resident Associates' classes, workshops, and seminars 
during the year. The Smithsonian Visitor Information and Asso- 
ciates' Reception Center continues to improve our ability to pro- 
vide invaluable guidance to the millions of visitors to our museums 
and galleries, thanks to capable staff direction and the dedication 
of the 250 volunteers who participate in the program. 

Construction of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's Ex- 
hibits and Design Laboratory building was completed during the 
year and it will open in the fall of 1975. The Anacostia staff 
focused on equipping and staffing the Laboratory in order to pre- 
pare for the museum's exhibit needs in its Bicentennial program, 
which includes developing and conducting a Ford Foundation- 
sponsored design and exhibits training program for minority young 
people. The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum also scored a major 
popular success during the early months of 1975 with the exhibit 

250 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

entitled "Blacks in the Westward Movement." The success of this 
exhibit too gave pause for thought. Is it appropriate for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, as our national museum complex, to continue a 
museum operation, essentially focused on one local community, 
when public interest is so clearly responsive to far broader exami- 
nations of the national experience of American racial and ethnic 
minority groups? 

Continuing deficits on the trade book side of the Smithsonian's 
publishing efforts stimulated the Publications Review Board to 
recommend to the Secretary early in 1975 a careful survey of pub- 
lishing operations at the Smithsonian by a very reputable firm of 
management consultants. The consultants' report, in turn, gen- 
erated a major reappraisal of the Smithsonian's publishing effort, 
including a reorganization of the Smithsonian Institution Press, 
itself. A major decision taken by Secretary Ripley toward the end of 
fiscal year 1975 was to terminate, for the present, private-side pub- 
lishing, and to confine the work of the Press to publication of fed- 
erally funded series and nonseries manuscripts produced or directly 
sponsored by a Smithsonian museum or gallery. This policy will 
be adhered to pending appointment of a new Publications Director- 
Coordinator with substantially broadened responsibiUties. 

In sum, fiscal year 1975 has been a year of success and of experi- 
ment and appraisal in the public service area. We have walked in 
the bright glare of the popular spotlight, and learned the price 
for the applause of a huge, but not necessarily discriminating 
audience. In the coming year we must draw on this experience to 
determine what manner and what level of public appeal best fulfills 
the Smithsonian mandate for the diffusion of knowledge. 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum on September 15, 1975, will 
have completed eight years of service, education, and special pro- 
gramming for the Anacostia community. In that time span, this 
museum, which began as a "store-front" operation in the com- 
munity of Anacostia with particular emphasis on neighborhood in- 
volvement and on the history and culture of its immediate environs. 

Public Service I 251 

has grown into a nationally recognized center of black history and 
culture. Indeed, visitors have come from art communities in Africa 
and Europe to learn more about this unique center. 

Over thirty-five major exhibitions have been produced by the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum since its inception. The variety 
of these shows is typified by the five exhibits produced this past 

The first was an exhibition of over one hundred pieces of art in 
various media, including oil, watercolor, silk screen, etching, 
ceramics, stitchery, clay, and papier mache, by students in the 
elementary, junior, and senior high schools of the District of 
Columbia. For most of the participants, it was the first time their 
work had been displayed. The next exhibition, "The Message 
Makers," concerned the communication media — television, radio, 
newspaper, and film. It examined the decision-making process uti- 
lized by the media in determining the selection of a message and 
in its influence on the lives of people in general, and black people in 

The fifth annual exhibition of works by members of the D.C. Art 
Association was presented in November. These art exhibitions not 
only celebrate the creative efforts of members of the Washington 
community but also encourage young artists who view the exhibi- 
tion. With this in mind, the last exhibit this fiscal year was "East 
Bank Artists," a display of work by student, nonprofessional, and 
professional artists living east of the Anacostia River. Many of the 
sixty participating artists, representing a wide variety of talent and 
background, were exhibiting in a public museum for the first time. 

In celebration of this year's Black History Week, the Museum 
opened its first Bicentennial exhibition, "Blacks in the Westward 
Movement." This exhibition tells the story of the blacks who ex- 
plored, conquered, and settled the western portion of America, a 
story of interest to every citizen of the United States, but one that 
has long been neglected. Five copies of this rich and colorful ex- 
hibit are traveling throughout the United States under the auspices 
of the Smithsonian Institution TraveHng Exhibition Service. Three 
other Bicentennial exhibitions: "The Frederick Douglass Years," 
a traveling show only; "The Black Woman," to open at the Museum 
in January 1976; and "The Anacostia Story," to open at the 
Museum in July 1976, will also be traveling throughout the Nation 
under the auspices of sites. 

252 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

John Kinard, Director of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, gives a talk for visiting 
members of the international museum community. Below. Mr. Kinard greets visitors 
from Togo. Shown (from left) are Kikou Mathias Aithnard, Director of Culture and 
Scientific Research; William Adojyi, Cultural Attache, Togo Embassy; Agbenowossi 
Kodjo Koffi, Minister of Youth, Sports, Culture and Scientific Research. The Togolese 
officials were interested in the role of the Smithsonian in the cultural life of the United 
States and Washington, particularly in seeing how the neighborhood museum works 
with young people. 

Roy Blade, Director of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, and Peggy Cooper, founder 
of Workshops for Careers in the Arts-High School for the Arts, look over a 
work of art they are judging for the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's D.C. 
Art Association Exhibition 1974-1975. 

During fiscal year 1975 nearly 70,000 persons visited or were 
served by the Museum and its Mobile Unit. Most of these were 
either scheduled tour groups or participants in the education 
department's sponsored programs and activities, but many were 
scholars, museologists, and representatives of organizations such 
as the International Council of Museums, Congressional Wives, and 
Resident Associates. Highlights of these sponsored programs 
included the arrival of Santa Claus in Anacostia, witnessed by over 
3000 children, and the eighth annual Young People's Festival of 
the Arts, a program that included performances by local school 
groups as well as by the United States Navy Band-Port Authority, 
the Howard University Children's Theatre, the Dance Project, and 
Jones-Haywood School of Ballet. 

An exciting cultural achievement this year was the creation of 
the Anacostia Historical Society. With a membership of 140 con- 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

cerned citizens, the Society is interested in promoting community 
pride through the study and appreciation of Anacostia's history. 
In the coming year Anacostia Neighborhood Museum looks 
forward to producing its Bicentennial exhibitions in the new Ex- 
hibits Design and Production Laboratory to be opened in the fall 
of 1975. 

Division of Performing Arts 

Carrying out the Institution's role as cultural conservator, the 
Division of Performing Arts is responsible for planning, producing, 
and presenting performing arts events, with an emphasis on pro- 
grams that relate to and enhance the Institution's collections. 

The Division has achieved national outreach and international 
participation with several of its programs : the eighth annual Festival 
of American Folklife, the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz, 
and an extensive winter concert program. In addition, the Division 
of Performing Arts shares the American experience in its many 
creative forms with people across the Nation through touring per- 
formances of its concert series, and tours of ethnic performers 
from the Festival. 

The winter concerts, organized around nine different series, made 
a statement about musical diversity. Jazz, Chamber Music, Ameri- 
can Popular Song, and Women in Country Music were some of the 
themes. The cultural contributions of a number of leading Ameri- 
can artists were honored at Smithsonian presentations including 
Dizzy Gillespie, John Raitt, Jan DeGaetani, Margaret Whiting, 
Randy Weston, and Maybelle Carter. The Jazz Heritage concert 
series and free public workshops, offered for the third year under 
the direction of Martin Williams, continued at the Baird Audi- 
torium; a new Jazz Connoisseur series was added at the Hall of 
Musical Instruments. A new series of contemporary music inaugu- 
rated the auditorium of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden. "Man and His Culture," a new series at the Museum of 
Natural History, presented Malaysians, Sri Lankans, and Japanese 
in performances related to the anthropological collections. With 
the Division of Musical Instruments, a dozen events featured rarely 

Public Service I 255 





A Scandanavian broom dance in the Old Ways in the New World area was a featured 
presentation at the Festival of American Folklife. Below: Calf-herding techniques were 
also a lively part of the Mississippi presentation at the Festival. 

f 'ItmiiiZ 



performed music played on original instruments from one of the 
world's largest collections. More than 15,000 persons attended the 
more than fifty-five events offered. 

The Touring Performance Service during the 1974-1975 season 
sent fifty-four performances of folk music, puppets, and theater on 
tour to twenty-one cities in twelve states. The Smithsonian Resi- 
dent Puppet Theatre attracted 3000 people to the premiere of "The 
Book of Three" as well as 3000 to a new musical version of the 
classic Treasure Island. 

Enlivening the mall area, the Division continued to operate an 
old-time popcorn machine and an authentic carousel. 

Celebrating the cultural vitality of America's traditional culture, 
the Division presents the annual Festival of American Folklife. The 
1974 Festival brought 900 performers from Tunisia, Greece, Ni- 
geria, Trinidad, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, fifteen Indian tribes, 
nine unions and organizations representing "Workers in Com- 
munications," and the state of Mississippi. More than one million 
visitors attended the ten-day Festival, co-presented by the Na- 
tional Park Service. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (oese) is 
charged with giving assistance, upon request, to the education 
offices of the various Smithsonian museums and public service 

A primary responsibility of oese is to encourage cooperation 
and exchange of information among the Smithsonian education 
offices and between those offices and the District of Columbia area 
schools. Toward this end, a number of efforts are currently under- 
way. Two publications — a monthly newsletter. Let's Co, and an 
annual brochure, Learning Opportunities for Schools — inform 
teachers of Smithsonian programs and other activities of interest to 
young people and contain suggestions for using museums as edu- 
cational resources. The publications are sent free of charge to over 
1300 area schools. In addition, an annual "Teacher's Day" brings 
teachers and education staff members together for an informal 

Public Service I 257 

program of conversation and special activities. In 1975, more than 
seventy Washington-area educators took part in this event, which 
featured a preview of Smithsonian Bicentennial plans and a walking 
tour of the Mall. 

Teachers are reached also through an oese workshop and seminar 
program, now in its fourth year. During fiscal year 1975, a total of 
2200 teachers participated in seventy workshops and seminars, in- 
cluding a summer (1974) course enabling the development of cur- 
riculum units, based on Smithsonian resources, for use in the 
school classroom. Among the diverse projects in art, history, and 
science that resulted from the course was a unit on Colonial Life, 
developed by a fourth-grade teacher from Montgomery County 
Public Schools. Through visits to period rooms in the National 
Museum of History and Technology and a variety of home and 
classroom activities — such as washing and carding wool and 
making old-fashioned gingerbread and sassafrass tea — students 
taking part in the unit were able to discover at first hand some 
of the hardships and pleasures of colonial living. The culminating 
activity was a "Colonial Day" festival, for which the youngsters, 
dressed in period costumes, shared the results of their labors with 
their schoolmates. 

In fiscal 1976, an increasingly varied selection of teacher train- 
ing and orientation programs will be offered, including a special 
Bicentennial series, "Tuesdays at the Smithsonian," a seminar on 
museum teaching methods; and a three-week in-service course 
sponsored in cooperation with the Fairfax County Park Authority 
and the Fairfax County Public Schools. 

For the past five years, a learning-service experience for teenage 
volunteers has been provided through the oese "Summer Info Pro- 
gram." In 1974, twenty-seven Washington-area high school stu- 
dents, selected and trained by oese, conducted visitors through the 
National Air and Space Museum and the National Museum of His- 
tory and Technology. 

In June, July, and August 1975, a pilot program for summer 
interns, sponsored by oese, will carry the Info idea a step farther. 
Twenty-one promising high school seniors from rural and inner- 
city communities as far away as Maine and North Carolina will 
engage in learning-service projects in various parts of the Institu- 
tion under the guidance of curatorial and other professional staff 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

/• No 

Montgomery County tourth graders use old-fashioned implements to card and 
spin wool as part of a unit on "Colonial Life," developed by their teacher under 
the auspices of the oese teacher workshop program. 

members. A grant from the DeWitt Wallace /Reader's Digest Schol- 
arship Fund has made this effort possible. 

Other important oese services include: (1) a resource center, 
which loans to both paid and volunteer education workers through- 
out the Institution, printed and audiovisual materials relating to 
museum education and (2) a Docent Roundtable, established in 
1974. Through monthly meetings and other activities sponsored by 
the Docent Roundtable, the volunteer guides (docents) from the 
various Smithsonian museums are able to learn of the work of 
their colleagues and to discuss matters of common concern. 

In fiscal 1976, oese will further expand its services through a 
program of workshops and materials designed to meet the needs 
of a national teacher audience. As a first step in this direction, a 
booklet on the educational uses of museums is in progress. In addi- 
tion to offering advice on such mundane matters as lunchtime 
arrangements and scheduling buses, the publication will contain 
suggestions for ways of structuring museum visits to fit the school 
curriculum at various stages and grade levels. 

VuhVxc Service I 259 

Through workshops, pubHcations, and related activities, the 
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education will continue to 
serve the Smithsonian's education offices, while seeking to meet a 
growing commitment to foster the educational uses of museums in 
the Washington area and throughout the Nation. 

Office of Public Affairs 

The central mission and continuing priority of the Office of Public 
Affairs are to support and augment various Smithsonian programs 
concerned with the increase and diffusion of knowledge so that 
there will be a greater public understanding of the Institution's 
activities. Basically, the Office of Public Affairs' main functions are 
those of popular education and visitor orientation through the use 
of diverse media. News releases, radio and television productions, 
brochures, periodicals, filmstrips, and code-a-phones are among 
the techniques appropriately employed to reach the many audi- 
ences to which the Institution seeks to address itself. In addition, 
the staff devotes a considerable amount of its time and skills 
to employee communication in a daily effort to keep the Institution's 
curatorial and administrative leadership aware of media develop- 
ments, cultural criticism, museum innovations, and other societal 
trends that might affect Institutional planning. 

One satisfying and rewarding result deriving from the Office of 
Public Affairs' efforts is the apparent deeper etching of the 
Smithsonian's name in academic and museum communities around 
the world as a preeminent center of intellectual and cultural activi- 
ties. Smithsonian is a familiar word in the libraries and the living 
rooms of America. More and more public attention is being re- 
ceived by research programs, informative exhibits, and special 
academic events at the Smithsonian, a byproduct of the Institution's 
continued growth and further encouragement of significant and 
exciting areas of scholarship by its professional staff. 

During the year, the Institution moved forward on several fronts 
in the expanding field of telecommunications, including television, 
film, and radio. Through a trio of special programs, the Smithsonian 
made an outstanding showing in prime-time commercial network 
television. Presented on the Columbia Broadcasting System's net- 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Nazaret Cherkezian, Telecommunications Coordinator, Smithsonian Office of Public 
Affairs, and Paul E. Desautels, Smithsonian Curator of the Division of Mineralogy, 
with the Hope Diamond. The famed gem was the subject of a television special on 
March 27, 1975. 

At the Smithsonian Institution to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the First 
Landing on the Moon, Buzz Aldrin, Mike Collins, and Neil Armstrong stand in front 
of Command Module Columbia, July 20, 1974. 

work as part of the DuPont Cavalcade of Television, the programs 
concerr\ed the natural sciences and flight. The programs were 
titled: "Monsters! Mysteries or Myths?;" "Flight: The Sky's the 
Limit/' a look at flight through the eyes of teenagers; and the 
"Legendary Curse of the Hope Diamond/' portraying some of the 
legends behind the Institution's most popular artifact. It should be 
noted that the initial program, which sought to use the scientific 
method in analyzing the worth of myths concerning the Abominable 
Snowman, the Loch Ness Monster, and the Bigfoot Expeditions, 
scored the highest rating for a documentary heretofore presented 
on American television. 

With the approach of the Bicentennial, film-makers, television 
producers, audiovisual companies, and radio stations have increased 
their already heavy demands for Smithsonian participation. Pro- 
grams such as the National Broadcasting Company's "Today" show 
and the American Broadcasting Company's "AM America" origi- 
nated "live" film and videotape reports from the Institution. They 
covered a variety of topics ranging from the life of America's giant 
pandas, Hsing-Hsing and Ling-Ling, at the National Zoological 
Park, to the National Museum of History and Technology's popu- 
lar "Whatsit" exhibit. 

In addition, the Telecommunications Staff coordinated Smith- 
sonian participation in productions by many outside companies 
and agencies including the United States Information Agency for 
overseas distribution, the Armed Forces Radio Network, and the 
Congressional radio-television group. 

As part of the Institution's "outreach" effort, the Telecom- 
munications Staff worked with the Encyclopaedia Britannica Edu- 
cational Corporation in the development and introduction of the 
first five in a series of educational filmstrips entitled "Museums 
and Man." Designed for students from middle-school level up, the 
filmstrips provide a colorful, richly informative overview of the 
world of museums. Additional filmstrips in the series, relating to 
other Smithsonian interests, are being prepared. 

A forty-five-minute film covering the Institution's many bureaus 
and activities was produced by the telecommunications staff for use 
by Smithsonian representatives speaking to outside audiences. The 
silent film was specifically designed for use with the speaker's own 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

"Radio Smithsonian" continued to present half-hour weekly 
programs cutting across the full range of Smithsonian interests. As 
the year ended, the program was being carried by sixty radio 
stations across the Nation as well as on the "Voice of America" 
overseas. The "Radio Smithsonian" staff also assisted in coordi- 
nating audio records of significant events at the Smithsonian as part 
of an effort to develop an oral archive. In this area, planning was 
started with the National Air and Space Museum on the develop- 
ment of an oral history program concerning the development of 
flight around the world. 

The Office of Public Affairs' Publications Section continued to 
mirror activities at the Smithsonian through the pages of the 
monthly Smithsonian Torch. The quarterly, Smithsonian Institution 
Research Reports, was expanded to provide an improved outlet for 
news of research in various disciplines — in the humanities as well 
as in the natural sciences — underway in the "back room" labora- 
tories and libraries of the Institution. Research Reports now have 
an expanding international circulation which includes both the aca- 
demic community and the general public. The section has worked 
with the Bicentennial coordinator to produce a new general leaflet 
about the Smithsonian which incorporates information about 
Bicentennial exhibitions and events. This leaflet is being translated 
into several languages for foreign visitors. Millions of copies of 
both the English and foreign language versions will be printed for 
the Bicentennial visitors. 

The following leaflets were issued by the Office of Public Affairs 
in fiscal year 1975: 

References to North American Silver and Silver-Plated 74-7 

References to Fireplaces and Ovens 74-8 

Bibliography on Folk Instruments 74-9 

American Carousels 74-10 

References to Woodenware 74-11 

Bibliography of the Civil War 74-12 

Machines and Models in Suiting Everyone 74-13 

References on North American Indian Clothing 75-1 

References on Present Day Conditions Among 75-2 

U.S. Indians 

Public Service I 263 

References on Indian War and Warfare 75-3 

References on Seminole Indians 75-4 

Textiles in Suiting Everyone 75-5 

Bibliography on Indian Lore, Crafts 75-6 

North American Indian Periodicals 75-7 

18th Century Clothing in Suiting Everyone 75-8 

18th Century Garments — Black and White Photos 75-9 

The Bermuda Triangle 75-10 

Unidentified Flying Objects 75-11 

Caring for Wild Birds 75-13 

The Hope Diamond 75-14 
note: None issued under #75-12. 

The Publications Section also has been concerned with the re- 
search and editing required by numerous reference book publishers 
planning to include mention of all or some of the Smithsonian's 
activities in their various publications. Both private publishers and 
governmental agencies are represented in the inquiries for ref- 
erence book research. 

Major events such as the opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, the Festival of American Folklife, dedications of 
new exhibits, the television series, and pre-Bicentennial planning 
occupied much of the time of the News Bureau. During the year, 
340 news releases were issued, twenty-two of which concerned 
Bicentennial events, and thirty-nine were about the Hirshhorn's 
first year of operation. In staffing, the effort toward decentraliza- 
tion continued with the National Collection of Fine Arts, the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology, and the National 
Museum of Natural History taking on the public affairs duties 
within their bureaus. Meantime, an increased effort to gain public 
notice for scientific research activities at the Institution was under- 
taken with the cooperation of the Assistant Secretary for Science. 

The Special Events Staff assisted in the planning, preparation, 
coordination, and completion of approximately 675 special events 
during the year. These included lectures, presentations, con- 
ferences, symposia, meetings, openings of permanent or tem- 
porary exhibitions, concerts, coffees and teas, luncheons, dinners 
and receptions, dances, and miscellaneous events. In addition, the 
Staff also distributed some 600 Smithsonian-oriented posters 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

throughout the Institution and to various information booths op- 
erated by the National Park Service. The office supervised the 
production and distribution of about 75,000 printed pieces, includ- 
ing invitations, announcements, programs, and acceptances. A 
major event was the formal opening of the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, at which 15,000 guests were received over 
a four-day period. Among those in attendance at the various events 
at the Hirshhorn were Secretary and Mrs. Ripley, Ambassador 
Daniel P. Moynihan, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hirshhorn, and Mayor 
and Mrs. Walter Washington. 

Special tours were arranged during the year for the Empress of 
Iran, Mrs. Nelson Rockefeller and her sons, and many other dis- 
tinguished visitors. During the Festival of American Folklife, special 
tours were conducted for representatives of the People's Republic 
of China, George Meany of the AFL-CIO, and several groups of 
diplomats posted in Washington. Secreatry of State Henry Kissinger 
was the host at a luncheon at Hillwood for the Shah and Empress 
of Iran. Secretary and Mrs. Ripley were the hosts at a luncheon for 
the Empress of Iran at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden and at a luncheon for Sir John and Lady Llewellyn, and a 
dinner for the Duke of Gloucester. 

The Special Events Staff also worked closely with the Woodrow 
Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Senate of Scientists, 
and the Office of Museum Programs in arranging various special 
events throughout the year. 

The "Free Film Theatre" continued its weekly offers of motion 
pictures relevant to Smithsonian interests with heavy attendance 
during the peak periods of visitation. Films that were presented 
generally concerned themes in the fields of history, art, and the 
natural sciences. The theater program was held in cooperation with 
the National Museum of History and Technology and the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

The Office of Seminars, formerly responsible for the Institution's 
advanced studies program established in 1967, was renamed the 
Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars to reflect its pan- 

Public Service I 265 

Institutional activities and outreach. Under its new name it con- 
tinues to develop broad educational programs and to serve as a 
resource facility for governmental and private organizations, as 
well as for universities and scholars. 

Administration of the Smithsonian's international symposia 
series program in 1975 included publication of The Nature of 
Scientific Discovery, based on the fifth symposium developed in 
association with The National Academy of Sciences as the major 
American tribute to Nicolaus Copernicus celebrating^ in 1973^ the five 
hundredth anniversary of his birth. Edited by Owen Gingerich, 
astrophysicist at the Smithsonian's Astrophysical Observatory 
and professor of astronomy and of the history of science at Har- 
vard University, the book comprises three major sections: the 
papers presented at the symposium, summaries of the adjunct 
collegia, and the Copernican festival. Supported by the National 
Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, 
the Copernicus Society of America, and Exxon and other corporate 
contributors, the symposium provided a fresh examination of those 
elements conducive to scientific achievement, focusing on the 
Renaissance and on contemporary science and technology. The book 
is but one educational product extending the life and audience of the 
original activities of Copernicus Week. 

Continuing its function as a Smithsonian resource facility, the 
office organized for the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration a one-week seminar on the "Outlook for Space," designed 
to provide insight into the social-political-economic-cultural en- 
vironment foreseen for the remainder of this century, to assist in 
planning future space research and exploration. Some thirty guest 
discussants and twenty-five scientists and astronauts from nasa 
participated in the meetings at Hammersmith Farm, the summer 
estate of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss at Newport, Rhode 
Island. As a result of the seminar, the office has been approached 
by the Preservation Society of Newport County and other civic 
groups and leaders to advise on ways and means to take advantage 
educationally of the architectural resources of their community for 
seminar and symposium activities. For example, the office is assist- 
ing in the planning of a Bicentennial symposium on the history of 
religious toleration and freedom in the United States which will 
make use of Touro Synagogue, Trinity Church, and other historic 
structures as settings for scholarly dialogues. 

266 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Participants in the "Outlook for Space" seminar take a break to enjoy the bracing 
October air at Hammersmith Farm, overlooking Narragansett Bay. 

Owen Gingerich, editor of The Nature of Scientific Discovery, and His Excellency 
Witold Trampczynski, Ambassador of the Polish People's Republic, exchange felicita- 
tions at the May pre-publication party in the National Academy of Science's Great Hall. 

Joining with the Institute of Psychiatry and Foreign Affairs and 
the State Department's Foreign Service Institute, the office de- 
veloped a special series of seminars preparing a group of American 
doctors and medical specialists for an extended visit to the People's 
Republic of China, in which members of the Chinese Delegation to 
the United States participated. (In 1972 the three organizations 
were hosts to a medical group visiting the United States from 

Other seminars during the year were: a cooperative seminar on 
the Declaration of Independence, in association with Bryn Mawr 
College as part of the college's 1976 studies program for high- 
school newspaper editors throughout the United States, wherein 
students examined the language used in the document, relating it 
to the Revolutionary period and evaluating their own, present-day 
sense of it; "The Preconditions for Voluntarism," with discussion 
led by Robert A. Goldwin, special consultant to the President; and 
"Health Services and Community Participation: Comparisons in 
Two Cultures" (the United States and the United Kingdom), 
featuring Julian Knox, distinguished specialist in international 
health care. 

The office also collaborated with the American Universities Field 
Staff in presenting a series of new films on human cultural adapta- 
tion, "Faces of Change," to the Smithsonian's new National Anthro- 
pological Film Center. The series was developed by aufs in con- 
sultation with the Center and contains 126,000 feet of research 

Planning continued toward the Bicentennial symposium, "Kin 
and Communities: The Peopling of America," sixth in the Smith- 
sonian's symposia series. Scheduled for 1977, a series of seminars, 
papers, films, workshops, and other activities will reflect on the role 
of family institutions and communities in shaping the Nation during 
its first two hundred years and as continuing links to African, Euro- 
pean, Asian, and other cultures (including those of the American 
Indian) which have enriched American civilization. The Department 
of History, American University, is assisting in program planning 
and is developing a related project of gathering information on indi- 
vidual family histories for computer banking and data retrieval in 
subsequent studies by historians, anthropologists, and other 
scholars, as well as for stimulating self-knowledge on the part of 
those writing their family histories. 

268 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

An international conference on "The United States in the World/' 
is being developed jointly by the Smithsonian, the American Coun- 
cil of Learned Societies, and the American Studies Association as a 
contemporary study of American influence in other societies. The 
conference will focus on how we have affected — or not affected — 
others in science and technology, in politics and society, and in the 
arts and media. About two hundred specialists from other countries 
are being invited to come to Washington in September 1976 to par- 
ticipate in the meetings and associated activities, along with an equal 
number from the United States. A number of those from abroad are 
being asked to present analytical and objective papers, no attempt 
being made to solicit manuscripts arguing a particular point of view. 
The conference's goal is to find out just what differences two hun- 
dred years of American civilization have made in other parts of the 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. (rif) will celebrate its tenth anni- 
versary during the Bicentennial year. Founded by Mrs. Robert S. 
McNamara as a national, nonprofit, tax-exempt organization, its 
program is designed to motivate children to read. 

Its goals are: (1) to demonstrate that books — in the home as well 
as in the classroom — are essential to a child, and that books should 
be available to all children to own, borrow, and buy, and (2) to 
educate the American public to the fact that at the present time 
this is not the case and to show through rif programs the exciting 
and cohesive force produced when educators and communities, 
parents and children, organize their resources and efforts to pro- 
duce a more literate society. 

The program is unique in that it stimulates the interest of children 
in books by letting them choose from a wide variety of attractive, 
inexpensive paperback books that appeal to them, and by letting 
them keep the books as their own. 

The growth of interest and tastes are clearly evident as rif pro- 
grams go on from year to year. Faced with a wide choice of books 
at their first distribution, youngsters tend to pick up what is familiar 

Public Service I 269 

— comic books, for example, like Batman. But in a very short time, 
they are to be seen browsing, not snatching at whatever comes to 
hand. In one project years back, the children all selected a popular 
comic. But a year and a half later, the majority of them were read- 
ing Charlotte's Web. 

One of the more interesting discoveries was the enjoyment by 
young children of well-illustrated Bible stories. A project director 
commented, "It's not surprising. After all, stories like David and 
Goliath, Joshua at the Battle of Jericho, and others are really 
exciting. The children love them." 

Since its founding in 1966, more than two million children have 
received five million paperback books. Presently, 367 rif programs 
are operating in forty-six states (including Alaska and Hawaii). 
They are locally operated and funded through either private 
sources or moneys for books from federally funded supplementary 
programs. Seven thousand parents and community leaders have 
been mobilized as volunteers to implement rif programs. Teachers 
report children are reading more, exchanging books with their 
friends, and building home libraries. Both school and public library 
circulations have increased markedly where rif operates. Parents are 
actively involved in rif programs and are buying books for their 
children, reading to them and reading themselves. 

The impact of rif on libraries alone was clear this year and 
last when the New Mexico State Library Commission sponsored 
the first rif project to be funded by a state library. 

After the 1974 summer project, the Commission, in a survey 
to determine rif's impact, found that "each library involved with 
RIF indicated a registration increase among their children." 

The survey also showed that "other benefits from the program 
have included a better working relationship between libraries and 
schools; increased interest in the library by parents; expanded par- 
ticipation of children in other library programs." 

Public demand for rif's program increased dramatically during 
the past year. In fiscal year 1974 there were 12,000 requests for 
rif's services, and by May 1975 more than 25,000 such requests. 
The number of rif projects increased from 292 in fiscal year 1974 
to 367 as of June 1975. 

rif projects range in size from the big New York City program 
that gets books to almost 80,000 youngsters to a small one for 

270 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

This photograph is eloquent proof of the success of RIF's summer Bookmobile 
Program in the District of Columbia. (Photo: Courtesy the Washington Star). 

130 Indian youngsters in Mandaree, North Dakota. Sister Patricia 
Carroll, of Mandaree School District #36, reported, "rif has been 
an agent of joy to our school. The teachers have been so en- 
thusiastic and grateful for the program and the children con- 
stantly beg for another rif day. We have been happier people 
because of rif." 

With the prevailing economic situation, rif reduced its budget 
by approximately 25 percent. To meet the paradoxical situation of 
a reduced budget while maintaining quality service to an increasing 
number of projects, rif undertook two major steps. A national 
corporate fund drive was successfully developed and, to serve new 
programs, rif initiated an expanded leadership development and 
training program, thus assuring the most economic use of time 
of its small field staff while helping to multiply their effectiveness 
and field coverage. Volunteers were trained in group cluster meet- 
ings to develop new rif project leaders. In May 1975, 125 program 

Public Service I 271 

directors, parents, and community volunteers from twenty-one 
states and the District of Columbia attended rif's second National 
Workshop for leadership training and development. 

rif's program was endorsed by the United States Commissioner 
of Education, Dr. Terrel H. Bell, and it continued its cooperative 
activities with the United States Office of Education's Right to Read 
program. The United States Office of Education awarded rif a grant 
of $80,000 for the establishment of a National Resource and 
Training Center for reading-motivational programs. 

rif's Board of Directors, under the leadership of its current 
Chairman, Mrs. Robert S. McNamara, and President, Dr. Sidney 
Nelson, are planning a special Bicentennial program which has been 
endorsed by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration. 
Its goal is to double the number of rif projects by 1977, enabling 
it to serve five million children who will have received twenty-five 
million books. 

Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller will participate in the 
official launching of rif's Bicentennial Program which will be held 
on Citizenship Day, September 17, 1975, at the National Archives. 
Children from various ethnic backgrounds who have made sig- 
nificant progress through rif reading motivational programs and 
their parents will be invited to attend and read portions of the 
Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of 

A unique book entitled. Our Collective Gift to this Nation, will 
be published for rif by Doubleday. Eliot Wigginton, President of 
the Board of the Foxfire Fund, Rabun Gap, Georgia, will direct the 
project and edit the book. It will be composed of interviews con- 
ducted by hundreds of high school students representing most of 
the cultural groups in this country. The subjects for their inter- 
views will be older people — in many cases their relatives — who 
live in their communities. Mr. Wigginton describes the book as an 
opportunity for our grandparents to speak from their special per- 
spective — "a forum where men and women from every culture can 
come together to express, through their grandchildren, their hopes 
and fears for us as a nation, and their dreams for us as a world." 

rif will also publish a Bicentennial rif Guide to Book Selection 
which will offer a comprehensive list of annotated paperback books 
selected from the offerings of approximately one hundred pub- 

272 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Appropriate Bicentennial programs will be undertaken by the 
local RiF projects throughout the country to underscore the im- 
portance of education and to highlight the significance of reading 
achievement in securing that education. 

Reading Is Fundamental is based in the Smithsonian Institution 
with offices at L'Enfant Plaza. The Smithsonian acts as rif's fiscal 

Smithsonian Associates 

The Institution's membership program of the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates was essentally designed for Washington area residents until 
the spring of 1970 when publication of the Smithsonian began. 
As a principal benefit of membership, the monthly magazine so 
stimulated interest in the program as to increase the Smithsonian 
Associates to more than 900,000 members across the country. 

A developing activity for Associates is the travel program. Dur- 
ing fiscal year 1975, more than 1400 members took a foreign 
charter or domestic study tour arranged by the Associates travel 
office, and some 12,500 were interested enough in the plans to 
ask for details. 

In this country there were group visits to such places as Death 
Valley to study the geology of the national monument, Arizona to 
study the Hopi and Navajo cultures, and to Mississippi to tour 
antebellum houses in Vicksburg, Port Gibson, and Natchez. In Janu- 
ary the Washington "Anytime" Weekend was added to the travel 
program as a new benefit, and was designed to give National 
Associates the opportunity to visit Washington and the Smith- 
sonian any weekend during the year. 

The Smithsonian Associate Foreign Charter Program was estab- 
lished in fiscal year 1975. One charter flight was sent to England 
and two flights went to the Soviet Union. In the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, members attended lectures with curators at the 
Hermitage and Pushkin museums as well as the Tretyakov Gal- 
lery before breaking into small guided tours of the facilities. Addi- 

Public Service I 273 

tionally, members participated in many small group discussions at 
the Leningrad-Tallinn and Moscow Houses of Friendship. In Eng- 
land members enjoyed seminar visits at the Greater Council of 
London, a variety of museums, and a number of the great houses 
and archeological sites. 

Another innovation of the year, in January, was the first regional 
programming for the benefit of Associates in their own places of 
residence. In collaboration with the University of Houston, 7500 
Associates from the Houston and Bellaire areas were invited to see 
a display of the French royal jewels from the collection of the 
National Museum of Natural History. Nearly 3100 members turned 
out for the program, and Curator Paul E. Desautels lectured four 
times instead of the scheduled two to accommodate the unex- 
pected crowd. 

Later in the spring, a similar exhibit was presented on the 
premises of the First National Bank in Palm Beach, Florida. Several 
hundred Associates inspected the gems and were guests at a recep- 
tion for Secretary and Mrs. Ripley. 

On the strength of the interest shown in these events a series 
of others were planned for Associates in various parts of the 

The system of discounts on purchases from the Smithsonian 
Museum Shops and the Smithsonian Press continued to be widely 
used by the Associates. 


The Center's Information Volunteers continue to act as the Institu- 
tion's special emissaries of goodwill, providing the human interface 
between the Smithsonian and visitors or potential visitors to the 
national collections seven days a week. Whether by phone, in per- 
son, or by mail. Volunteers have cheerfully applied themselves to 
the task of providing the most explicit and thorough directions, 
information, and/or data requested. 

This year 119 new Volunteers were recruited and trained, thirty- 
eight of whom were given special instruction to serve the new 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Three major museums 
on the Mall (mht, mnh, hmsg) now rely on the Information Volun- 
teer Desks to serve as the place where individuals with staff ap- 

274 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

pointments may have their appointments confirmed and be issued 
the required security badges. This procedure, as well as being the 
liaison for tour groups and docents, is in addition to assisting the 
hundreds of thousands of visitors seeking aid. Increased duties 
as well as preparation for the Bicentennial year have demanded 
double- and triple-staffing numerous Desks. The overall percentage 
of Desk coverage for all Mall museums (with the exception of the 
Freer and the inclusion of the off-campus Renwick) has been 90 
percent for the past year. 

Telephone traffic continues to escalate, up 38,000 or 30 percent 
over 1974's 125,000 calls. 

Mail handled through the Center also reflects a substantial in- 
crease — 33,500 pieces processed over last year's 22,000. National 
Associates' mail still accounts for approximately 50 percent of all 
that is received. Subject matter is usually multiple in nature, taking 
a substantial amount of time to research and answer properly. All 
special book offerings for Associates were also channeled through 
the Center, as well as maintenance of the Smithsonian Calendar 
of Events file. 

The first foreign-language informational tape system was in- 
stalled at both entrances of the Museum of History and Technology 
and the Mall entrance of the Museum of Natural History. The 
three-and-one-half-minute orientation is available in German, 
French, and Spanish as indicated by color-coded phones. 

A visitor-orientation slide-show with captions in English, Ger- 
man, French, and Spanish was installed in the Great Hall of the 
Smithsonian Institution Building. This visual aid is intended to give 
visitors a directional sense of the Smithsonian's Washington 

Volunteer Certificates of Appreciation and Service Pins were 
distributed through the Center for museums or galleries requesting 
them for their Volunteers. The most impressive program by far was 
that of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory with over 300 
International Moonwatch Volunteers, some of whom have been 
working since 1956. 

Some 10,300 National Members registered in the Center this 
year, a figure that is somewhat misleading in terms of the actual 
number of member families served. Our space for the majority of 
the year was so restricted that many Associates simply picked up 
their informational literature and went on their way. This situation 

Public Service I 275 

has been relieved with the present renovation of the Smithsonian 
Institution Lounge as an Associates' rest and relaxation area. 

The Commons, at long last, was opened for Associates on week- 
ends, and is operating quite successfully. 

A docent program was established to provide National Members 
participating in the Washington Weekend trip package an exclusive 
tour of the "Castle." The Weekend package and the tours have 
proven extremely popular, with an average of thirty families per 

Membership registrations were not as numerous as expected, 
primarily due to the new Resident processing procedure which 
eliminates on-the-spot processing in the Center. The Center handled 
721 new National and 1207 new Resident memberships. 

A handsome informational brochure for visiting Associates was 
introduced this year. 

The Museum Reference Service is concentrating on the compila- 
tion of material relative to the thirteen original colonies for use by 
Associates traveling the Eastern Seaboard. 

The employee National membership and gift file continues to 

Independent Volunteer placement has experienced significant 
growth, resulting in some 250 placements for 42,000 hours of 

Official recognition of individual Volunteer service throughout 
the Institution appears this year for the first time in this report; 
see appendix 14. 


The Smithsonian Resident Associate Program was established in 
1965 by Secretary Ripley to provide the opportunity for residents 
of the Greater Washington area to participate in the life of the 
Institution. Through its educational activities, for adults and young 
people, it has attracted a local membership of 33,500 through May 
1975 as compared with 22,000 in May 1974, and over four times the 
membership of May 1972. The membership figure represents over 
75,000 individuals. The purpose of the Program, as defined by 
Secretary Ripley, is to "serve as a link between what the Institu- 
tion does, whether in museum or laboratory or art gallery pro- 

276 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Ora Van Beek, Deputy Director of the Smithsonian Archeological Expedition 
Dig at Tell Jemmeh teaching a Young Associates archeology class. 

grams or research and publications, and what the public in the 
Washington area can do to participate." It seeks to achieve this 
goal with classes in arts, sciences, humanities, and crafts; study 
tours within the Smithsonian bureaus and nearby complementary 
facilities; special lectures; seminars; film series; exhibition previews; 
outdoor festivals; art poster projects; and performing arts events. 

In recent months, increased cooperation with Smithsonian 
bureaus has enabled the Resident Associate staff to conceive and 
execute a program broad enough to accommodate its rapidly ex- 
panding membership with differing interests and aspirations. The 
Associate, the monthly newsletter sent to all members, continues 
to serve effectively as the Program's communication vehicle. 

In proportion to the membership growth, the staff has grown 
from twenty-six at the end of fiscal year 1974 to thirty-one by the 
end of fiscal year 1975, primarily in support personnel. The Pro- 
gram continues to make a sizable contribution to the unrestricted 

Public Service I 277 

Noted violinist Yehudi Menuhin, a Resident Associate lecturer, discussing a 
composition with James M. Weaver, Associate Curator of the Smithsonian's 
Division of Musical Instruments. 

private funds of the Institution while the membership dues and 
activity fees have remained constant. With the reallocation of space 
in the Arts and Industries Building, the Resident Associate Pro- 
gram has moved to new and more spacious quarters, refurbished 
with its own funds. Further, to replace the unsightly wooden struc- 
tures where most studio classes have been held in previous years 
and which are to be razed in the summer of 1975, three new multi- 
purpose classrooms for Resident Associate classes only were desig- 
nated in the Arts and Industries Building. The National Museum of 
Natural History will be sharing with the Program four other new 
classrooms now under construction. These new spaces should en- 
able the program to offer instruction in more attractive and appro- 
priate surroundings. 

278 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

During fiscal year 1975 the Program embarked upon a number of 
new projects or continued special projects recently undertaken. 
With the cooperation of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, the Resident Associate Program commissioned and pub- 
lished a series of two serigraphs and four posters commemorating 
the opening of that Museum. Sold through the membership, the 
magazine Smithsonian, the Museum Shops, and government agen- 
cies that distributed the art works throughout the world, the enter- 
prise is successful financially and esthetically, and is a good method 
of furthering public awareness of the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. 

From the proceeds of this project, (1) 415 scholarships were 
awarded, on the basis of need and interest, to inner-city children, 
enabling them to attend Associate classes free of charge; (2) free 
tuition was provided for forty docents from six Smithsonian 
museums to attend classes in the field of their special interests; 
and (3) a generous contribution was made to the Hirshhorn Acquisi- 
tion Fund. 

The Program sponsored a three-day festival in Video Art assisted 
by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. It con- 
ducted a four-day seminar at the request and under the sponsorship 
of the Office of Smithsonian Museum Programs on "Developing a 
Museum-Oriented Curriculum for Adults and Children," for 
twenty-three museum staff members from museums located 
throughout the United States. Follow-up evaluation indicated that 
the participants found the experience particularly valuable. 

A television public service announcement was conceived by the 
staff, produced by the Smithsonian's Exhibits Motion Picture Unit, 
and released in August 1974. Widely shown on local television, it 
was declared a finalist in the CLIO awards competition of the 
American TV and Radio Commercials Festival. The Second An- 
nual Photography Contest attracted 125 entries from members in 
three categories: Adult, Teen, Under 12. The subject matter was 
limited to Smithsonian buildings or collections; the judges were 
appropriate members of the Smithsonian curatorial and photo- 
raphic staffs. Three prizes were awarded in each category. 

The number of lecture classes for adults in the arts, sciences, 
and humanities increased substantially over 1974. Taught by 
Smithsonian and visiting scholars, 105 classes in these areas were 

Public Service I 279 

scheduled in the four terms this fiscal year. A total of 215 adult 
classes, including studio classes, photography, and workshops, were 
scheduled for adults during the fiscal year, with an enrollment of 
7778 students, as compared with 179 classes with 6405 students 
in fiscal 1974. Of the lecture classes, those in anthropology, arche- 
ology, architecture, and graphic and interior design were the best 
attended. Classes in photography surpass all other studio classes 
in enrollment. 

Through the Trips and Tours section of the Program, members 
greatly enjoyed scholarly tours of Smithsonian exhibitions and 
visits to nearby cultural, historical, or scientific locales. This year 
there were 354 on-site learning experiences, 100 of which, with 
6275 attendees, carried no fee. A total of over 17,000 members par- 
ticipated in these activities led by Smithsonian or other qualified 
scholars. Among the most popular tours were those that enabled 
members to explore facets of the Institution: a "Behind the Scenes" 
tour in the National Museum of Natural History attracted over 
1500 members; 400 members took guided tours of the "fiearts and 
Minds of the People" exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery; 
125 enjoyed luncheon-hour talks at the Freer Gallery of Art, and 
386 were guided through the fiirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden. All tours are limited in size; many have to be repeated 
as often as twenty-four times to accommodate requests. 

The Special Events component of the Program includes lectures, 
seminars, and symposia conducted by distinguished Smithsonian 
and visiting scholars. Outdoor festivals, film series, and performing 
arts are also integral. During fiscal year 1975, seventy-three special 
events were attended by over 18,000 people. The Program has de- 
veloped a new cooperative series of symposia with the Woodrow 
Wilson International Center for Scholars, scheduling four per year. 
It is also offering film programs in cooperation with the National 
Anthropological Film Center, illustrated lectures in cooperation 
with the Audubon Naturalist Society, and opportunities for mem- 
bers to increase their appreciation of the performing arts at the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, through special 
lectures arranged in conjunction with performances. Twenty special 
events were offered free to members only. 

The Young Associate programs extend the resources of the Insti- 
tution to members' children (as well as the scholarship children 

280 / Smithsonian Year 1975 





i • "^-^ 


A popular learning trip of the Resident Associate Program is a walking tour 

of Georgetown. 

noted above) through classes and special activities. The programs 
offer learning experiences appropriate for specific age groups; the 
students' ages range from four years to eighteen. Over twenty 
classes are offered each of the four academic terms. This year the 
Program, in a cooperative venture with the National Museum of 
Natural History, underwrote a Junior Science Club, open equally 
to members' children and pubUc school scholarship participants. 
The club meets weekly to work intensively on projects at the 
Museum under the supervision of a curator. Each month the new 
Career Workshops offer the opportunity for high-school-age mem- 
bers to learn about museum careers. Younger Associates enjoy 
the monthly free films and other performing arts programs as well 

Public Service I 281 

as courses and workshops. The annual holiday party attracted over 
1000 youngsters. Over 11,000 young people have participated in 
the Young Associate activities this past year. 

There are over 4500 family memberships, and special activities 
are regularly geared to family participation. The annual Zoo nights, 
and the Boomerang and Kite Festivals are eagerly anticipated in 
addition to mushroom hunts, train trips, fossil digs, visits to Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Study, Silver Hill, farm 
excursions, and other appropriate indoor and outdoor tours. Forty- 
four family events were scheduled in fiscal 1975, not including spe- 
cial activities for the children of family members. 

In addition to the activities mentioned above, members are 
offered many intrinsic benefits. During fiscal 1975, the opening of 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden provided the oppor- 
tunity for two gala special Associate openings. Two other special 
exhibition viewings were held at the National Collection of Fine 
Arts and the National Museum of History and Technology. A free 
lecture given by a Smithsonian curator is offered monthly, as well 
as other free special lectures. Over 42,000 attendees were re- 
corded at free membership events in fiscal 1975. The Smithsonian 
magazine, the monthly newsletter the Associate, and the Smith- 
sonian calendar are membership benefits, as well as the privilege of 
eating in the Commons of the "Castle," discounts in the Museum 
Shops, and parking in the Smithsonian parking lots on weekends, 
holidays, and evenings. Members obtain reduced fees on all 

Two hundred and eighteen Volunteers work for the Resident 
Associate Program on a regular basis. Their responsibilities vary 
from office duties to monitoring classes. This June these Volunteers 
were feted at a reception, to express appreciation of their work on 
behalf of the Program and the Institution. Certificates were 

During fiscal year 1975 staff members of the Program received 
Certificates of Award from the Institution in "official recognition, 
and appreciation of exceptional services rendered in the perform- 
ance of duty." 

282 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Smithsonian Magazine 

The magazine Smithsonian celebrated its fifth year of publication 
with the issue of March 1975. The extent to which the reading 
public and the advertising community have responded to the 
unique offering of scientific and cultural articles which Smith- 
sonian presents have made it the fastest growing of all monthly 
magazines in the country, according to recent articles in the 
Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Circulation during 
the year increased from 600,000 to 900,000; advertising pages in- 
creased from 450 to 600. Thanks to this growth, the magazine 
again made a substantial contribution to the unrestricted private 
funds of the Institution. 

In a recent issue of The Neio York Times, Philip H. Dougherty 
in his media column pointed out that Smithsonian was among the 
top six of 100 national consumer magazines to show an increase 
of more than 10 percent in advertising pages during the first six 
months of 1975 over the year earlier period. To quote Mr. 

Thomas H. Black, ad director of Smithsonian, a publication of 
the Smithsonian Institution, is accustomed to being asked "How 
come you're doing so good?" because the magazine has been 
growing steadily since it started in 1970 and is up 47.8 percent 
in the first half. 

Asked to give a speech on the subject last January, he chose 
for his title, "It's amazing what happens when you go back to 
the basics." 

"The basic basic," he said the other day in his office, is a 
good editor and he is convinced his magazine has a great one, 
Edward K. Thompson, previously managing editor of Life. 

"First the editor does his job well," Mr. Black said. "Then 
the circulation department does its job well. And then the adver- 
tising department does its job well, and you can't speed up 
that function." 

His pitch and the pitch of the rest of the six-person New York 
sales team is that the 900,000 or so who buy the magazine 
monthly have an average annual income of $33,793 and are 

Among the editorial innovations of the year were a pair of two- 
part articles. The first of these, by Russell Lynes, celebrated the 

Public Service I 283 


\ >U* jv.* 


>:-',•■, -H'-:. 


An illustration from Smithsonian magazine article by Don Moser, "Barro Colorado is a 
Noah's ark in the rain forest," shows college student Gary Martini climbing a gigantic 
ceiba tree toward forest canopy. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute has head- 
quarters on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal. (Photo: Courtesy George Silk) 

opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The 
second, by Tom Alexander, was an up-to-date report on the revolu- 
tion in geology stemming from the theories of plate tectonics and 
continental drift. Elaborately illustrated with maps and diagrams 
created especially for Smithsonian by Richard Edes Harrison and 
Antonio Petrucelli, this two-part article has been combined into 
a single twenty-four-page pamphlet and made available to schools, 
libraries, and the general public. 

The magazine's prelude to the Bicentennial, the monthly column 
called "200 years ago," ended with the eruption of the revolution 
in Concord and Lexington. The eighteen installments of the column 
have also been combined into a booklet for sale to the pubhc, and a 
new regular feature inaugurated: A monthly column, "On the Mall 
and Beyond," which takes readers to behind-the-scenes events in 
the Institution's many bureaus here and abroad. 

Spectacular color photographs of Scythian gold objects were 
made in the Soviet Union by Lee Boltin in order that a Smithsonian 
article could appear just before the collection went on display in the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In another international 
effort. Photographer Ernst Haas traveled to remote Bhutan to show 
the historical aspect of the coronation of its teenage king. 

The magazine continued its coverage of the related subjects of 
energy, environment, and technology. An earlier article on solid- 
waste management — particularly the currently controversial subject 
of bottle-and-can recycling — won first prize in the media awards of 
the National Association of Recycling Industries. A discussion of 
waterless water closets stirred up a small flood of response from 
readers. A timely and balanced story on ozone, its effects in the 
atmosphere and on the earth's surface, helped guide readers through 
the later conflicting governmental and press reports on the subject. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Since the mid-1950s, the proliferation of Smithsonian pubHshing 
activities has enjoyed a Topsy-like growth. In 1965 the Press' work 
drew from twenty separate bureaus and departments; by 1975, 
seventy-one units were availing themselves of editorial and pro- 

Public Service I 285 

duction services for everything from simple folders to catalogues 
and monographs of several hundred printed pages. This increase 
in demand for Press services has been welcomed as an indication 
of the Smithsonian's growing role in the diffusion of knowledge, 
but it has inevitably led to problems of overtaxing the Press' 
capacity to perform to everyone's satisfaction. Over the years, 
more and more Smithsonian staff members have been publishing 
independently of the Press, while at the same time the annual 
deficit for privately funded Press publications has increased. Under 
the chairmanship of the Assistant Secretary for Public Service, the 
Publications Review Board — overseers of Press policy — began fiscal 
year 1975 determined to take a hard look at where we are and 
where we are going. It hired the management consulting firm of 
Boutwell Crane Moseley Associates, specialists in publishing man- 
agement, to come in and survey the workings of the Press and the 
Institution's publishing programs. 

Boutwell Crane Moseley Associates' major conclusions, reported 
in late spring after three months of intensive study, are: 

1. All publishing activity within the Institution needs to be co- 

2. The Smithsonian Institution Press is not staffed or funded ade- 
quately to conduct a financially profitable trade-book publishing 

3. The Smithsonian should be making available to its visitors 
and the general public a much wider diffusion of information per- 
taining to its collections and research, and this should be accom- 
plished through attractively presented, moderately priced publica- 
tions. Since the Press is not organized or funded to produce such 
materials, arrangements should be initiated for partnership agree- 
ments with interested commercial publishers who have the capa- 
bility and the interest to carry out these possibilities. 

4. The Smithsonian Institution Press should confine its activity 
to providing design, editing, production, warehousing, and dis- 
tribution services for federally funded manuscripts (serials and 
general publications) that are sponsored by Smithsonian museums 
and galleries. 

Within the next fiscal year, the Press will be reorganized to re- 
flect these recommendations. An anticipated move of quarters into 
the Natural History Building will take place during the summer. 

286 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

with office space allotted in conformance with overall plans for new 
staffing requirements. 

In the year just past, the Press continued to provide editorial, 
design, and production services for a wide range of publications. 
The output, listed in Appendix 5, represents 9 trade books, 16 art 
and exhibition catalogues, 84 booklets, pamphlets, and folders, plus 
58 monographs published in the scientific and technical series. 

Favorable critical reviews — an all-important factor in a book's 
success — have contributed to sell-out first editions of The Outdoor 
Sculpture of Washington, D.C. (paperback) by James M. Goode, 
Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building, and The Peoples and 
Cultures of Ancient Peru by Luis G. Lumbreras, translated by Dr. 
Betty Meggers of the Department of Anthropology, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

Further recognition of the Press' role in its publications has 
come again in annual awards for editing and design. For the second 
year in a row, Smithsonian publications were among the top win- 
ners in awards presented by the Federal Editors Association. Ap- 
propriate certificates for differing categories were presented to 
Nancy Link Powars for The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, 
D.C. and A Standard of Excellence by David G. Finley; Hope 
Pantell for Suiting Everyone: The Democratization of Clothing in 
America by Claudia Kidwell and Margaret C. Christman (National 
Museum of History and Technology); Joan Horn for The Peoples 
and Cultures of Ancient Peru; John S. Lea for First Steps Toward 
Space by Frederick C. Durant (National Air and Space Museum); 
and Mary Frances Bell for The Burroioing Sponges of Bermuda by 
Klaus Ruetzler. Smithsonian Year, 1974, designed by Crimilda 
Pontes, won special recognition in the American Association of 
University Presses 1975 Book Show; also in the show was Stein- 
berg at the Smithsonian, designed by Stephen Kraft. 

During the year, production costs of 176 publications were 
funded by federal appropriations in the amount of $298,000; 9 
trade publications were supported wholly by Smithsonian private 
funds in the amount of $130,100. The Press and the Superin- 
tendent of Documents shipped, on order and subscriptions, a total 
of 166,873 publications and 104 records. In addition, 10,000 art 
catalogues and miscellaneous items were distributed. 

Public Service I 287 

Five greenhouses leased from the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home by 
the Horticultural Services Division, Office of Plant Services, Support Activities. 

Smithsonian Year • 1975 


Underlying the success of the many projects and programs of the 
Smithsonian Institution is a vast network of supportive activities 
and general administrative functions. The timely and efficient 
execution of these undergirding operations enables the Institution 
to fulfill its mandate to increase and disseminate knowledge. The 
following reports for fiscal year 1975 of the organizations which 
make up "Administrative Management" encompass an impressive 
array of on-going activities. 

Support Activities 

This past year Support Activities progressed steadily toward its 
goal of providing timely and quality support for all Smithsonian 
programs. The year brought the first significant increase in budget 
resources allocated to Support Activities units, in line with recom- 
mendations developed at the first Institutional Priorities Conference 
held at Belmont in February 1973. Management studies begun 
in fiscal year 1974 continued this year in the central support units, 
to determine whether the organization, functions, systems, and 
procedures of these units are structured to provide the desired 
service. Management studies were initiated and/or completed in 
the Office of Supply Services, Office of Printing and Photographic 
Services, Office of Personnel Administration, Travel Services Office, 
and the Office of Computer Services (formerly Information Sys- 
tems Division). In addition, special direction and attention were 
provided the Office of Facilities Planning and Engineering Services 


and the Office of Plant Services in completing the establishment of 
their units as a result of the reorganization of the former Buildings 
Management Department in fiscal year 1974. 

In summary, fiscal year 1975 saw Support Activities ap- 
praising and redefining itself in order to find new and better 
methods to build on its traditional strengths. The success of the 
Smithsonian in 1975 in meeting its mission "to increase and 
diffuse knowledge" is an indication that Support Activities is meet- 
ing its goal of providing timely and quality support. 

The central support group is comprised of the following twelve 
organizations: Management Analysis Office, Office of Equal Oppor- 
tunity, Office of Computer Services, Office of Facilities Planning 
and Engineering Services, Office of Personnel Administration, 
Office of Plant Services, Office of Printing and Photographic Serv- 
ices, Office of Protection Services, Office of Supply Services, Con- 
tracts Office, Travel Services Office, and the International Exchange 
Service. Brief summaries of the major activities and accomplish- 
ments of these organizations are given below. 

The Management Analysis Office provides: (1) research and 
analysis of policy and procedures and administration of man- 
agement improvement programs; (2) a central point for the 
operation of a system of review, control, and coordination of 
management issuances before and after publication; and (3) eco- 
nomical and efficient management and acquisition of printed forms. 

A commendable number of significant projects completed or 
initiated during the year included publishing new staff handbooks 
on correspondence, automatic data processing, and identification 
credentials, and a second edition of the requisitioning handbook. At 
year's end, the handbook on travel is in final draft with publication 
anticipated early next fiscal year. 

In March, one of the two management analysts available in the 
Office for special management studies was assigned to work with 
the Office of Audits on a review of the system for purchasing, 
receiving, and paying for goods and services. This effort is expected 
to continue into the next fiscal year. 

The Administration's concern regarding reports management 
caused an appreciable increase in the Office's work, which was 

290 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

particularly evident in the areas of reports required by federal 
agencies and the Congress, as well as in Smithsonian reports in- 
volving members of the public. 

During the year, the Management Analysis Office gave careful 
scrutiny to all management materials to assure their compliance 
with the Freedom of Information and the Privacy Acts of 1974. 

These activities, accomplished without an increase in staff, are 
indicative of the continued expansion of the work load and re- 
sponsibilities of the Office. 

The Equal Employment Opportunity Program continued to grow 
over the past year. Clear visibility was maintained by distributing 
and posting the new eeo Plan of Action, eeo publications, informa- 
tion about training programs, and memoranda about various eeo 
matters, including rights and remedies existing under the 1968 
Fair Housing Act. A capstone was reached when the United States 
Civil Service Commission's Director of Federal Equal Employment 
Opportunity congratulated the Smithsonian Institution Equal 
Opportunity Office on the 130-day average processing time of 
complaints and noted ". . . the timeliness of your complaints 
processing." The federal average for processing was 21 days 
above the prescribed 180-day limit. The complaints system has 
been highly responsive to employee needs. Some 200 inquiries were 
handled in 1974, with 8 formal complaints being filed. 

Upward Mobility Programs now are operating in the Freer 
Gallery of Art, National Air and Space Museum, National Museum 
of Natural History, the Office of Plant Services, and two are at 
National Museum of History and Technology. These programs give 
participating employees the opportunity to achieve their highest 
potential and productivity. 

Seven new counselors were appointed — one at the National 
Collection of Fine Arts, two at the National Museum of History 
and Technology, two at the National Zoological Park, and two at 
the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Eight new eeo officers 
were appointed which brings to eighteen the number of individuals 
responsible for the respective eighteen major organizations. All of 
the officers received one full day of concentrated training at a 
seminar conducted by the Office of Equal Opportunity and the 

Administrative Management I 291 

Office of Personnel Administration. Since May 1973, over 168 
supervisors have received training pointed toward a better under- 
standing of their respective eeo responsibiUties. 

The Women's Program continued its uninterrupted growth. The 
Smithsonian Institution Women's Coordinator was appointed as 
Smithsonian representative to International Women's Year, a 
United Nation's observance, and the Institution held its second 
successful Women's Week in August 1974. The Women's Council 
elected and had appointed its first and second males to member- 

A new Sixteen-Point Program Coordinator was appointed and 
trained to serve as the focal point for advising Smithsonian man- 
agement and the Director of Equal Opportunity on the special 
concerns of our Spanish-speaking staff. Assistance was provided 
in assessing the Smithsonian Institution Spanish-surnamed employ- 
ment situation, and information about participation in eliminating 
systemic barriers for Spanish-speaking citizens was promulgated. 

The first federal female supergrade was appointed. There were 
other appointments of minority and female managers and super- 
visors, as well as other key staff persons. A total of 1094 racial 
minorities, employed at the end of June 1973 out of a work force 
of 3050, increased to 1252 by the end of March 1975, out of a work 
force of 3584. Racial minorities and women each currently com- 
prise over one-third of the Smithsonian Institution's work force. 
Women comprise 12.1 percent of all Smithsonian Institution em- 
ployees at GS-13 and IS-13 and above, and this is far above the 
government average. Minorities, however, comprise 4.5 percent of 
all employees at that level, and this is slightly below government 
averages. Of 361 permanent professional core positions of Curator 
or Curator equivalent (Anthropologist, Biologist, Zoologist, etc.), 
only 13 are minority (3.6 percent). 

The Information Systems Division has been renamed the Office of 
Computer Services (ocs). While both designations are applicable 
in the area of automatic data processing and its associated services, 
the new designation will define more accurately the responsibilities 
and functions of that office within the Institution. 

Progress continues to be made through the use of computer 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

technology in the areas of administration, management of the 
national collections, and scientific research. 

DCS recently installed a computer communications-processor to 
give the Institution the capability of remote job entry processing 
to and from various locations. A remote terminal was installed at 
the Fort Pierce Bureau to service their data-processing needs for 
scientific research. Plans are underway to expand this remote 
terminal capability to the National Museum of Natural History. 

Several key-to-disk video terminals were installed during the 
year to be used primarily for interactive data conversion. The use 
of optical reading devices and services continues to expand as 
another way to reduce the data conversion problem. 

The Smithsonian's automated collections management system 
called SELGEM continues to arouse attention within and outside the 
Institution because of its potential as a standard for computerized 
management of collections. Fifty data managers use it to process 
more than 200 various Smithsonian collections and about 110 
persons at 40 other museums or universities also use it. The ocs 
publishes information about the selgem system in its technical 
bulletin Smithsonian Institution Information Systems Innovations. 
The Innovations series acquaints the reader with automated 
systems and procedures specifically designed to solve collection and 
research problems in museums and herbaria. 

Individual research assistance to curators and scientists continues 
to be expanded and broadened as they become more aware of the 
feasibility of applying mathematical/statistical analysis and com- 
puter technology to their research problems. 

Fiscal year 1975 marked the first full year of operation for the 
Office of Facilities Planning and Engineering Services (ofpes). A 
major effort was made to improve staff capability in the architec- 
tural and engineering disciplines to meet the increasing demand for 
professional services. Improvements were made in contract ad- 
ministration, estimating, and planning functions. 

Based on construction dollar value, office services in fiscal year 
1975 increased over fiscal year 1974 by 100 percent. Project 
volume showed a 38 percent increase over the preceding fiscal year. 
Several major projects started or constructed during the year in- 

Administrative Management I 293 

eluded: Carnegie Mansion renovation; Natural History Building's 
West Court facility and East Court Osteology Laboratory; Ana- 
costia Neighborhood Museum Exhibit Production Laboratory; 
dormitory facilities at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environ- 
mental Studies; Natural History Building's escalator and North 
Foyer alterations; Arts and Industries Building renovation; major 
fire detection systems for five museums; Jefferson Island bulk- 
heading; Buildings #24 and #25 at the Silver Hill facility; South 
Yard development; and Third Floor renovation at the Fine Arts 
and Portrait Galleries. In addition, ofpes provided consulting and 
professional services for eighty-five projects, including major 
exhibit installations. 

Preliminary action has been taken to initiate long-range planning 
studies for the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 
in Maryland, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 
Panama, and the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. Efforts also 
were directed to assisting in basic planning for the Museum Sup- 
port Facility to be located at Suitland, and consideration was given 
to the needs of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and 
the National Air and Space Museum. A continuing effort also was 
made with program units to develop procedures tailored to their 
special needs. 

With the substantial demands for services, ofpes is directing its 
efforts to improving communication with museums and bureaus 
and to providing more effective management of its activities. 

The Office of Personnel Administration is responsible for recruit- 
ment and placement, position classification, training and career 
development, employee relations, labor-management relations, and 
equal opportunity as it relates to personnel management. The 
Office also has the responsibilities for implementing new laws and 
policies and making contributions to Smithsonian-wide efforts, 
such as reducing personnel costs. 

Activity increased in virtually every program. More than 1200 
recruitment requests and 8000 job inquiries and applications were 
received, and 1789 accessions and 1342 separations processed. 

Negotiations with the United States Civil Service Commission 
resulted in the issuance of a police officer examination announce- 

294 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

ment for the Smithsonian Institution. This announcement — a new 
method of announcing recurring vacancies — significantly reduced 
the time lag between advertising vacancies and filling the posi- 

As a result of the implementation of the formal position classi- 
fication program, position descriptions for the Institution were 
reviewed and new descriptions were prepared where necessary. 

Labor-management relations continued to reflect mutual respect 
and cooperation. Negotiations for a multi-unit labor agreement 
were concluded after difficult bargaining, and consultations were 
held with the unions on a number of subjects in accordance with 
existing agreements. Also, formal grievance and complaint pro- 
cedures were utilized in several instances, and these problems were 
resolved subsequently. 

Ten new courses were offered by the Training Office for both 
professional and support staff. These courses ranged from Labor 
Management Relations to English Usage Refresher and Filing for 
Secretaries. In addition, courses of a more general nature were 
offered, such as General Education Development (leading to a High 
School Equivalency Certificate), and, for female employees, the 
Sexual Assault Prevention Program was conducted by the Smith- 
sonian Office of Protection Services. Another new course was the 
Career Planning Workshop which was open to professionals and 
nonprofessionals alike. These courses, coupled with the regular 
courses, enabled us to offer training to 1433 employees in the last 
year: 591 in courses offered in-house, 828 in courses outside of the 
Smithsonian, and 14 in executive development courses. 

The Office of Personnel Administration initiated action to 
develop a Guide for Private-Roll Personnel Management. Policies 
are being assembled and updated, personnel procedures and prac- 
tices reviewed, and the needs and problems of the various activities 
identified and evaluated. The objective is to promote more effective 
personnel program operations by providing a comprehensive source 
of authentic information and guidance on private-roll personnel 
management and administration. 

The Office of Plant Services (oplants) has basic responsibility 
for the operation and maintenance of Smithsonian physical plant 

Administrative Management I 295 

and associated utilities distribution systems; support of bureau re- 
search, exhibition, and educational programs; local and long dis- 
tance telephone and teletype communications; transportation of 
personnel, freight, museum specimens, and art requiring special 
handling; off-Mall storage of the Smithsonian collections; grounds 
and pavement maintenance; landscaping and greenhouse opera- 
tion in the development of horticultural exhibit areas; housekeep- 
ing services and building management for various off-Mall owned 
and leased facilities, oplants is responsible for requisitioning, pro- 
curing, shipping, receiving, and warehousing custodial and indus- 
trial supplies, materials, and equipment for building manager and 
Craft Shops operations. It provides program support and plant 
services annually for the Festival of American Folklife. It dissemi- 
nates advice, guidance, plans, methodology, and standards to all 
major offices and bureaus of the Smithsonian and monitors the 
quality of accomplishment in the area of its responsibilities. 

A new division. Management Services Division, was established 
in the Office of Plant Services in June 1974. A major program 
initiated during 1974 was the compilation of utilities bills for past 
years and year-to-date and the comparison with known degree day 
(heating and cooling) information from the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce National Climatic Center. This information has 
proved invaluable in formulating budget data and will be used in 
future utilities cost projections. 

A work management program was developed to increase pro- 
ductivity of work force by the application of industrial engineering 
techniques. To bolster this program a highly specialized training 
course in use of engineering performance standards was attended 
by the planner-estimators in the Work Coordination Branch. 

An ADP system, reflecting the flow of work requests through the 
Work Coordination Branch, was developed. Printouts showing 
status of all work requests are provided on a weekly basis. 

A work request priority procedure, developed by the Manage- 
ment Services Division, assists in the timely accomplishment of 
urgent work in support of museums' exhibition programs. The 
Division established oplants' supply controls to include ordering, 
inventory, supply levels, reorder points, and proper storage 

Custodial maintenance inspections were conducted by the new 
Inspections Branch. This inspection program is designed to assure 

296 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

high standards of cleanHness throughout all Smithsonian museums. 

The Crafts Services Division completed the following major 
projects during the year: constructing a health unit in the Natural 
History Building and a retention room for the safekeeping of 
artifacts to be exhibited in the History and Technology Building; 
assisting in the three-day opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden; and providing support to the Festival of Ameri- 
can Folklife. The Division also undertook maintenance of the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 

A preventive maintenance program was implemented in February 
1975 in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries building, the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Renwick Gallery, and the 
Freer Gallery of Art. The preventive maintenance administration 
system was implemented by the Preventive Maintenance Branch of 
this division. The system is geared to maintain physical plant 
equipment in an economical manner and an operational condition 
consistent with the age of each machine. It is the intention of 
OPLANTS to extend this program to other museum buildings. 

An IBM System 7, a computerized electrical demand and con- 
sumption monitoring and control system, was placed in operation 
in January 1975. This system, designed to reduce utilities consump- 
tion/demand while maintaining vital temperature and humidity 
levels in museum buildings, was installed and implemented by 
operating engineers of the Crafts Services Division. Early indica- 
tions are that substantial savings in energy demand and consump- 
tion will exceed expectations. 

The mission of the Communications and Transportation Services 
Division continued to expand as the responsibility for the manage- 
ment of the Smithsonian parking program was delegated to this 
unit in December 1974. In addition, the Division began operation 
of an authentic, vintage, double-decker London bus in early May. 
This vehicle, operated seven days a week, transports visitors to 
various museums and galleries and has proven to be immensely 

Division personnel successfully conducted a program to raise the 
level of mail consciousness of Smithsonian staff. Particular em- 
phasis was placed on: proper classification and preparation of mail, 
postal cost reductions, and realistic pickup and delivery schedules. 
Over 500 persons attended two sessions of a mail-consciousness 
program, which has resulted in a reduction in postage costs. 

Administrative Management I 297 

Red double-decker London bus (an anonymous gift to the National Portrait 
Gallery) transports visitors between the Gallery at its off-Mall location and 
the National Museum of History and Technology on the Mall. 

On January 1, 1975, the Horticultural Services Division leased 
a greenhouse-nursery complex from the United States Soldiers' 
and Airmen's Home, Washington, D.C. This area consists of: five 
production houses with a total of 24,000 square feet, a 400-square- 
foot propagation house, and over an acre of nursery space. This 
greenhouse-nursery will supply much needed space for production 
and rotation of plant material for various educational, scientific, and 
display projects. This complex also provides a location for produc- 
tion of summer annuals and seasonal plantings. 

The Horticultural Services Division undertook the landscaping 
of various museum buildings in 1975. Major projects included the 

298 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
in New York, and the G Street entrance to the National Collection 
of Fine Arts. The division also installed 35,000 summer annuals, 
8000 fall chrysanthemums, 100,000 tulips, and holiday decorations 
in most museums. 

In an effort to consolidate several off-Mall offices and ware- 
houses, the Smithsonian leased a four-story building at 1111 North 
Capitol Street. The Warehousing Services Division commenced 
the move of material in December 1974. By the end of the month 
the entire contents of Building #3 warehouse in Alexandria were 
transferred to the Smithsonian Institution Service Center (sisc). 
Space now is provided for various Smithsonian units and the 
building is approximately 40 percent occupied at present. 

The Metro Group Branch of the Warehousing Services Division, 
based at the sisc, provides building manager services to off-Mall 
buildings and to the sisc. Building manager supplies are being 
warehoused at the sisc. The Receiving and Shipping Branch, which 
handles office moves and freight transfers for Smithsonian units, 
now is located at the sisc. 

The pattern of growth by the Office of Printing and Photographic 
Services continued during the year with the implementation of ex- 
panded capabilities and services both to the Institution and the 

In the Duplicating Branch, the purchase of additional equipment 
allowed the Branch to maintain its position of providing responsive 
reproduction services to the Institution. A new tandem-head press 
was placed in operation, enabling simultaneous printing of both 
sides of a page. This not only saves time in printing but also allows 
for better utilization of paper supplies during this period of rising 
costs. New collating and binding equipment also was added during 
the year. 

In the area of Photographic Services, the Color Laboratory be- 
came fully operational during the year, processing approximately 
120,000 35mm color slides and duplicates, as well as high quality 
4" X 5" and 8" x lO" color transparencies. The personnel and 
equipment utilized in this operation have made it one of the best 
color units in the Washington area. 

Administrative Management I 299 

The Black and White Photographic Laboratory produced more 
than 200,000 prints during the year, the vast majority of which 
were to meet requirements of Institution staff. Of this figure, 
sHghtly more than 10,000 prints were produced to fill requests from 
the public. 

Recognizing the need to continue providing photographic sup- 
port to the public, the Customer Services Branch developed a num- 
ber of black-and-white print and 35mm color slide sets represent- 
ing the most popular areas for which requests are received. 
Through mass production, these sets now can be offered to 
teachers, museum associates, and others at costs below that 
charged for individual orders. For the first time, the availability of 
these sets was advertised in the Smithsonian magazine with a good 

Sets produced to date include prints of popular American Indian 
photographs from the Smithsonian Institution National Anthro- 
pological Archives and slide sets on Postal Rarities, the First Ladies 
Gowns, and the Suiting Everyone exhibit. Coupled with this was 
the production of slide sleeves with highlights from the National 
Museum of History and Technology and the National Museum of 
Natural History. Slides also were produced for the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery. All these mate- 
rials now are available for sale through the Museum Shops. 

A slide lecture on Musical Instruments of the Baroque and Early 
Classical Eras is being prepared under a grant from the Women's 
Committee of the Smithsonian Associates. Final approval, produc- 
tion, and distribution are anticipated during the coming year. 

During 1975, final tests were completed on the adp program for 
cataloguing photographic caption data. Input was begun on an 
initial catalogue of approximately 10,000 photographs covering all 
aspects of the Institution. This catalogue will be available for world- 
wide distribution to educators, scientists, publishers, and other 
interested parties. 

The Office of Protection Services began operating a sentry dog 
program in the spring. Six dogs, donated to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution by private citizens, and six canine handlers, selected from the 
existing protection force, completed a comprehensive, 14-week 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

training program. The training was conducted primarily at Andrews 
Air Force Base, through the cooperation of the United States Air 
Force. Supervising this training program was a member of our 
training unit in the Protection Division, who formerly was a K-9 
trainer for the Metropolitan D. C. Police Department. Use of the 
K-9 teams started on April 14, 1975, primarily to patrol the 
grounds around our Mall facilities, the interior of areas such as the 
Silver Hill Facility, Lamont Street, the new Service Center on North 
Capitol Street, and to provide a limited amount of internal patrol 
in the Natural History Building during nonpublic hours. Dogs are 
kept on leash by their handlers throughout patrol duty. 

A significant reduction was realized in the rate of increase in 
crimes during 1974. Whereas the rate of increase was 90 percent 
in 1972 over 1971 and 51 percent in 1973 over 1972, the rate rose 
by only 4 percent in 1974 over 1973. Much of the credit for reduc- 
ing the rate of increase belongs to our expanded plainclothes 
operations in our Mall facilities. 

A new health unit, opened in 1974 in the new Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, serves employees of our south 
Mall facilities. The unit also provides first aid treatment for the 
public. Present plans include another health unit in the new Na- 
tional Air and Space Museum when it opens to the public next 

A new operational element was established to provide protection 
and security for the new nasm. The first increment of protection 
officers was placed in the Museum in the spring, with plans for 
operation to reach full strength as the Museum nears completion 
and readies for public opening. 

The Office of Supply Services processed approximately 20 percent 
more procurement and contract actions this year than in fiscal 
year 1974. This was accomplished with no increase in personnel 
while the Institution continues to expand its facilities and activities. 
The Receiving and Storage Sections were consolidated and moved 
to larger quarters at the Smithsonian Institution Service Center. 
The new facility provides for much needed working space to re- 
ceive, inspect, inventory, and store items until they are delivered. 
Standard forms and printed paper items are the only items stored 

Administrative Management I 301 

in the stock room in the Natural History Building. All other items 
are purchased by the organization units through the General Serv- 
ices Administration Self-Service Stores. This has freed supply 
personnel to form inventory teams and to insure that proper in- 
ventories are taken by the organization units, thus accounting for 
all accountable personal property. 

Participation in the Government Property Utilization Program 
brought to the Smithsonian Institution the Humphrey Diamond, 
valued at more than $100,000 and the sound and electronic equip- 
ment from EXPO 74, Spokane, Washington, which will be installed 
in the new National Air and Space Museum with a savings of over 
$150,000 to the Smithsonian. 


The Travel Services Office (tso), responsible for the accomplish- 
ment and coordination of the travel plans for the Smithsonian In- 
stitution throughout the United States and to all areas of the world, 
again this year experienced growth in all its major activities such 
as air and rail reservations and travel itineraries. 

In addition to furnishing travel services, advisory services and 
detailed planning, data were provided for the annual Festival of 
American Folklife; for national and international conferences; and 
for meetings and archeological expeditions in Yugoslavia, Israel, 
Morocco, and Tunisia. 

Of particular interest this year, in connection with the Eighth 
Annual Festival of American Folklife, tso assisted in planning for 
and providing tickets to foreign participants from Greece, Nigeria, 
Scandinavia, and Tunisia, including a tour of the United States. 

Working closely with the Accounting Division, the Travel Serv- 
ices Office participated in the implementation on October 16, 1974, 
of the new Automatic Payment Procedure System for the purchase 
of airline tickets. Also working with the Accounting Division, tso 
initiated plans for a similar system for the payment of certain rail- 
way tickets, and implementation of these procedures will occur 
early next fiscal year. 

Close liaison was maintained with the airlines to accomplish con- 
tinuing complex travel arrangements performed for the Foreign 
Currency Program of the Office of International Programs. 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The International Exchange Service is the one program bureau 
included in the Support Activities group. Since 1851 the Service 
has provided the means whereby learned societies in the United 
States can exchange their scholarly publications for those of foreign 

During the year publications were received from approximately 
250 organizations representing every state in the Union for trans- 
mission to over 100 countries. Publications were forwarded by 
ocean freight to 38 exchange bureaus in 32 countries. Where there 
are no exchange bureaus, the publications were mailed. 

Approximately 100,000 packages were received from foreign 
institutions for distribution in the United States. 

Despite the rising cost of shipping and supplies, service was 
maintained at the level of the previous year. 

Events of note for the period were the retirement of J. A. Collins 
as Director after nineteen years with the International Exchange 
Service and forty-two years with the Smithsonian Institution, and 
the move of the Service to new quarters. 

Financial Services 

The Treasurer has overall responsibility for the financial assets of 
the Smithsonian Institution. Such responsibility includes the bud- 
geting and accounting of federal appropriations, the fiscal adminis- 
tration of grants and contracts, and the monitoring of revenue- 
producing activities. Further detail on these activities is given in 
the following five reports by the Office of Programming and 
Budget, the Accounting Division, the Investment Accounting Divi- 
sion, the Grants and Insurance Administration Division, and the 
Business Management Office. 

Working closely with the Investment Policy Committee of the 
Board of Regents, the Treasurer oversees the management of the 
endowment funds of the Institution by three professional advisory 
firms, and is also responsible for the short-term investment of 
current funds excess to immediate operating needs. Details on these 
funds and the other financial resources of the Institution can be 
found in the Financial Report at the front of this volume. 

Administrative Management / 303 

The Office of Programming and Budget participates in program 
planning for the Institution and, to carry out these plans, formu- 
lates, presents, implements, and reviews operating and construction 
budgets of appropriated and nonappropriated funds. About $100 
million from many different sources were involved this year. 
Details on these sources and on the application of the funds may 
be found in the Financial Report. The Office works closely with all 
operating and managerial levels of the Institution and participates 
in presenting Federal budgets to the President's Office of Manage- 
ment and Budget and to the Congress. 

During the year, detailed operating budgets and staffing plans 
were developed with some seventy-five organization units ranging 
from the major program activities, such as museums, research 
laboratories, and the magazine Smithsonian to the supporting ser- 
vice and staff offices. Separate budgets also were prepared on a 
large number of restricted fund projects primarily of a research and 
collections management nature. Construction budget matters called 
for frequent work with the Office of Facilities Planning and 
Engineering Services and with the National Zoological Park. 

Several actions were initiated during the year to aid in the devel- 
opment and execution of the budget processes. Planning statements 
and detailed information on the amounts and uses of currently 
available financial resources were requested from all operating 
units for review prior to their submission of proposals for fol- 
lowing year budgets. Using information supplied by the bureaus 
and offices, current allocations of staff and dollar resources from 
all sources of funds to Smithsonian functions, such as research, 
conservation of collections, and exhibitions, were compiled to show 
areas of strength and weakness. The purpose of this effort was to 
allow more time for the top managers of the Institution to review 
program directions, goals, and resource adequacies before decisions 
needed to be made on future budgets. The third annual meeting to 
review and agree on Institution goals and priorities was held at the 
Chesapeake Bay Center in June 1975 to lay the groundwork for 
fiscal year 1977 and subsequent planning. 

Steps were taken to develop a computer-assisted system for the 

304 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Auction held at the National Zoo by the Women's Committee, May 22, 1975. 
Mrs. S. D. Ripley places a bid on the flower prints by Mary Vaux Walcott. 
Below: View of the supper held in the Monkey House during the auction at 
the National Zoo held by the Women's Committee, May 22, 1975. 

preparation and update of annual organization unit employment 
plans (showing positions, names of incumbents, salaries, and bene- 
fits) which are used as a key ingredient to the development of each 
operating budget. In addition to reducing the heavy manual work- 
load now required to produce these plans for about 4,000 em- 
ployees, such an automated system will allow future costs of pro- 
posed employment actions and government-wide legislated salary 
increases to be determined and assessed. The system may also 
allow the coding of the functional purposes served by staff and, 
thus, give more accurate base-analysis data for review. 

The Accounting Division regularly handles and accounts for all 
funds of the Institution, both federal and nonfederal, including 
payrolls, payments for materials and services, and receipts from 
a great variety of sources, and in addition provides over 600 finan- 
cial reports monthly to Institutional managers at unit and head- 
quarters levels. 

Continuing the accounting services program during fiscal 1975, 
the accounting staff developed and implemented efficient programs 
on the key-to-disk data entry system installed in May 1974. These 
programs permit data entry from the business document and have 
reduced the clerical copying and transfer of data from one docu- 
ment to another. As a byproduct, disbursing checks are produced 
for private funds and a magnetic tape is produced on federal trans- 
actions for automatic payment by the United States Treasury. 
Additionally, the Accounting Division completed the implementa- 
tion of an optical mark read personnel time-reporting procedure, 
and reorganized the voucher-examining routine to speed up 

The Investment Accounting Division is responsible for cash man- 
agement and cash forecasting projections for the purpose of insur- 
ing maximum investment of temporary surpluses and other 
financial management purposes. 

The Division supervises the formulation of data and maintenance 
of the ADP mechanized system utilized in the preparation of invest- 
ment ledgers, performance evaluation indices on the three invest- 

306 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


ment managers, commission reports, audit work sheets, and 

In addition, this Division performs all tasks required in applying 
the total return concept of income to the various endowment 
income funds, including the initial annual projections to determine 
normalized five-year average market valuation and the effect of 
total return on historic dollar value of the individual funds. 

The Grants and Insurance Administration Division, responsible for 
administration of gifts, grants, and contracts received by the 
Institution, administers the Institution's risk management and in- 
surance program. The Division provides administrative, manage- 
ment, and financial services to Smithsonian researchers and busi- 
ness representatives of granting agencies. It establishes and 
monitors systems and procedures to assure that funds are expended 
in accordance with appropriate regulations and contract terms. 
During the past year the Division continued its financial adminis- 
tration of these funds continually exploring various approaches to 
providing management information in meaningful and expeditious 
forms to meet better the ever-expanding administrative needs of 
the bureaus. 

The risk management program of the Institution was expanded 
through our participation in seminars and workshops. The pilot 
seminar and workshop — attended by the staff of various museums, 
including the Smithsonian — was designed to expand the knowledge 
of museum insurance problems and innovations through the ex- 
change of information and proved to be quite successful. Future 
seminars are planned to encourage further participation in solving 
the complexities of insurance and risk management problems in 
museums today. 

As in 1974, a considerable savings was realized while arranging 
a wide variety of coverages ranging from giraffe mortality insur- 
ance to short-term health insurance for the Festival of American 
Folklife participants. 

The Business Management Office has overall responsibility for the 
Museum Shops, the Product Development Program, and the Bel- 

Administrative Management I 307 

mont Conference Center, which are described below. In addition, 
it advises other Smithsonian bureaus on the negotiation and moni- 
toring of revenue-producing concessions and contracts. During the 
past year Business Management assisted in the negotiation of con- 
tracts for the construction project in the West Court of the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, for the parking concessionaire 
in the new National Air and Space Museum, and for the expansion 
of the cafeteria in the National Museum of History and Technol- 
ogy. It also assisted in implementing a number of improvements in 
the operation of the Commons dining room. 

Museum Shops 

Fiscal year 1975 saw further progress in the program of Museum 
Shop improvements which began several years ago. The sales area 
in the National Museum of History and Technology was redesigned 
completely by a leading architectural firm, and opened in March 
1975. The new design has resulted in a greater ability to serve the 
large number of visitors to this important museum, as well as in 
an architectural ambience particularly appropriate to the building. 

The opening of a new Museum Shop in the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden in October 1974 brought to seven the num- 
ber of Smithsonian buildings with Museum Shop operations. 

Financial results for the year were very satisfactory, making it 
possible for the Museum Shops for the first time to share a por- 
tion of their revenues with the museums for additions to the col- 
lections or for other worthwhile projects. 

Product Development 

The Product Development Program originated in 1972 as a means 
to make it possible for men, women, and children who cannot 
visit Washington to learn about and enjoy the historical collections 
of the Smithsonian, as well as to make it possible for the more 
than 20 million tourists who do visit the Smithsonian annually to 
take home with them various interpretations and copies of items 
in the Smithsonian to share with their neighbors and friends. 

As part of this program, the Smithsonian has entered into agree- 
ments with several leading United States manufacturers under 
which they manufacture and sell, in close coordination with the 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Smithsonian, various lines of museum-related products. In October 
1974, under one such agreement, the Fieldcrest Company intro- 
duced to the public "American Treasures/ a collection of bed- 
spreads, quilts, comforters, blankets, sheets, and towels based on 
designs found in the Smithsonian. Public reception has been 
especially favorable. Fieldcrest's second collection, "Nation of 
Nations," featuring Smithsonian designs of foreign origin, was 
introduced to the trade in May 1975 and was well received. 

Under another agreement, the Stieff Company introduced in 
fiscal year 1975 a group of silver and pewter products. Among 
these are such items as a reproduction of a punch cup which was 
part of a set presented to the commander of Fort McHenry for its 
successful defense against the British in 1812, and a reproduction 
of George Washington's wine coaster. 

In June 1975, F. Schumacher & Company introduced to the trade 
a line of decorative fabrics and wall coverings based on Smith- 
sonian designs. Fiscal year 1975 also saw the trade introduction of 
three new diorama kits from Tonka, in addition to the four which 
were brought out earlier. 

A new agreement was reached during the year with Universe 
Books, under which Universe will develop several Smithsonian 
calendars. Currently in production for 1976 are a desk engagement 
calendar and three wall calendars based on the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, the National Collection of Fine Arts, and 
the National Museum of Natural History. 

Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center, located between the District of 
Columbia and Baltimore near Interstate 95, provides an attractive, 
secluded, gracious, and exclusive retreat unusual in the Eastern 
Corridor. Its easy access to the Baltimore-Washington airports, as 
well as to automotive arteries, impresses upon its guests the 
enjoyable paradox of a rural setting with the conveniences of 
urban proximity but without its complexities. One of the major 
advantages of Belmont is its use by only one group at any one 
time; schedules are so arranged as to avoid the overlap and 
attendant discomforts often encountered in other conference centers 
and hotels. Since its opening in 1967, conference operations have 
been directed toward the needs of small groups which require a 

Administrative Management I 309 

location unencumbered by the normal intrusions associated with 
offices. The 240-year-old manor house, with 365 surrounding acres 
of lawns, forests, and fields, provides a working retreat for the 
productive groups which keep returning to the Center. 

Belmont can accommodate twenty-four in-house residents, with 
facilities for ten to twelve additional guests, speakers, or observers 
for meals and meeting sessions. This limiting size factor ensures 
that each conference has the undivided and individual attention of 
the entire staff, as well as the opportunity for unusually close inter- 
action within the meeting group itself. Of the eighty or so meetings 
which Belmont hosts in a year, approximately 60 percent are from 
federally-funded agencies; the balance include those from founda- 
tions and other philanthropic organizations; professional, religious, 
and social groups; corporations and private industry; and uni- 
versities and colleges. 

Office of Audits 

During fiscal year 1975, the Office of Audits issued audit reports 
on the Special Events Branch, Certain Foreign Gifts Acquired by 
the Smithsonian, the Smithsonian Exhibits Program, the Office of 
Museum Programs, the Protection Division, and the Accounting 
Division Travel Unit. Audit recommendations made in these re- 
ports have resulted in dollar savings and improved management 
procedures and controls. In addition, various pre-award and post- 
audits of contracts and grants were completed. 

Smithsonian Women's Council 

Activities of the Smithsonian Women's Council began successfully 
this year with the appointment of a coordinator to develop plans 
for a child-care center for Smithsonian employees. With the full 
and continuing support of the Secretary and his Executive Com- 
mittee, studies now are underway to bring the employee child-care 
project to favorable realization. 

310 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The Council coordinated and participated actively with the 
Office of Personnel Administration and the Office of Equal Oppor- 
tunity in a wide variety of special programs, including observance 
of Women's Week in August. The keynote speaker was Wilma 
Scott Heide, noted feminist and former Chairperson of the National 
Organization for Women. Additional features were seminars, 
lectures, films, and an exhibition on women's achievements in the 
arts and sciences in the Pendulum area of the History and Tech- 
nology Building. During the week an in-depth workshop on career 
planning was inaugurated for Smithsonian employees. The con- 
tinuation of these workshops as a regular part of the Smithsonian 
personnel program also realizes a goal of the Council to provide 
employees with in-house career counseling. 

This year the Women's Council began a permanent column in 
the Torch — an important means of communication with Smith- 
sonian employees. The column featured articles about Council 
activities and other matters, such as the Upward Mobility Program 
and career development and training programs. 

On March 4, 5, and 6, members of the Women's Council at- 
tended an orientation training program conducted by LaVerne 
Love, Smithsonian's Women's Program Coordinator. This program 
provided an opportunity for the Council members to become 
acquainted with women's programs in government agencies, as well 
as those in the Smithsonian. 

Films on breast and uterine cancer, sponsored by the Council in 
March, were well attended. A physician from the American Cancer 
Society was present after the film to answer questions and discuss 
the technique of breast self-examination. 

A Thursday Seminar series of outstanding speakers was begun 
by the Council in May. This series, designed to appeal to all 
Smithsonian employees, has featured Euphesenia Foster, Education 
and Special Projects Officer, Department of Justice, Bureau of 
Prisons, who spoke about her work on sensitizing the public to the 
needs of the woman offender; Dr. Estelle Ramey, Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical School, 
whose subject was "Sex Hormones and the G5 Rating"; and Mr. 
William Blakey, Director of Congressional Liaison for the United 
States Commission on Civil Rights. The Thursday Seminar series 
has been received enthusiastically by Smithsonian employees. 

Administrative Management I 311 


Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Fellow Elliot Richardson addresses 
conference on the problems of New England, held at the Center in October 1974. 

Smithsonian Year • 7975 





Late in 1968, the Congress determined that the official national 
memorial to the twenty-eighth president of the United States 
should be a "living memorial." This congressional decision to build 
a living memorial for a great scholar-president has enabled a new 
international center for advanced scholarship to emerge in Wash- 
ington. It is well on the way to becoming a place which makes a 
difference; a center in which humanistic, Wilsonian connections 
are made between intellect and moral purpose, the world of ideas 
and the world of affairs. 

People, ideas, and communication are the essentials of scholar- 
ship. The activity of this Center is a creative mix of all three: 
people who can think, ideas that matter, and communication that 
gets through. 


Finding gifted people to investigate important ideas is the main 
business of the Center. The principal task is the difficult but stimu- 
lating search for men and women with the right combination of 
discipline, dedication, and focus. 

Happily, there has been gratifying variety among fellows in the 
last year. Though their number is small (thirty-five fellows at a 


time is customary), different backgrounds and cultures are always 
present. The past year we have welcomed a marine engineer from 
the navy with the world's record for deep-sea diving; the former 
attorney general of the United States; former head of the Chilean 
Christian Democratic Party; former presidents of Johns Hopkins 
University and of the American Political Science Association; 
active leaders of major international studies programs in New Delhi, 
Tokyo, and Oxford; distinguished scholars of international law 
from Australia, France, Israel, and Poland; and thoughtful journal- 
ists writing major books on European-American relations, re- 
gionalism in America, and the reporting of news in Washington, 
D. C. 


From the beginning, the Center has sought to reserve some of its 
fellowships for certain areas of special emphasis. In May 1974, the 
Board of Trustees formally adopted the recommendations of a 
committee chaired by Paul McCracken that the Center be organized 
into three broadly defined scholarly divisions: Historical and Cul- 
tural Studies; Social and Political Studies; and Resources, Environ- 
ment, and Interdependence. This arrangement creates no permanent 
positions or restrictive barriers within our interdisciplinary body, 
but it will enable us to plan for a balanced company of fellows 
chosen by panels with relevant disciplinary qualifications. 

Historical and Cultural Studies represent the new humanistic 
thrust of the Center. There are three special areas of emphasis 
within this division. First is a cluster of scholars working on the 
period of the American Revolution and the early constitution, 
which has given the Center a bicentennial focus well before the 
national celebrations are scheduled to begin. Three fellows working 
at the Center on projects in the period of the American Revolution 
devised and put together on behalf of the Center scholarly mate- 
rials and an intellectual framework for a special session of the 
House of Representatives on September 25, 1974, commemorating 
the 200th anniversary of the First Continental Congress. Jack 
Greene compiled the special publication of documents and Martin 
Diamond provided the commentary on nationwide public television 

314 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

for what was, in effect, the opening event in the celebration of the 
Nation's 200th birthday. 

In the memorial to an internationalist president it is fitting to 
focus special attention on key areas of concern abroad. Thus, the 
Board of Trustees established in December 1974, under the leader- 
ship of Center fellow George Kennan, a new Institute for Ad- 
vanced Russian Studies. Mr. Kennan's unique stature as the senior 
scholar-statesman of Soviet-American relations makes him a 
uniquely appropriate chairman of the advisory council for this new 
effort within the Center. Assembling a small but superior group of 
fellows in this area will permit greater use of the unmatched re- 
sources in Washington, and will hopefully serve as a fresh catalyst 
for the continuing national effort to understand better the other 
great superpower. 

A third special area within the Historical and Cultural Studies 
division will consider the role of the visual media (film and tele- 
vision) in contemporary culture. On the basis of extensive staff 
study and the counsel of outside advisors, the Center decided late 
in 1974 to encourage applications in this area through the regular 
fellowship competition. 

Social and Political Studies is the division dealing with areas that 
specially interested Woodrow Wilson as both a scholar and states- 
man. In response to a Board decision to devote special attention to 
the institutions of American government as they enter their third 
century, the Center launched a special program in State and Local 
Government in 1973. Careful staff study and an outside advisory 
group helped devise a program to encourage scholarly studies by 
practitioners. By mid-1974 a company of five were pursuing indi- 
vidual studies in this area at the Center. Elliot Richardson was the 
first fellow in this division and became chairman of the outside 
advisory group. Substantial funding for the program was provided 
by the Ford Foundation. 

Other studies in this division have dealt with government insti- 
tutions at the federal level — ranging from philosophical analysis 
of proportional representation by a professor from Cologne to an 
interview-based study of management techniques in the United 
States executive branch by a professor from Glasgow. 

Resources, Environment, and Interdependence, the third division 
of the Center, includes subjects specially emphasized by the Center 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 315 

in its formative early years: uses of the oceans, problems of the 
environment, and the prospects for sustainable economic growth. 
Significant work has been done at the Center in these areas — 
particularly in preparing for international conferences, producing 
informed awareness of key problems, and sponsoring public pre- 
sentations and meetings at the Center (as well as two conferences 
each at Wingspread, Wisconsin, and Ditchley, England). After 
reviewing work at the Center in these areas, the Board reaffirmed, 
in June 1974, its continued commitment to further study in the 
fields covered by this division. 


The determination to communicate is second only in the life of this 
Center to the prior, basic need to gather people with something 
worth saying. We were gratified that the Congress authorized a 
modest increase in the Center's appropriation for fiscal year 1975 
to create a new program of "public service" — the main purpose of 
which is to share more broadly the fruits of the fellows' scholarship. 

Every fellow at the Center has a major individual project. Publi- 
cation of the results of these projects is one of the Center's major 

There are also other types of publications — some of them more 
widely read than traditional scholarly monographs. Scores of major 
articles in magazines and dozens of smaller pieces have been 

Our desire systematically to disseminate thoughtful, short pieces 
by Center fellows led the Board in December 1974 to authorize the 
founding of a quarterly journal by the Center. Peter Braestrup, a 
distinguished journalist and fellow of the Center, will edit this 
new publishing venture, which should begin to appear in 1975. 

Another area of planned Center publication lies in the field of 
scholarly inventories. The Center followed bibliographical work 
in the environmental area with a worldwide survey of research in 
progress on the subject of sustainable growth. The first version of 
this inventory was rapidly exhausted when it appeared this past 
year, and a final revised version will be completed early in 1975. 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The Center also plans to begin preparing in 1975 the first of perhaps 
several readable guides to Washington resources as a service to the 
entire scholarly community. 

A basic rule for all meetings at the Center is that they must 
assume the form of dialogue. Unlike Universities, where the basic 
form of intellectual exchange is still the lecture-monologue, the 
Center insists that all public discourse involve more than one 
speaker in some form of structured exchange. There are basically 
three types of dialogue at the Center: 

Pre-luncheon discussions are held every Tuesday and Friday pro- 
viding an opportunity for informal, internal discussion among the 
fellows and with a variety of distinguished guests. Informal dia- 
logue has been notably enriched at the Center during this past year 
by the establishment of a new buffet-dining room for Center fellows 
in the fourth floor seminar room of the "Castle" building. 

Late afternoon colloquia on work-in-progress are generally given 
by all fellows at some time in the course of their stay at the Center. 
A fellow also serves at some time as the appointed critic of another's 
presentation, focussing discussion on key ideas rather than minor 
debating points. Attendance at these sessions is purely optional, 
but generally high. 

Evening dialogues provide an opportunity, thanks to a generous 
grant from the Xerox Corporation, to assemble carefully invited 
groups of thirty to thirty-five persons for the sustained discussion 
of questions of fundamental importance. These evenings begin with 
an uninterrupted dialogue of more than an hour among two or 
three specially qualified speakers. After dinner, members of the 
public and others join the discussion at a deeper level than is pos- 
sible under the pressure of day-to-day work. The evening dialogues 
have been taped by Radio Smithsonian and broadcast over public 

Woodroiv Wilson International Center for Scholars / 317 

Smithsonian Year • 1975 



Since September 6, 1971, when the Kennedy Center opened with 
the first preview of Leonard Bernstein's Mass, more than 4000 per- 
formances, nearly 6,000,000 opera-, ballet-, concert-, and theater- 
goers, an estimated 12,000,000 sightseers, and a host of national 
programs have affirmed the viability of the dual concept of national 
cultural center and living memorial. 

The Center's first four seasons have not been without moments 
of trial, as might be expected in such a massive and unprecedented 
undertaking, but public response has proved extraordinarily favor- 
able and support, almost overwhelming. It is particularly satisfying 
to note that the Nation's Capital has gained, at long last, a proper 
national and international reputation for the quality of its perform- 
ing arts facilities and activities. 

The Center's 1974-1975 season proved the most successful thus 
far and set the stage for a series of exciting projects and programs 
to come. A total of 1041 performances were presented in the three 
major halls from July 1, 1974, through June 30, 1975. These in- 
cluded 619 performances of drama and musical comedy, 167 sym- 
phony concerts, 30 performances of 14 operas, 98 performances of 
dance, 25 recitals, 29 choral concerts, 44 concerts of popular music, 
12 chamber concerts, 8 performances of mime, 4 variety, and 5 
comedy programs. 

The theater season presented a spectacular array of performers 
and productions. During the summer months, three musical revivals 
— / Do! I Do!, starring Carol Burnett and Rock Hudson, Seesaw, 


Mstislav Rostropovich acknowledges a thunderous ovation. 
Photo: Richard Braaten 

with John Gavin and Lucie Arnaz, and Gypsy, with Angela Lans- 
bury in her Tony Award-winning role — played to capacity audi- 
ences in the Opera House, while in the Eisenhower Theater, Sir 
Ralph Richardson starred in William Douglas Home's delightful 
comedy, Lloyd George Knew My Father, and Eva Marie Saint gave 
a stunning performance in her third Center production, O'Neill's 
Desire Under the Elms. 

In September, the Center welcomed Geraldine Page, Sandy 
Dennis, and Richard Kiley in Alan Ayckbourn's hilarious comedy. 
Absurd Person Singular, which has subsequently enjoyed tremen- 
dous success on Broadway. The enormously talented John Wood 
followed in the title role of the Royal Shakespeare Company pro- 
duction of Sherlock Holmes, and the incomparable Donald Sinden 
delighted audiences in another Royal Shakespeare production, 
London Assurance. 

Bernadette Peters and Robert Preston starred in a new musical. 
Mack and Mabel, based upon the lives of filmmaker Mack Sennett 
and his leading lady, Mabel Normand, and returning as stars of 
Terence Rattigan's moving drama. In Praise of Love, were Rex 
Harrison and Julie Harris, who had each appeared previously in the 
Opera House. 

Deborah Kerr spent her second consecutive Christmas season at 
the Center, starring with Barry Nelson in Edward Albee's new play. 
Seascape, and Yul Brynner and Joan Diener played the Opera 
House for an unprecedented six weeks in the Center-produced 
musical, Odyssey, prior to an eight-month national tour. 

The late winter months featured the New Phoenix Repertory 
Company's production of Carson McCuller's The Member of the 
Wedding and Owen's Song, a spirited production presented by 
Washington's Workshops for Careers in the Arts. Elizabeth Ashley 
displayed her considerable talent as Maggie in a critically acclaimed, 
post-Broadway engagement of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, and Ingrid 
Bergman made a welcome return to the Opera House in Somerset 
Maugham's stylish comedy. The Constant Wife. 

Diana Rigg and Alec McCowen starred in a sparkling British 
National Theatre production of Moliere's The Misanthrope, and 
James Earl Jones and Kevin Conway subsequently led a fine cast 
in John Steinbeck's shattering drama. Of Mice and Men. 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

During April, the seventh annual American College Theatre 
Festival presented ten outstanding college and university produc- 
tions, which were selected during a series of regional festivals in 
which over 330 schools participated. Included in this year's activi- 
ties were the presentation of the winning play in the William Morris 
Agency's New Play writing Award Competition, Medea: A Noh 
Cycle Based on the Creek Myth, the annual Irene Ryan Scholarship 
program, in which thirteen student actors competed for two $2,000 
scholarships provided from a fund established by the late Irene 
Ryan, and a series of symposia in playwriting and drama criticism 
for students, made possible by a grant from the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts. Sponsored by amoco, the Festival is presented 
each year by the Kennedy Center, the Alliance for Arts Education, 
and the Smithsonian Institution and is produced by the American 
Theatre Association. 

Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., who scored such a success in the Center's 
1972 production of The Pleasure of His Company, returned to close 
the 1975 season with a record-breaking run of Noel Coward's mar- 
velous comedy. Present Laughter. 

The musical season was no less spectacular with concerts by 
twenty-one major orchestras and appearances by such renowned 
artists as Rudolf Serkin, Van Cliburn, EUzabeth Schwarzkopf, 
Pierre Cochereau, Marilyn Home, and Andres Segovia. 

A unique five-day festival offered audiences an extraordinary 
opportunity to observe and enjoy the multifaceted talents of 
Mstislav Rostropovich. During the festival, Rostropovich appeared 
in solo cello recital, in his American debut as symphony conductor, 
as piano accompanist to his wife, Galina Vishnevskaya, one of the 
world's foremost sopranos, and as chamber-orchestra conductor 
and cello soloist. To the delight of all, it was announced shortly 
after the close of the festival that Rostropovich would assume 
artistic leadership of the Center's resident National Symphony 
Orchestra in 1977. 

A Schoenberg-Ives Festival, sponsored by the Alliance for Arts 
Education, paid tribute to the two musical giants of the twentieth 
century on the occasion of the one-hundredth anniversary of their 
births and featured a series of eight free performances by univer- 
sity and conservatory orchestras. Each performance was preceded 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 321 

by an open symposium, during which the performers and conduc- 
tors discussed their programs and exchanged ideas with members 
of the audience. 

The opera season opened with four Rome Piccolo Opera produc- 
tions, // Maestro di Cappella, La Cambiale di matrimonio, II Filosofo 
di Campagna, and // Mercato di Malmantile, presented as a part 
of the Venetian Festival. This festival, made possible through the 
generosity of the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation and 
presented in cooperation with the Italian government, featured 
many of the most glorious musical works of the Renaissance and 
Baroque periods. 

As its contribution to the Venetian Festival, the Opera Society 
of Washington presented a revival of its much-acclaimed produc- 
tion of Monteverdi's L'Incoronazione di Poppea. The Society sub- 
sequently continued its season with productions of Die Walkiire 
and Salome. 

The New York City Opera paid its annual visit to the Center in 
late spring and presented a total of seven productions, including 
Bellini's / Puritani, with Beverly Sills, Manon Lescaut, Madama 
Butterfly, Die Fledermaus, La Traviata, Die Tote Stadt, and The 

A brilliant dance season featured six of the world's foremost 
companies: the American Ballet Theatre, with such artists as Mi- 
khail Baryshnikov, Cynthia Gregory, and Natalia Makarova; the 
New York City Ballet; the Alvin Ailey City Center Dance Theatre; 
the Joffrey Ballet; the Stuttgart Ballet; and the spectacular Bolshoi 

One of the most heartening developments over the past four 
years has been the phenomenal growth of the Washington dance 
audience. Prior to the Center's completion, major dance companies 
were unable to perform in Washington for lack of an adequate 
facility. Now, such companies are virtually assured capacity audi- 
ences and an exceptionally enthusiastic response. 

Obviously, such programming as was presented during the 1974- 
1975 season is not without considerable expense. The Center is 
solely dependent upon income from theater operations, concession 
revenue, and private contributions for its performing arts activities, 
and support from the private sector is critically important to the 
carrying out of an extensive public service program. 

322 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

American Ballet Theatre principal dancers, Mikhail Baryshnikov and Gelsey Kirkland. 

Photo: Richard Braaten 

During the past year, the Center has been the grateful recipient 
of a number of major programming grants. Mobil Oil Corporation 
generously sponsored the annual holiday festival, "The Twelve 
Days of Christmas," which featured over forty free performances 
staged throughout each day of the twelve-day period. One event, 
the enormously popular "Messiah Sing-In," drew a capacity Con- 
cert Hall audience and was broadcast to hundreds of additional 
listeners in the Grand Foyer, 

The Center has also continued to host Mobil's series of weekly 
National Town Meetings, which afford citizens and leaders a fas- 
cinating opportunity to debate and discuss topics of major national 

McDonald's Restaurants, sponsor of the Center's two previous 
Christmas festivals, provided funding for a week-long "Spring 
Festival of American Music," as the company's gift to the tens of 
thousands of visitors to Washington during Easter week. The 
Spring Festival, with a total of thirty-five free performances, drew 
over 35,000 people and included music from all periods of American 
history. Highlighting the festival, which officially launched the Cen- 
ter's Bicentennial celebration, was a performance of the works of 
Aaron Copeland, conducted by the composer himself. 

In an extraordinary gesture, Xerox Corporation announced plans 
to underwrite the Center's entire 1975-1976 theater season. Entitled 
"American Bicentennial Theatre," the season will include ten excit- 
ing productions of American plays and will draw upon the talents 
of some of the most outstanding performers and directors in the 
American theater. With the help of Xerox, the Center will be, for 
the first time, in a position to produce an entire theater season 

IBM has very generously provided funding for another major 
Bicentennial project, an exhibition entitled "America On Stage: 
200 Years of the Performing Arts." The exhibition, scheduled to 
open in December 1975, will be housed on the Center's roof-terrace 
level and will reflect the history and development of the American 
performing arts experience. 

Exxon has provided a grant for a "bicentennial Parade of Ameri- 
can Music," conceived and produced by the National Music Council 
and featuring free concerts by performing groups from each of the 

324 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Members of "The Fast-Flying Vestibule" perform during the Spring Festival 
of American Music. Photo: Richard Braaten 

fifty states and the District of Columbia. In addition, the corpora- 
tion has agreed to underwrite three major concerts and two oper- 
ettas during the Bicentennial season. 

The Prudential Insurance Company of America will sponsor a 
cavalcade of American song, dance, and legend, entitled "Sing 
America Sing." The production, written and directed by Oscar 
Brand, will be presented in the Concert Hall during a two-week 
period in September. 

The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation not only spon- 
sored the Venetian Festival but generously provided a grant which 
will enable the Center to present the legendary Bolshoi Opera to 
Washington audiences during July 1975. The Opera, with a com- 
pany of more than 450, will appear only in Washington and New 

Not all gifts to the Center during the past year have been pro- 
gram-related. In November, the government of Colombia formally 
presented a striking metal sculpture, by Colombian sculptor Eduardo 
Ramirez, for the south lawn. The Center has also received two 
stunning, hand-crafted oil lamps from the government of Sri Lanka 
and six magnificent wool carpets from the government of Morocco. 
The China Institute in America, Inc., has generously undertaken 
the decoration of a Chinese Room on the second tier of the Concert 

By the very nature of its establishing legislation, the Kennedy 
Center is far more than a series of theaters and a tourist attraction, 
and its educational responsibilities are keenly felt. 

As a part of its educational endeavor, the Center distributed over 
140,000 tickets during 1974-1975, through its Specially Priced 
Ticket Program. This program, designed to make the Center's per- 
formances accessible to all, regardless of economic circumstances, 
enables students, the handicapped, retired persons over the age of 
sixty-five, military personnel in the lower grades, and low-income 
groups to purchase tickets at half price. 

A series of free, daytime programs have been developed in an 
effort to provide sightseers with a performing-arts experience dur- 
ing their visit to the Center. In addition to festival programming, 
there are weekly demonstrations of the workings of the Concert 
Hall's Filene Memorial Organ, with participation by area organists. 

326 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

These demonstrations are co-sponsored by the Friends of the Ken- 
nedy Center and the National Park Service. 

During 1974-1975, weekly performing-arts seminars were spon- 
sored by the Friends of the Kennedy Center, the National Sym- 
phony Orchestra, and the Park Service. The seminars were designed 
to provide an additional forum for the brilliant performers who 
appear at the Center and an opportunity for local audiences and 
the thousands of visitors to gain a deeper understanding and appre- 
ciation of the arts through an immediate exchange with these artists. 

The Center also welcomed over 50,000 Washington-area school- 
children to a series of free concerts, sponsored by the National 
Symphony Orchestra and the Washington Performing Arts Society. 

The national Alliance for Arts Education, a joint project of the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Kennedy 
Center, was established in 1973 to help the Center fulfill its Con- 
gressional mandate "to develop programs in the arts for children 
and youth which are designed specifically for their participation, 
education and recreation." 

The AAE is concerned with and dedicated to furthering the arts 
as a major ingredient in the education of every child and to fostering 
cooperation between institutions and programs which are similarly 
involved. To achieve its purpose, the aae has established com- 
mittees in the District of Columbia, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 
and forty-eight states. These committees are responsible for devel- 
oping and assisting in the implementation of comprehensive state 
arts programs. 

On the national level, the Center provides opportunities for 
demonstration programs and representative performance activities 
through a National aae Showcase series. During the summer of 
1974, eighteen groups representing theater, music, dance, film, and 
aesthetic and perceptual education, visual arts, and arts programs 
for the mentally retarded were included in Showcase activities, 
which ranged from elementary through college levels. Throughout 
the year, the aae also sponsored a number of free performances in 
close cooperation with the Friends of the Kennedy Center and the 
National Park Service. 

In addition to involvement in special programs, the Friends of 
the Kennedy Center provide vital support to a myriad of Center 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 327 

projects and activities. The Friends, established as the Center's 
auxiliary organization in 1966, now number over 10,000. Volunteer 
members have given literally thousands of hours of their time con- 
ducting tours, providing information, managing souvenir stands, 
and overseeing the Specially Priced Ticket Program. 

During 1974-1975, the Friends and the National Park Service 
provided information, assistance, and hospitality to over 2.5 million 
visitors. The National Park Service, which assumed responsibility 
for maintaining the Center as a national memorial in 1972, has 
enhanced the operation enormously by carrying out vital main- 
tenance, security, information, and interpretation functions. The 
Park Service is reimbursed by the Center for the performing-arts 
portion of maintenance costs. 

Although organizationally a bureau of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, the Center is administered separately by a forty-five-member 
Board of Trustees, composed of thirty members appointed by the 
President to ten-year overlapping terms and fifteen members ex- 
officio from pertinent government agencies, the Senate, and the 
House of Representatives. 

During the past year, President Ford reappointed Frank N. Ikard, 
Mrs. Stephen Smith, and Ms. Donna J. Stone and also named as 
members The Honorable Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen, The Honorable 
J. William Fulbright, R. Phillip Hanes, Jr., and The Honorable Mel- 
vin Laird. Both Mr. Frelinghuysen and Mr. Fulbright have pre- 
viously served as ex-officio members. 

The President of the Senate has appointed The Honorable Ed- 
ward M. Kennedy to represent the Senate, and The Honorable 
Marvin L. Esch has been named by the Speaker of the House to 
represent the House of Representatives. 

Mrs. Gerald R. Ford has graciously consented to serve as Honor- 
ary Chairman of the Center and joins Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower, 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis, Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, and Mrs. Richard 
Nixon in that capacity. 

By unanimous vote, the Board of Trustees elected Mrs. George 
A. Garrett the Center's first and only Honorary Trustee, in recog- 
nition of her years of dedicated service to the institution. Mrs. 
Garrett served as a member of the Board from 1958 until 1975. 

Members of the Board of Trustees at the close of fiscal year 1975 
are as follows: 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Richard Adler 

Ralph E. Becker 

Terrel H. Bell 

J. Carter Brown 

Mrs. Edward F. Cox 

Ralph W. Ellison 

The Honorable Marvin L. Esch 

Gary E. Everhardt 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

The Honorable Abe Fortas 

The Honorable Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

The Honorable J. William Fulbright 

Leonard H. Goldenson 

R. PhiUip Hanes, Jr. 

Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 

Frank N. Ikard 

The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy 

The Honorable Thomas H. Kuchel 

The Honorable Melvin R. Laird 

Gustave L. Levy 

John G. Lorenz 

Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

Robert L Millonzi 

The Honorable Charles H. Percy 

The Honorable John Richardson, Jr. 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley II 

The Honorable Teno Roncalio 

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Ms. Donna J. Stone 

Henry Strong 

William H. Thomas 

The Honorable Frank Thompson, Jr. 

Benjamin A. Trustman 

The Honorable John V. Tunney 

Jack J. Valenti 

The Honorable Walter E. Washington 

Lew R. Wasserman 

The Honorable Caspar W. Weinberger 

Mrs. Jack Wrather 

John f. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 329 

The Repentant Magdalen by Georges de La Tour (detail). 
Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 1974. 


Smithsonian Year • 1975 



The national gallery of art, although formally established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and sepa- 
rately administered organization. It is governed by its own Board of 
Trustees, the statutory members of which are the Chief Justice of 
the United States, Chairman; the Secretary of State; the Secretary 
of the Treasury; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
all ex officio; and five general trustees. Paul Mellon continued as 
president of the Gallery and John Hay Whitney as vice president. 
The other general trustees continuing to serve were Carlisle H. 
Humelsine, Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, and Stoddard M. Stevens. 

During the fiscal year 1975 the Gallery had over 1,827,300 

A number of important works of art were acquired. By far the 
most significant — in fact, the most important single acquisition 
since Leonardo's Ginevra de'Benci in 1967 — was Georges de La 
Tour's The Repentant Magdalen (1640), purchased after lengthy 
negotiations with the owner and the French government, which in 
the end graciously permitted its export. 

Seven works of sculpture were added to the collection including 
a della Porta bronze of Pope Paul III and Saint-Gauden's bronze 
Diana of the Tower. 

Among the 987 works of graphic art acquired were thirty-seven 
drawings, among them Guercino's powerful Fisherman and a 
Jordaens watercolor. The 950 prints accessioned included Vuillard's 
Tuileries Garden, Nolde's Candle-Dancer and several important 
works by Piranesi. 


Eleven exhibitions were shown at the Gallery during the year, 
including six important loan shows. By far the most significant in 
terms of popular attraction and general historical interest was the 
"Exhibition of Archaeological Finds of The People's Republic of 
China" which, in fifteen midwinter weeks, drew 685,000 viewers. 
The exhibitions are listed at the close of this section. 

From its collections, the Gallery made loans to thirty-eight exhi- 
bitions at fifty-three institutions including eight abroad. Included 
were forty-eight paintings, two sculptures, and 293 graphics. 

A newly created Extension Program Development Department 
headed by Joseph J. Reis, former Director of Education at the Mil- 
waukee Art Center, began its task of forward planning, production 
and revision of the audio-visual programs circulated nationally by 
the Gallery. The total number of bookings of Extension Service 
materials, film strips, slide lectures and films was 27,088. The total 
estimated audience in all fifty states and abroad was nearly three 
million. Another educational program. Art and Man, published in 
cooperation with Scholastic Magazines, Inc., reached over four 
thousand classrooms in every state- 
Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's Education De- 
partment and at the programs presented in the auditorium was 
163,728. These included the regularly scheduled auditorium lectures 
and films, the Introduction to the Collection, the Tour of the 
Week, and Painting of the Week, as well as special introductory 
presentations keyed to three of the exhibitions. There were thirty- 
three guest lecturers including the twenty-third annual A. W. 
Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts, H. C. Robbins Landon, who 
gave a series of seven lectures with slides and musical excerpts 
entitled "Music in Europe in 1776." Other distinguished scholars 
from abroad who lectured included Carl Nordenfalk, Sir John 
Pope-Hennessey, and Sir Ellis Waterhouse, the Kress Professor in 

The Conservation staff had a busy year restoring important 
works of art, surveying paintings in the Gallery and on protracted 
loans elsewhere, fitting desiccants to many of the cases holding 
the treasures in the Chinese archaeological exhibition, as well as 
detailed planning for the new and substantially enlarged con- 
servation laboratory on which construction is expected to start 
in the fall of 1976 in the Gallery's main building. 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

The Research Project at Carnegie-Mellon University continues 
to provide technical advice on polymers, pigments and illumina- 
tion to museums both in the United States and abroad, in the past 
year assisting the Library of Congress, the Corning Museum of 
Glass, Museum of Modern Art, Art Institute of Chicago, Walters 
Art Gallery, Carnegie Museum, and the Society for the Preservation 
of New England Antiquities. 

In the Library the year was marked by the acquisition from Milan 
of the Reti Library, one of the world's finest collections of material 
on Leonardo. More than four thousand other books and pamphlets 
were received in addition to 83,260 photographs for the Photo- 
graphic Archives. 

The Publications Room had a banner year selling over eighty 
thousand of the illustrated catalogues of the Chinese exhibition 
and handling 498,325 over-the-counter orders and 6891 mail orders. 

The Music Program continued to draw enthusiastic audiences 
and critical acclaim. Forty Sunday evening concerts were presented, 
including five world premieres and seventeen first Washington per- 
formances of works by a total of nineteen composers. String en- 
sembles from the National Gallery Orchestra played on four other 
public occasions. Radio Station wgms broadcast each concert, all but 
two live. 

During the year the main outlines of the new East Building took 
form above Pennsylvania Avenue and the Mall. The eastern tower 
rose to roof level, and the Study Center construction reached the 
seventh of its eight levels above grade. The huge trusses that con- 
nect the towers along the Pennsylvania Avenue and Fourth Street 
facades were put into place in the autumn. The exterior marble 
covered much of the building to the third level and part of the 
south wall to the fifth. 

The concourse-cafeteria area progressed rapidly once the trace 
of Fourth Street was restored to its original alignment. Excavation 
and foundation mat were completed, and, by June, this connecting 
link between the present building and the new East Building was 
almost entirely covered over at plaza level by form-work or com- 
pleted pours of concrete. 

National Gallery of Art I 333 


American Textiles: Watercolors from the Index of American Design 
Continued from the previous fiscal year through July 15, 1974. 

Recent Acquisitions and Promised Gifts: Sculpture, Drawings, Prints 
Continued from the previous fiscal year through August 4, 1974. 

African Art and Motion 

Continued from the previous fiscal year through September 22, 1974. 

M. C. Escher Prints 

July 26 through December 30, 1974. 

Venetian Drawings from American Collections 
September 29 through November 24, 1974. 

The Exhibition of Archaeological Finds of The People's Republic of 
December 13, 1974, through March 30, 1975. 

Rubens, Van Dyck & Jordaens: Prints & Drawings 
January 8 through February 19, 1975. 

"The Sick Girl," by Edvard Munch 
January 23 through March 6, 1975. 

Medieval and Renaissance Miniatures from the National Gallery of Art 
January 26 through March 23, 1975. 

Lithographs Printed at the Tamarind Workshop, Inc., Los Angeles 
February 21 through the end of the fiscal year. 

Jacques Callot: Prints and Related Drawings 

June 29, 1975, through the end of the fiscal year. 

Board of Trustees 


The Chief Justice of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chairman 
The Secretary of State 

Henry A. Kissinger 
The Secretary of the Treasury 

William E. Simon 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

S. Dillon Ripley 


Carlisle H. Humelsine 
Paul Mellon 
Franklin D. Murphy 
Stoddard M. Stevens 
John Hay Whitney 

334 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Smithsonian Year • 7^75 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, pag^ 336 
and Commissions, June 30, 1975 

2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program Research 344 
Supported in Fiscal Year 1975 

3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded in Fiscal Year 1975 347 

4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, and 350 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 352 
in Fiscal Year 1975 

6. Bibliography of Research Supported Through the 363 
Facilities of the Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute Marine Laboratories During Their First 
Ten Years, 1965-1975 

7. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Staff 

in Fiscal Year 1975 373 

8. Selected Contributions of the Smithsonian Institution Staff 426 
in Fiscal Year 1975 

9. Fellows and Guest Scholars of the Woodrow Wilson 468 
International Center for Scholars Since Its Inception, 

October 1970, Through June 1975 

10. Academic Appointments, 1974-1975 470 

11. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1975 478 

12. Smithsonian Associates Membership, 1974-1975 504 

13. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution 514 
in Fiscal Year 1975 

14. List of Volunteers Who Served the 571 
Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1975 

15. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1975 590 


APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, 
and Commissions, June 30, 1975 

Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Frank E. Moss, Member of the Senate 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 

Sidney R. Yates, Member of the House of Representatives 

John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Executive Committee, Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor of the Board of Regents 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb, Chairman 

The Smithsonian Council 

Dr. Roger D. Abrahams. Chairman, Department of English, Professor of Eng- 
lish and Anthropology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Dr. H. Harvard Arnason. Art Historian, River Road, Roxbury, Connecticut 
(Honorary Member). 

Professor George A. Bartholomew. Department of Zoology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, California. 

Dr. Muriel M. Berman. Civic, art, and college affairs, "20 Hundred" Notting- 
harn Road, Allentown, Pennsylvania (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Herman R. Branson. President, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania (Honor- 
ary Mernber). 

Dr. Frederick H. Burkhardt. President Emeritus, American Council of Learned 
Societies, RFD #1, Bennington, Vermont. 

Professor Archie F. Carr, Jr. Department of Biology, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida. 

Professor Carl W. Condit. Center for Urban Affairs, Northwestern University, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Mrs. Camille W. Cook. Assistant Dean, University of Alabama School of Law, 

Ms. Anne d'Harnoncourt, Curator, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Parkway at 
26th Street, P.O. Box 7646, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Professor Fred R. Eggan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Dr. Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Washington (Honorary Member). 

Professor Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American Civiliza- 
tion, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Honorary 

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cali- 

Dr. Peter C. Goldmark. Goldmark Communications Corporation, Stamford, 

Dr. Frank B. Golley. Executive Director, Institute of Ecology, University of 
Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 

Dr. Philip Handler. President, National Acaderny of Sciences, Washington, 
D.C. (Honorary Member). 

Dr. David Hawkins. Director, Mountain View Center for Environmental Edu- 
cation, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Professor Nathan I. Huggins. Department of History, Columbia University, 
New York, New York. 

Dr. Jan LaRue. Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Music, New York 
University, New York, New York (Honorary Member). 

Dr. James L. Liverman. Director, Division of Biomedical and Environmental 
Research, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York 
(Honorary Member). 

Dr. Giles W. Mead. Director, Los Angeles County, Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Los Angeles, California. 

Professor Charles D. Michener. Lawrence, Kansas (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Peter M. Millman. Ontario, Canada (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Ruth Patrick. Chairman of the Board, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Professor Norman Holmes Pearson. Department of English and American 
Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Dr. Gordon N. Ray. President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 
New York, New York. 

Mr. Philip C. Ritterbush. Center for the Study of Popular Education and 
Recreation, Wallpack Village, New Jersey (Honorary Member). 

Mr. Harold Rosenberg. Art Critic, New Yorker Magazine, New York, New 

Professor Carl E. Sagan, Director, Laboratory of Planetary Studies, Space Sci- 
ences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

Mr. Andre Schiffrin. Managing Director, Pantheon Books, New York, New 

Mr. George C. Seybolt. President, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts 
(Honorary Meinber). 

Professor Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Professor John D. Spikes. Salt Lake City, Utah (Honorary Member). 

Professor Stephen E. Toulmin. Professor in the Committee on Social Thought, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mrs. Barbara W. Tuchman. Author, New York, New York. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 337 

Dr. William Von Arx. Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceano graphic Institution, 

Massachusetts (Honorary Member). 
Professor Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Ann Arbor, Michigan (Honorary Member). 
Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Chairman, Department of Geology, Field Museum of 

Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (Honorary Member). 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Visiting Committee 

Dean Harvey Brooks, Chairman, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 

Mr. Thomas J. Watson, IBM Corporation, New York, New York. 

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cali- 

Dr. Walter Orr Roberts, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 
Boulder, Colorado. 

Mr. Benjamin C. Nash, Nash Engineering Corporation, Norwalk, Connecticut 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum Board of Directors 

Mr. Stanley Anderson, Chairperson 

Mr. John Blake, Vice-Chairperson 

Mr. Almore Dale, Treasurer 

Ms. Iris Harris, Secretary 

Mr. Terry Coleman, Corresponding Secretary 

Mr. Richard Jones, At-Large (Youth) 

Mr. Alton Jones, At-Large 

Rev. James Anderson 

Mr. Donald Ball 

Mr. Percy Battle 

Mrs. Carlyn Bingham 

Mr. Norman Dale 

Mr. Nat Dixon 

Mrs. Annette Doolittle 

Mrs. Isabella Edwards 

Hon. John D. Fauntleroy 

Mr. Robert Fields 

Mrs. Mildred Jones Fisher 

Mrs. Mary Gregory 

Mr. Charles Grimes 

Mrs. Mary Hammond 

Mr. Fred Hill 
Mr. Edward Hope 
Mrs. Theresa Howe Jones 
Mrs. Delia Lowery 
Mr. Curtis Magruder 
Mrs. Caryl Marsh 
Mrs. Francis Mason-Jones 
Mrs. Cecelia Matthews 
Mr. Russell Paxton 
Dr. Charles Quails 
Mr. Fred Saunders 
Mrs. Lillian Smallwood 
Mr. Charles Stephenson 
Mrs. Esther Sullivan 

Archives of American Art Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman 

Irving F. Burton, President 

Mrs. Alfred Negley, Vice President 

Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson, Vice President 

Henry DeF. Baldwin, Secretary 

Joel Ehrenkranz, Treasurer 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

James Humphry III 

Miss Milka Iconomoff 

Gilbert H. Kinney 

Howard W. Lipman 

Harold O. Love 
Russell Lynes 
Abraham Melamed 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 
Mrs. William L. Richards 
Stephen Shalom 
Stanford C. Stoddard 
Edward M. M. Warburg 
George H. Waterman III 
S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, ex officio 

338 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Lawrence A. Fleischman 
Mrs. Edsel B. Ford 
E. P. Richardson 

Archives of American Art Advisory Cotniuittee 

James Humphry III, Chairman 

Milton W. Brown 

Frederick Cummings 

Anne d'Harnoncourt 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Eugene C. Goossen 

James J. Heslin 

John Howat 

Bernard Karpel 

John A. Kouwenhoven 

Abram Lerner 

Russell Lynes 

A. Hyatt Mayor 

Barbara Novak 

Jules Prown 

J. T. Rankin 

Charles van Ravenswaay 

Marvin S. Sadik 

Joshua C. Taylor 

William B. Walker 

Richard P. Wunder 

Center for the Study of Man 

National Anthropological Film Center Advisory Council 

Dr. Margaret Mead, The American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Dr. Sol Tax, Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago. 

Dr. George Spindler, Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University. 

Dr. Jay Ruby, President, Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communica- 
tion, do Temple University, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Carroll Williams, Director, Anthropology Film Center, Santa Fe, New 

Dr. Edward Hall, Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University. 

Dr. Gordon Gibson, Curator of African Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Asen Balikci, Professor of Anthropology, University of Montreal. 

Dr. Paul Hockings, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois 
at Chicago Circle. 

Mr. Matthew Huxley, National Institute of Mental Health. 

Mrs. Emilie de Brigard, Guest Director, Anthropological Cinema, Department 
of Film, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Dr. William Crocker, Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Fuller Torrey, National Institute of Mental Health. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 
Advisory Board 

Thomas E. Murray II, 
Chairman Pro Tern 
Cass Canfield, Jr. 
Albert L. Edelman 
Sidney Gruson 
Mrs. Matthew A. Meyer 
Mrs. Miles Pennybacker 

Mrs. Howard Sachs 
Mrs. Emily Stillman 
Robert C. Weaver 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 
Mrs. Margaret Carnegie Miller, 

Honorary Member 

Freer Visiting Committee 

The Honorable Hugh Scott, Chairman, United States Senate, Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Laurence Sickman, Assistant Chairman, Director, William Rockhill Nelson 
Gallery of Art, 4525 Oak Street, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 339 

Mrs. Jackson Burke, 3 East 77th Street, New York, New York. 

Professor Kwang-chih Charig, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut. 

Professor Marvin Eisenberg, Department of the History of Art, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Mrs. Katharine Graham, Publisher, The Washington Post, 1515 L Street, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Charles A. Greenfield, 150 East 69th Street, New York, New York. 

Professor John M. Rosenfield, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

Mr. John S. Thacher, 1692 Thirty-First Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Anne d'Harnoncourt 

Chairman* Taft B. Schreiber 

George Heard Hamilton, Hal B. Wallis 

Vice Chairman* (Term expires 6/30/75) 

H. Harvard Arnason Thomas Mellon Evans 

Leigh B. Block (Term begins 7/1/75)** 

Theodore E. Cummings 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
5. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

* Reelected at meeting of the Board of Trustees, April 4, 1975. 
** Appointed at meeting of the Board of Trustees, April 4, 1975. 

Horticultural Advisory Committee* 

5. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 

Dr. Robert Baker, Professor of Horticulture, University of Maryland. 

James R. Buckler, Horticulturist, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Jimmie L. Crowe, Assistant Director, U.S. Botanic Gardens. 

Mrs. Frances Patteson-Knight, Lay Horticulturist, McLean, Virginia. 

Dr. Robert Read, Associate Curator, Smithsonian Institution, Department of 

Dr. Russell Seibert, Director, Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Penn- 

Mrs. Belva Jensen, Director, Division of Biological Sciences, Charles County 
Community College. 

Mr. Carlton Lees, Vice President, New York Botanic Gardens. 

Mr. Lester Collins, Landscape Architect, Washington, D.C. 

* Established by the Secretary in January 1974. Committee meets April and 
September of each year except for special meetings. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 
Members of the Board of Trustees are given on page 329. 

National Air and Space Museum Advisory Board 


S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Chairman 
340 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Brigadier General James L. Collins, Chief of Military History, Department of 
the Army, Washington, D.C. 

Major General Edward S. Fris, Deputy Chief of Staff (Air), United States 
Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. 

Vice Admiral William D. Houser, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air 
Warfare), Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Jefferson W. Cochran, Associate Administrator for Engineering and De- 
velopment (FAA), Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 

Major General M. R. Reilly, Commander, Headquarters Command USAF, 
Boiling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C. 

Rear Admiral Robert H. Scarborough, Chief, Office of Operations, United 
States Coast Guard, WasJungton, D.C. 

Mr. Willis H. Shapley, Associate Deputy Administrator, National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. 


Mrs. O. A. Beech, Chairman of the Board, Beech Aircraft Corporation, 

Wichita, Kansas. 
Lieutenant General William E. Hall, USAF (Ret), 883 S.W. Meadowbrook 

Road, Palm Bay, Florida. 
Lieutenant General Elvvood R. Quesada, USAF (Ret), 490 L'enfant Plaza East, 

S.W., Suite 2207, Washington, D.C. 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Secretary of the Army 

Secretary of the Navy 

Secretary of the Air Force 

Alexander P. Butterfield 

William H. Perkins, Jr. 

Secretary of Defense, ex officio 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

National Collection of Fine Arts Commission 

H. Page Cross, Chairman 

George B. Tatum, Vice Chairmafi 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Mrs. Elizabeth Brook Blake 

Thomas S. Buechner 

David E. Finley 

Martin Friedman 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Walker Hancock 

Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 

August Heckscher 


Alexander Wetmore 
Paul Mellon 

Thomas C. Howe 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 
David Lloyd Kreeger 
Abram Lerner, ex officio 
Mrs. Doris M. Magowan 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Ogden M. Pleissner 
Harold Rosenberg 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
Otto Wittman 

Stow Wengenroth 
Andrew Wyeth 

National Gallery of Art 
Members of the Board of Trustees are given on page 334. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 341 

National Museum Act Advisory Council 

Paul N. Perrot, Chairman Larence J. Majewski* 

William T. Alderson Taizo Miake* 

Joseph M. Chamberlain Arminia Neal 

W. D. Frankforter Bonnie Louise Pitman 

Lloyd Hezekiah* Barnes Riznik 

Philip S. Humphrey Mitchell Wilder 

* Term expires at the end of fiscal year 1975. 

National Portrait Gallery Commission 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman Katie Louchheim 

Ralph Ellison Barry Bingham, Sr. 

David E. Finley Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of 

Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis the United States, ex officio 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, 

Andrew Oliver Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

E. P. Richardson J. Carter Brown, Director, 

Robert Hilton Smith National Gallery of Art, ex officio 

Office of International Programs, 

Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Advisory Councils 


Dr. Klaus Baer Professor Henry S. Robinson 

Dr. Iwao Ishino Dr. Bernard Wailes 

Professor Joseph W. Elder Dr. William Fitzhugh 


Dr. Felix Chayes Dr. William Melson 

Dr. Henry Faul Professor Thornton Page 

Dr. Paul Hodge Dr. Victor Szebehely 

Dr. William H. Klein Dr. Louis Walter 


Dr. Edwin Colbert Dr. Jerry F. Franklin 

Professor Kenneth W. Cooper Dr. Robert F. Inger 

Dr. John F. Eisenberg Dr. Watson M. Laetsch 

Professor Peter W. Frank Dr. Duncan M. Porter 


(See listing above under National Museum Act Advisory Council.) 

Smithsonian Associates National Board* 

Lewis A. Lapham, Chairman Joseph F. Cullman 3rd 

Robert O. Anderson Harry B. Cunningham 

Harry Hood Bassett Paul L. Davies 

Richard P. Cooley Thomas M. Evans 

* This body was created in October 1971 to assist the Institution in the pursuit of 
certain of its aims for the decade of the 1970s, particularly in the development of its 
relations with industry. 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Leonard K. Firestone George C. McGhee 

Charles T. Fisher III Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 

G. Keith Funston Ruben F. Mettler 

Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. Charles M. Pigott 

Mrs. David L. Guyer Mrs. Malcolm Price 

Henry J. Heinz II Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 

William A. Hewitt Merritt Kirk Ruddock 

John N. Irwin II Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Frank Y. Larkin James O. Wright 

Snntlisoiiian Science Information Exchange, Incorporated, 
Board of Directors 

Dr. David Challinor, Chairman of the Board, Assistant Secretary for Science, 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Dr. Robert A. Brooks, Under Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 
Dr. Lee G. Burchinal, Head, Office of Science Information Service, National 

Science Foundation. 
Dr. David F. Hersey, President, Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, 

Mr. S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 
Dr. R. W. Lamont-Havers, Acting Deputy Director, National Institutes of 

Dr. Charles W. Shilling, Executive Secretary, Undersea Medical Society, Inc. 
Mr. Alan D. Ullberg, Assistant General Counsel, Smithsonian Institution. 
Mr. T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer, Smithsonian Institution. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
Board of Trustees 

William J. Baroody, Chairman. 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Vice Chairman. 

William M. Batten, New York, New York. 

Ronald S. Berman, Chairman, National Endowment for the Humanities. 

Robert H. Bork, Washington, D.C. 

Robert A. Goldwin, Special Consultant to the President. 

Bryce N. Harlow, Washington, D.C. 

Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State. 

Paul W. McCracken, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

L. Quincy Mumford, Librarian of Congress. 

James B. Rhoads, Archivist of the United States. 

5. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dean Rusk, University of Georgia Law School. 

Rawleigh Warner, Jr., New York, New York. 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 343 

APPENDIX 2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 
Research Supported in Fiscal Year 1975 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Continued 
support for administration; research fellowships; Benares Center for Art and 
Archeology; documentation of selected ritual art forms as communication sys- 
tems of traditional culture; recording and filming an Agnicayana ritual in India. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. Excavation at the 
Harappan site of Allahdino in the Malir Area, Karachi District, Pakistan. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Continued support 
for a program of research and excavation in Egypt: support for operation of the 
Cairo Center; maintenance of archeological research at the site of Hierakonpolis 
(Nekhen) in Edfu District; survey of Arabic scientific manuscripts in Cairo; 
maintenance of a stratified pharaonic site in the Egyptian delta at Mendes; 
Akhenaten Temple project; research in modern Arabic literature; continuation 
of an epigraphic and architectural survey at Luxor by the Oriental Institute; 
editing the Nag Hammadi codices; installation and completion of the Luxor 
Museum; preparation for publication of a manuscript by the late G. Legrain on 
the Late Egyptian sculpture from Karnak in the Cairo Museum; support for 
fellowships in Egyptian and Islamic studies. 

American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Excavations 
in salient areas of Punic and Roman Carthage (Tunisia). 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A corpus of 
the ancient mosaics of Tunisia. 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Anthropology, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Ethnotechnology of South Asia: Pakistan project. 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Prehistory of the Western Desert, 


University of California, Berkeley, California. Archeological excavations at the 
Harappan seaport of Balakot, Pakistan. 

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. Research and study of early 
medieval Polish archeology. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. A scrutiny of Egyptian gold 
coins ... in the collection of the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo (Egypt). 

University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas. Studies in predynastic 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Prehistoric studies in the Siwa oasis 
region. Northwestern Egypt. 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Study of the dentition of Cretaceous mammals of Mongolia (Poland). 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany, Washington, D.C. 
Revision of Trimcn's Hnndbook to the Flora of Ceylon; publication of the Flora 
of Hassan District (India). 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology, Washington, 
D.C. Biosystematic studies of the insects of Ceylon, 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology, Washington, 
D.C. Comparative study and geography of selected Devonian and Permian 
corals in Poland and the United States of America. 

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Activity budget studies of Passer 
populations in Poland. 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C. Indian mi- 
gratory bird project. 

Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, Washington, D.C. Mediterranean 
Marine Sorting Center (Tunisia); study of biological productivity in some tropi- 
cal lakes of South India. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Canal Zone. Ecology of fresh- 
water lakes in Panama (Poland). 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Recovery and study of vertebrate 
fossils from the Egyptian Western Desert. 

The Institute of Ecology, Madison, Wisconsin. Support for international re- 
search coordination and synthesis by United States scientists participating in 
the International Biological Program (Egypt, India, Poland, Tunisia). 

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. Population biology and cytogenetics of 
desert mammals. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. A biosystematic comparison of 
the Siphonocladales (Chlorophyta) (Tunisia); comparative study of Late Cre- 
taceous Mongolian and North American mammals (Poland). 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Paleontological research in Tunisia 
and the Western Mediterranean. 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Investigation of the alpheid shrimp of 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Systematic studies of the mol- 
luscan genus Bulinus in Africa and adjacent regions (Egypt). 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Integration of ecosystem analysis 
with studies of agro-ecosystems. 

Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Systems analysis of the Pre-Saharan 
ecosystem of Southern Tunisia. 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Preliminary study of the behavioral 
biology and ecology of Pakistan's Himalayan Foothill Rhesus monkeys. 

Appendix 2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program I 345 


Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Studies in Lake of Tunis. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Continued 
operation of the SAO/Uttar Pradesh State observing station at Naini Tal 
(India); estabhshing the position of the PoHsh latitude observatory at Borowiec 
by artificial satellite observations; reference coordinate systems for earth dy- 
namics (Poland). 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Nucleosynthesis and the advanced 
stages of stellar evolution (Poland). 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Geochronology of alka- 
line complexes of the Southeastern desert of Egypt. 


Festival of American Folklife, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Old 
ways in the New World (Egypt, Poland, Tunisia). 

National Archives Trust Fund, Washington, D.C. Preparation of animated edu- 
cational film, "What is an archives?" (Poland) 

National Museum of History and Technology, Department of Science and Tech- 
nology, Washington, D.C. Study of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and phar- 
macy in Egypt. 

National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C. Support of the National Portrait 
Gallery Bicentennial exhibit catalogue. (Poland) 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. The advanced study 
of conservation and restoration methods applied to historic monuments and 
sites in Poland. 

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. Preparation of animated educa- 
tional film for new Lion-Tiger exhibit. (Poland) 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Smith- 
sonian around the world (India). 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Museum Pro- 
grams, Washington, D.C. Polish-American seminar on organization systems 
and methodology for preserving cultural property. (Poland) 

Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Magazine. Development of educational 
articles for Smithsonian Magazine on research abroad supported by the Smith- 
sonian Foreign Currency Program (Egypt, Pakistan). 

Theater in the Street, Inc., New York, New York. A study of street theater 
around the world. (India) 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1975 



APPENDIX 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded in 
Fiscal Year 1975 


The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland 21218. Amount: $16,000.00. 

Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo, New York 14216. Amount: 

Art Museum, Indiana University Foundation, Indiana University, Bloomington, 
Indiana 47401. Amount: $485.00. 

Neversink Valley Area Museum, Cuddebackville, New York 12729. Amount: 

Texas A and I University, Kingsville, Texas 78363. Amount: $2,436.00. 

Mendocino County Museum, Willits, California 95490. Amount: $880.00. 

Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30307. Amount: $1,163.00. 

Oklahoma Science and Arts Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73107. 
Amount: $938.00. 

Washington Archaeological Research Center, Ozette Archaeological Project, 

Neah Bay Laboratory, Neah Bay, Washington 98357. Amount: $3,600.00.* 

Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, Windsor, Vermont 05089. Amount: 

Junior Arts Center, Los Angeles, California 90027. Amount: $1,040.00. 

Huntington Library, Art Gallery and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California 
91108. Amount: $1,500.00.* 

Texas Historical Commission, Austin, Texas 78711. Amount: $1,800.00. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 10028. Amount: 

Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001. Amount: $1,450.00.* 


American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, Wheeling, West Vir- 
ginia 26003. Amount: $11,296.00. 

University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma, Chickasha, Oklahoma 73108. 
Amount: $11,380.00. 

Oregon Historical Society, Portland, Oregon 97205. Amount: $1,600.00. 

Texas Historical Commission and Winedale Inn, Austin, Texas 78711. Amount: 

* Denotes conservation-related projects. 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 3A7 

Western Association of Art Museums, Mills College, Oakland, California 94613. 
Amount: $20,297.00. 

American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 37203. 
Amount: $49,450.00. 

American Association of Mammalogists, American Museum of Natural History, 

New York, New York 10024. Amount: $12,500.00. 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 20007. Amount: 

New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York 13326. Amount: 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. 20006. Amount: 

Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, New York 10021. Amount: $14,138.00. 

Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 20037. Amount: 

The American Numismatic Society, New York, New York 10032. Amount: 

Washington Region Conservation Guild, Washington, D.C. 20003. Amount: 

Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 20037. Amount: 


Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New 

York, New York 10021. Amount: $42,000.00* 

University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711. Amount: $8,000.00. 

The George Washington University, Office of Sponsored Research, Washington, 
D.C. 20006. Amount: $8,000.00. 

New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York 13326. Amount: 

Museum Associates, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia 90036. Amount: $10,200.00. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48055. Amount: $18,000.00. 


Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, 
New York 10021. Amount: $14,000.00.* 

Tekart Associates, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 
92037. Amount: $8,284.00.* 

Museum of the Hudson Highlands, The Cornwall Neighborhood Museum Asso- 
ciation, Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York 12520. Amount: $1,500.00. 

American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 37203. 
Amount: $43,544.00.* 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

American Association of Youth Museums, Charlotte Nature Museum, Charlotte, 
North CaroHna 28209. Amount: $25,556.00. 

The Heckscher Museum, Huntington, New York 11743. Amount: $23,110.00.* 

New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York 13326. Amount: 


AAM/ICOM (American Association of Museums/International Council of 
Museums), Washington, D.C. 20007. Amount: $10,000.00. 

National Conservation Advisory Council, Greenfield Village and Henry Ford 
Museum, Dearborn, Michigan 48121. Amount: $27,282.00.* 

American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 37203. 
Amounts: $26,418.00 and $35,880.00. 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 20007. Amount: 

The Association of Systematics Collections, University of Kansas, Museum of 
Natural History, Lawrence, Kansas 66045. Amount: $13,589.00. 

New England Regional Conference/AAM, c/o Maine State Museum, State 
House, Augusta, Maine 04330. Amount: $22,010.00. 

National Conservation Advisory Council, c/o Greenfield Village and Henry 
Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan 48121. Amounts: $6,750.00 and $56,874.00.* 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 20007. Amounts: 

$28,349.00 and $3,100.00. 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 349 

APPENDIX 4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 
and Renovation 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. The construction of the Exhibit Design and 
Production Laboratory was completed in April 1975. Additional work for in- 
terior partitioning and painting will be initiated in early fiscal year 1976. 

Arts and Industries Building. Major phase of restoration work is 65 percent 
completed. Scheduled completion is February of 1976. Major roof and window 
repairs to be initiated in fiscal year 1976 for completion that year. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. Construction of the Visitor 
Center and Dormitory facility was completed in March 1975. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design. Renovation of the 
Carnegie Mansion was initiated in September 1974. The major phase of the 
work will be completed in October 1975. 

History and Technology Building. Museum sales shop was completed in May 
1975. Library plans completed with construction to be initiated by June or July 
of 1975. Completion scheduled for three months after starting date. Plans for 
sixth-floor addition are 60 percent completed. Completion scheduled for latter 
part of fiscal year 1976. 

National Air and Space Museum. Construction is 99 percent completed. In 
April 1975, nasm started occupancy of several exhibit and administrative areas. 
The building is scheduled for public opening in July 1976. 

National Zoological Park. Renovation of the Monkey House was completed and 
it was opened to the public on May 24, 1975. Also, during fiscal year 1975 con- 
struction work continued on the Lion-Tiger Exhibit which will cost nearly 
$3 million and will be completed by January 1976. Contracts also were awarded 
for reconstruction of exterior yards around the Elephant House and the Bird 

Major renovation projects completed during fiscal year 1975 included painting 
the Great Flight Cage, replacing glass and painting in the Reptile House, mak- 
ing improvements in the Marmoset House, and completing the Cheetah yards. 

The architect continued preparation of plans for major Master Plan improve- 
ments including the Education-Administration Building; bear exhibits; general 
services and parking facility; and exhibits for beavers, sea lions, and wolves. 

Natural History Building. The West Court facility is under construction, and 
work will be completed by May 1976. North Foyer alterations including installa- 
tion of escalator are underway, and work is to be completed by October 1975. 
Construction in the East Court of the Osteology Laboratory is progressing, and 
work is to be completed by August 1975. 

350 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Silver Hill Facility. Construction of Buildings #24 and #25 were completed in 
April 1975. Additional work for construction of mezzanine is to be completed by 
August 1975. 

South Yard. Demolition and first-phase construction of South Yard area to be 
initiated in July 1975. Completion scheduled for latter part of fiscal year 1976, 
prior to Bicentennial celebration. 

Bicentennial Exhibit Construction. The exhibits "Nation of Nations," "We the 
People," "Centennial 1876," and "Our Changing Land" are all nearing con- 
struction completion in fiscal year 1976. 

Appendix 4. Progress on Building Construction I 351 

APPENDIX 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1975 



Peter Bermingham. American Art in the Barbizon Mood. 192 pages, 4 color and 
143 black-and-white illustrations. April 30, 1975. Cloth: $20.00. 

Wilton S. Dillon, editor. The Cultural Drama: Modern Identities and Social 
Ferment. Foreword by 5. Dillon Ripley. 328 pages, 13 black-and-white illus- 
trations. October 28, 1974. Cloth: $17.50. 

Owen Gingerich, editor. The Nature of Scientific Discovery. 616 pages, 110 
black-and-white illustrations. June 10, 1975. Cloth: $15.00. 

James M. Goode. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C. A Compre- 
hensive Historical Guide. 632 pages, 516 black-and-white illustrations (cloth); 
528 pages, 455 black-and-white illustrations (paper). September 17, 1974. 
Cloth: $15.00; paper: $4.95. 

Luis G. Lumbreras. The Peoples and Culture of Ancient Peru. Translated by 
Betty J. Meggers, vii + 248 pages, 372 black-and-white illustrations. Oc- 
tober 10, 1974. Cloth: $15.00. 

J. Jefferson Miller II. English Yellow-Glazed Earthenware, xviii + 126 pages, 
60 color and 74 black-and-white illustrations. March 18, 1975. Cloth: $20.00. 

Lillian B. Miller. "The Dye is Now Cast . . ." The Road to American Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776. xvi + 328 pages, 166 black-and-white illustrations. 
May 30, 1975. Cloth: $17.50. 

John R. Swanton. The Indian Tribes of North America, vi -\- 726 pages, 5 
maps. Fourth reprint. May 15, 1975. Cloth: $20.00. 

Joshua S. Taylor. To See Is To Think: Looking at American Art. 120 pages, 
7 color and 88 black-and-white illustrations. June 24, 1975. Cloth: $10.00; 
paper: $4.95. 


American Historical Association. Annual Report, 1973. xvi + 166 pages. De- 
cember 20, 1974. Paper: $1.90. 

National Zoological Park. National Zoological Park 18-Month Report. July 1, 
1971-December 31, 1972. vi -\- 66 pages, 66 black-and-white illustrations, 2 
tables. January 13, 1975. 

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Year 1974. Annual Report of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the Year Ended June 30, 1974. vii + 500 pages, 117 
black-and-white illustrations. January 15, 1975. Paper: $6.65. 

Smithsonian International Exchange Service. 1974 Annual Report. 8 pages. 
March 12, 1975. 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer. Smithsonian Institution Financial Report for 
Fiscal Year 1974: As Published in Smithsonian Year 1974. 36 pages. Janu- 
ary 15, 1975. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Annual Report 1973-1974. 
iv + 60 pages, 18 black-and-white illustrations. February 10, 1975. 


Anncostia Neighborhood Museum 

The Barnett-Aden Collection. 192 pages, 15 color and 136 black-and-white il- 
lustrations. March 17, 1975. Paper: $10.00. 

Exhibition 1974-75. 45 pages, 77 black-and-white illustrations. December 11, 
1974. Paper: $1.70. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Peter Bermingham. American Art in the Barbizon Mood. 192 pages, 4 color 
and 143 black-and-white illustrations. January 16, 1975. Paper: $7.70. 

Lois Marie Fink, and Joshua C. Taylor. Academy: The Academic Tradition in 
American Art. 272 pages, 212 black-and-white illustrations. June 4, 1975. 
Paper: $7.30. 

Chaim Gross: Sculpture and Drawings. 47 pages, 2 color and 27 black-and- 
white illustrations. September 19, 1974. Paper: $2.75. 

Made in Chicago. 80 pages, 11 color and 46 black-and-white illustrations. No- 
vember 15, 1974. Paper: $4.40. 

Pennsylvania Academy Moderns: 1910-1940. 40 pages, 2 color and 41 black- 
and-white illustrations. May 7, 1975. Paper: $2.00. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Cynthia A. Hoover. Music Machines: American Style. 140 pages, 237 black- 
and-white illustrations. Reprint. July 16, 1974. Paper: $2.75. 

Claudia B. Kidwell, and Margaret C. Christman. Suiting Everyone: The 
Democratization of Clothing in America. 208 pages, 59 color and 279 black- 
and-white illustrations. September 17, 1974. Paper: $11.05. 

Joanna Cohan Scherer. Indian Images: Photographs of North American 
Indians, 1847-1928. National Anthropological Archives. 31 pages, 14 black- 
and-white illustrations. Reprint. March 4, 1975. Paper: $1.05. 

We the People: The American People and Their Government. 164 pages, 6 
color and 304 black-and-white illustrations. June 3, 1975. Paper: $1.75. 

National Portrait Gallery 

Black Presence. 72 pages, 50 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. July 13, 
1974. Paper: $2.05. 

Lillian B. Miller. "The Dye is Now Cast . . ." The Road to American Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776. xvi + 328 pages, 166 black-and-white illustrations. 
April 17, 1975. Paper: $11.25. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

A Modern Consciousness: D. ]. DePree and Florence Knoll. 32 pages, 30 
black-and-white illustrations. June 17, 1975. Paper: $1.80. 

Boxes and Bowls: Decorated Containers by Nineteenth Century Haida, Tlingit, 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 353 

Bella Bella, and Tsimshian Indian Artists. 96 pages, 47 black-and-white illus- 
trations. November 22, 1974. Paper: $3.95. 

Shaker: Furniture and Objects from the Faith and Edward Deming Andrews 
Collections Commemorating the Bicentennial of the American Shakers. 88 
pages, 1 color and 66 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. May 27, 1975. 
Cloth: $14.95. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Eight from California. 18 pages, 8 black-and-white illustrations. January 21, 

Horatio Shaw, 1847-1918. 7 pages, 6 black-and-white illustrations. Septem- 
ber 11, 1974. 

Ilya Bolotowsky. 4 pages, 1 color and 1 black-and-white illustration. Janu- 
ary 14, 1975. 

Two Decades of American Prints: 1920-1940. 12 pages, 1 black-and-white 
illustration. September 16, 1974. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Etching as a Painter's Medium in the 1880' s. 4 pages, 2 black-and-white illus- 
trations. August 16, 1974. 

Lead and Zinc Mining Scenes of the Past: Oil Paintings by Carol Riley. 4 
pages, 1 black-and-white illustration. December 17, 1974. 

Mr. Audubon and Mr. Bien: An Early Phase in the History of American 
Chromolithography. 11 pages, 2 color illustrations. March 14, 1975. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Paintings in the Grand Salon and Octagon Room of the Renwick Gallery, Lent 
by the Corcoran Gallery of Art. 4 pages, 1 black-and-white illustration. Re- 
print. March 11, 1975. 

Bicentennial Office 

The American Experience. Smithsonian Institution American Revolution Bicen- 
tennial Program. 88 pages, 20 black-and-white illustrations. February 7, 1975. 

Division of Performing Arts 

Smithsonian Institution Festival of American Folklife: A Bicentennial Presen- 
tation. 44 pages, 8 black-and-white illustrations. June, 1975. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution. 50 
pages. September 19, 1974. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

A Checklist of Keyboard Instruments at the Smithsonian Institution. Division 
of Musical Instruments, viii + 87 pages, 7 figures. May 1, 1975. Paper: $2.00. 

Carl H. Scheele. Neither Snow, Nor Rain . . . The Story of the United States 
Mails. Hall of Stamps and Mails, iv + 100 pages, 86 black-and-white illus- 
trations. Reprint. September 6, 1974. Paper: $1.80. 

354 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

National Museum of Natural History 

J. Meester, and H. W. Setzer, editors. The Mammals of Africa: An Identifica- 
tion Manual. Fascicle III of V. Parts 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 3, 3.2, 6, 11, and 14. Loose- 
leaf Inserts. August 29, 1974. Paper: $5.00. 

Office of Academic Studies 

Smithsonian Opportunities for Research and Study in History — Art — Science. 
141 pages. October 21, 1974. 

Office of International and Environmental Programs 

Peter H. Freeman: Coastal Zone Pollution by Oil and Other Contaminants: 
Guidelines for Policy and Planning. Based Upon a Case Study in Indonesia in 

1973. X + 68 pages, 2 figures, 10 tables. May 16, 1975. 

The Environmental Impact of a Large Tropical Reservoir: Guidelines for 
Policy and Planning. Based Upon a Study of Lake Volta, Ghana, in 1973 and 

1974. viii + 88 pages, 6 figures, 7 plates, 6 tables. May 19, 1975. 

The Environmental Impact of Rapid Urbanization: Guidelines for Policy and 
Planning. Based Upon a Study of Seoul, Korea, in 1972 and 1973. xii -f 88 
pages, 4 figures, 6 plates, 19 tables. May 19, 1975. 

Office of Protection Services 

Smithsonian Institution Police and Guard Manual and Regulations for the 
Security Force, v + 82 pages. Reprint. December 31, 1974. 

Office of Public Affairs 

^ Increase and Diffusion: A Brief Introduction to the Smithsonian Institution. 99 
pages, 33 black-and-white illustrations. June 13, 1975. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Update: Bicentennial News. 48 pages, 86 black-and-white illustrations. May 16, 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Looking at Abstract Art: A Tour To Give Yourself. 7 pages, 6 black-and-white 
illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Otto Lilienthal and Octave Chanute: Pioneers of Gliding. 6 pages, 6 black- 
and-white illustrations. January 6, 1975. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Audrey B. Davis. The Dentist and His Tools. 11 pages, 29 figures. November 8, 
1974. Paper: $0.75. 

A Nation of Nations. 8 pages, 2 black-and-white illustrations. November 1, 

National Portrait Gallery 

In the Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue to Revolution, 1780-1774. 
A teacher's guide. 6 pages, 3 black-and-white illustrations. Septemer 19, 1974. 
Paper: $1.45. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 355 

Office of Museum Programs 
Conservation Information. 6 pages. June 16, 1975. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Update: Bicentennial Special. 28 pages, 51 black-and-white illustrations. 
August 12, 1974. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
Fellowship and Guest Scholar Program. 12 pages. March 11, 1975. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Fifth Annual D.C. Art Association Exhibition Calendar of Events. Novem- 
ber 13, 1974. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Animal Adaptations: Insects and Spiders. 17 black-and-white illustrations. 
September 11, 1974. 

Community Comparison: Forest and Old Field. 10 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. September 11, 1974. 

Seeing the Trees for the Forest: A Census Activity. 8 black-and-white illus- 
trations. September 11, 1974. 

Division of Performing Arts 

The Smithsonian Institution Performance Service. Folder with 9 inserts. 
April 4, 1975. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Highlights from the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 11 black-and- 
white illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution. Floor plan. 
6 black-and-white illustrations. February 18, 1975. 

The Lower Level. 12 biack-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

Newsletter of the Hishhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 6 black-and-white 
illustrations. July 29, 1974. 

The Plaza. 8 black-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

The Second Floor. 14 black-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

Sunday Lecture Series. 1 black-and-white illustration. February 18, 1975. 

Third Floor. 10 black-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1974. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Amelia Earhart. 4 black-and-white illustrations. January 6, 1975. 

Life in the Universe: Holiday Lecture Series for High School Students. 5 black- 
and-white illustrations. December 23, 1974. 

North American P-51 Mustang. 17 black-and-white illustrations. January 27, 

356 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

A Future for Our Past: The Conservation of Art. July 5, 1974. 

Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings Executed before 1914. Reprint. 
March 3, 1975. 

Calendar of the Smithsonian Institution. Published monthly from July 1974, 
through June 1975. 

National Collection of Fine Arts: A Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Floor plan. 4 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. January 23, 1975. 

The National Collectioj^ of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution. 6 black-and- 
white illustrations, 1 map. January 23, 1975. 

The Rise of the American Avant-Carde: 1910-1930. 1 black-and-white illustra- 
tion. March 6, 1975. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Audrey B. Davis. The Better To Hear You With: Announcing the Greihach 
Donation. National Museum of History and Technology. March 3, 1975. 

National Museum of Natural History 

National Anthropological Archives. 2 black-and-white illustrations. July 5, 

The Islamic Archives. 2 black-and-white illustrations. October 28, 1974. 

National Zoological Park 

A Guide to the National Zoological Park Library. Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries Orientation Leaflet #2. October 23, 1974. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Let's Co to the Smithsonian: Bulletins for Schools. September 1974 through 
Spring/Summer 1975. 29 black-and-white illustrations. 

Smithsonian Intern '75. February 18, 1975. 

Office of Museum Programs 

National Museum Act Program — Fiscal Year 1975. July 5, 1974. 

Smithsonian Institution Workshop Series — In Museum Administration, Spring 
1975. January 24, 1975. 

Smithsonian Institution Workshop Series — In Museum Exhibit Methods — 
June, 1975. April 29, 1975. 

Office of Public Affairs 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Guide map. 2 black-and-white il- 
lustrations. Reprint. December 13, 1974. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

A Guide to Smithsonian Institution Radiation Biology Laboratory Library. 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries Orientation Leaflet #3. June 20, 1975. 


National Museum of Natural History 

Prehistoric Life. 15 pages, 13 black-and-white illustrations. August 19, 1974. 
Paper: $1.50. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 357 

Traditional African Cultures. 12 pages, 27 black-and-white illustrations. No- 
vember 21, 1974. Paper: $1.50. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Let's Co to the Smithsonian: Learning Opportunities for Schools, 1974-75. 24 
pages, 28 black-and-white illustrations. August 30, 1974. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Blacks in the Westward Movement. January 30, 1974. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Inaugural Exhibition. August 16, 1974. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
Chaim Cross: Sculpture and Drawings. August 29, 1974. 
Contemporary Nigerian Art: Craftsmen from Oshogbo. July 15, 1974. 
Portfolio Day, December 7, 1974. November 22, 1974. 

National Portrait Gallery 
"The Dye is Now Cast . . ." April 4, 1975. 

Office of International and Environmental Programs 

There Are Opportunities Overseas Through the Smithsonian-Peace Corps 
Environmental Program. November 5, 1974. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
Restricted Area: Warning. March 3, 1975. 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Inaugural Exhibition. August 9, 1974. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
High School Graphics IV. March 5, 1975. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Blacks in the Westward Movement. January 30, 1975. 
D.C. Art Association Exhibition 1974-75. November 8, 1974. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Art and Culture in the Twentieth Century: Four Interactions. April 4, 1975. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
Academy: The Academic Tradition in American Art. May 16, 1975. 
Chaim Cross: Sculpture and Drawings. August 29, 1974. 
High School Graphics IV. March 27, 1975. 
Kaleidoscope: A Day for Children. May 5, 1975. 
Made in Chicago. October 9, 1974. 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Pennsylvania Academy Moderns: 1910-1940. April 29, 1975. 
"Tribute to the Arts in the Americas." February 26, 1975. 

National Collection of Fine Arts and National Portrait Gallery 
The Animal Coniwcation of the College Art Association. January 10, 1975 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of fine Arts 
A Modern Corisciousness: D. ]. DePree and Florence Knoll. March 27, 1975. 
Contemporary Textile Art from Austria. November 21, 1974. 
Craft Multiples. June 16, 1975. 
Figure and Fantasy. September 24, 1974. 
H. H. Richardson and His Office. March 10, 1975. 


National Collection of Fine Arts 
Some Useful Rules for Handling Works of Art. Flyer. July 5, 1974. 
Questions and Comments. Postcard. January 26, 1975. 

Sntithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
Barro Colorado Island. Map. October 7, 1974. 



10. Frederick C. Durant III, and George S. James, editors. "First Steps Toward 
Space. Proceedings of the First and Second History Symposia of the Inter- 
national Academy of Astronautics at Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 26 September 
1967, and New York, U.S.A., 16 October 1968." viii + 308 pages, 232 
figures, 2 tables. August 13, 1974. 


'^ 17. William Trousdale. "The Long Sword and Scabbard Slide in Asia." xii 
+ 322 pages, 100 figures, 24 plates, 5 tables. May 8, 1975. 

18. Douglas H. Ubelaker. "Reconstruction of Demographic Profiles from 
Ossuary Skeletal Samples: A Case Study from the Tidewater Potomac." xii + 
80 pages, 27 figures, 45 tables. August 18, 1974. 


16. Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposchkin. "Distribution and Ages of Magellanic 
Cepheids." ii + 34 pages, 8 figures, 15 tables. December 30, 1974. 

17. Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposchkin. "Period, Color, and Luminosity for Cepheid 
Variables." ii + 10 pages, 8 tables. December 30, 1974. 


14. Edward S. Ayensu, and Albert Bentum. "Commercial Timbers of West 
Africa." iv + 69 pages, 28 plates, 2 tables. August 8, 1974. 

, 15. Edward S. Ayensu. "Leaf Anatomy and Systematics of New World Vel- 
loziaceae." vi + 125 pages, 24 figures and frontispiece, 51 plates. July 25, 1974. 

16. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: The 
Lichens (Theotremataceae)." iv -f 46 pages, 20 figures. September 4, 1974. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 359 

17. Martin Lawrence Grant, F. Raymond Fosberg, and Howard M. Smith. 
"Partial Flora of the Society Islands: Ericaceae to Apocynaceae." viii + 85 
pages, 3 tables. November 20, 1974. 

18. Dieter C. Wasshausen. "The Genus Aphelandra (Acanthaceae)." vi + 
157 pages, 56 figures and frontispiece. March 5, 1975. 

19. Robert W. Read. "The Genus Thrinax (Palmae: Coryphoideae)." iv + 
98 pages, 57 figures and frontispiece, 5 tables. March 13, 1975. 

20. F. Raymond Fosberg, and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Flora of Micronesia, 1: 
Gymnospermae." iv + 15 pages, 1 figure. March 13, 1975. 

22. F. Raymond Fosberg, M. V. C. Falanruw, and Marie-Helene Sachet. 
"Va'scular Flora of the Northern Marianas Islands." iv + 45 pages, 2 figures. 
June 23, 1975. 


13. Nicolaas A. Rupke, and Daniel Jean Stanley. "Distinctive Properties of 
Turbiditic and Hemipelagic Mud Layers in the Algero-Balearic Basin, Western 
Mediterranean Sea." iv + 40 pages, 21 figures, 8 tables. September 10, 1974. 

15. Daniel Jean Stanley, Gilbert Kelling, Juan-Antonio Vera, and Harrison 
Shena. "Sands in the Alboran Sea: A Model of Input in a Deep Marine Basin." 
iv + 51 pages, 23 figures, 8 tables. June 16, 1975. 


22. Adam Urbanek, and Kenneth M. Towe. "Ultrastructural Studies on 
Graptolites, 2: The Periderm and Its Derivatives in the Graptoloidea." iv + 
48 pages, 3 figures, 24 plates, 1 table. May 16, 1975. 

23. Storrs L. Olson. "Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic 
Ocean." iv + 49 pages, 10 figures, 6 plates, 8 tables. June 20, 1975. 


162. Terry L. Erwin. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabi- 
dae: Bembidiini), Part II: A Revision of the New World- Australian Genus 
Pericompsus LeConte." iv + 96 pages, 161 figures, 1 table. July 25, 1974. 

166. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "A Checklist of the North and Middle American 
Crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae and Cambaridae)." iv + 161 pages, 294 fig- 
ures. September 27, 1974. 

167. Oliver S. Flint. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XVII: The Genus 
Smicridea from North and Central America (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)." 
iv + 65 pages, 227 figures. July 15, 1974. 

172. William L. Fink, and Stanley H. Weitzman. "The so-called Cheirodontin 
Fishes of Central America with Descriptions of Two New Species (Pisces: 
Characidae)." iv + 46 pages, 26 figures, 15 tables. September 4, 1974. 

173. Louis S. Kornicker. "Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of Cape Cod Bay, 
Massachusetts." ii + 20 pages, 11 figures. September 3, 1974. 

175. Meredith L. Jones. "On the Caobangiidae, a New Family of the 
Polychaeta, with a Redescription of Caobangia billeti Giard." iv -|- 55 pages, 
25 figures, 11 plates, 3 tables. September 27, 1974. 

177. Victor G. Springer, and Martin F. Gomon. "Revision of the Blenniid 
Fish Genus Omobranchus with Descriptions of Three New Species and Notes 
on Other Species of the Tribe Omobranchini." iv -f 135 pages, 52 figures, 17 
tables. April 2, 1975. 

360 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

178. Louis S. Kornicker. "Revision of the Cypridinacea of the Gulf of 
Naples (Ostracoda)." iv + 64 pages, 26 figures. December 30, 1974. 

179. Louis S. Kornicker, and Francisca Elena Caraion. "West African Myo- 
docopid Ostracoda (Cylindroleberididae)." iv + 78 pages, 43 figures. Decem- 
ber 30, 1974. 

180. W. Donald Duckworth, and Thomas D. Eichlin. "Clearwing Moths of 
Australia and New Zealand (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)." iv + 45 pages, 50 figures, 
6 maps. December 4, 1974. 

181. Doris H. Blake. "The Costate Species of Colaspis in the United States 
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)." iv + 24 pages, 27 figures. November 12, 1974. 

182. D. J. G. Griffin. "Spider Crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae) from 
the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1963-1964." iv + 35 pages, 8 fig- 
ures, 6 tables. November 12, 1974. 

183. Roman Kenk. "Index of the Genera and Species of the Freshwater 
Triclads (Turbellaria) of the World." ii + 90 pages. December 30, 1974. 

184. Terry L. Erwin. "The Genus Coptocarpus Chaudoir of the Australian 
Region with Notes on Related African Species (Coleoptera: Cajabidae: 
Oodini)." iv + 25 pages, 33 figures, 1 table. December 26, 1974. 

186. Stanley H. Weitzman, and J. Stanley Cobb. "A Revision of the South 
American Fishes of the Genus Nannostomus Giinther (Family Lebiasinidae)." 
iv + 36 pages, 34 figures. March 5, 1975. 

187. Gerald Gene Montgomery. "Communication in Red Fox Dyads: A Com- 
puter Simulation Study." iv + 30 pages, 16 figures, 9 tables. December 30, 

189. Joseph Rosewater. "An Annotated List of the Marine Mollusks of 
Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean." iv + 41 pages, 24 figures, 3 tables. 
May 30, 1975. 

190. C. Allan Child. "Pycnogonida of Western Australia." iv -f 29 pages, 11 
figures. May 30, 1975. 

191. Arthur G. Humes. "Cyclopoid Copepods (Lichomolgidae) Associated 
with Alcyonaceans in New Caledonia." iv -)- 27 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables. 
May 30, 1975. 

194. Edward W. Baker, Donald M. Tuttle, and Michael J. Abbatiello. "The 
False Spider Mites of Northwestern and North Central Mexico (Acarina: 
Tenuipalpidae)." iv + 23 pages, 36 figures. April 28, 1975. 

196. Taisoo Park. "Calanoid Copepods of the Family Euchaetidae from the 
Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean Sea." iv -|- 26 pages, 20 figures. 
May 30, 1975. 

198. William D. Field. "Ctenuchid Moths of Ceramidia Butler, Ceramidiodes 
Hampson, and the Caca Species Group of Antichloris Hubner." iv + 45 pages, 
105 figures. May 30, 1975. 

200. Victor G. Springer, and Martin F. Gomon. "Variation in the Western 
Atlantic Clinid Fish Malacoctenus triangidatus with a Revised Key to the 
Atlantic Species of Malcoctenus." ii -t- 11 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables. June 20, 


28. Arthur H. Frazier. "Water Current Meters in the Smithsonian Collections 
of the National Museum of History and Technology." vi -|- 95 pages, 94 
figures. December 30, 1974. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 361 

29. Philip K. Lundeberg. "Samuel Colt's Submarine Battery. The Secret and 
the Enigma." vi + 90 pages, 43 figures. December 30, 1974. 


Volume 38, Part 7. C. V. Morton. "William Roxburgh's Fern Types." Pages 
283-396. September 20, 1974. 


172-173. In one volume, as follows. December 15, 1974. 

172. Marie-Helene Sachet, and Arthur L. Dahl, editors. "Comparative Investi- 
gations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated Coral 
Reef Program." iv + 169 pages, 49 figures, 4 tables. 

173. Roy T. Tsuda, and Clinton J. Dawes. "Preliminary Checklist of the 
Marine Benthic Plants from Glover's Reef, British Honduras." ii + 13 pages. 

174. A. Binion Amerson, Jr., Roger B. Clapp, and William O. Wirtz II. "The 
Natural History of Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." 
xiv + 306 pages, 80 figures, 115 tables. December 31, 1974. 

175-178. In one volume, as follows. January 15, 1975. 

175. A. M. Hitson. "Observations on the Birds of Diego Garcia, Chagos 
Archipelago, with Notes on Other Vertebrates." iv + 25 pages. 

176. C. W. Benson, H. H. Beamish, C. Jouanin, J. Salvan, and G. E. Watson. 
"The Birds of the lies Glorieuses." vi + 34 pages, 2 figures, 1 table. 

177. M. D. Webb. "Fulgoroidea from Aldabra, Astove, and Cosmoledo Atolls, 
Collected by the Royal Society Expedition 1967-68 (Hemiptera-Homoptera)." 
iv -|- 10 pages, 1 table. 

178. John B. Lewis. "A Preliminary Description of the Coral Reefs of the 
Tobago Cays, Grenadines, West Indies." iv + 14 pages, 4 tables, 1 map. 

179. Gerald J. Bakus. "Marine Zonation and Ecology of Cocos Island, off 
Central America." iv -|- 12 pages, 7 plates, 1 table. 

180. Harold Heatwole. "Biogeography of Reptiles on Some of the Islands and 
Cays of Eastern Papua — New Guinea." iv -|- 39 pages, 3 figures, 3 plates, 2 
tables, 4 maps. 

181. D. R. Stoddart. "Sand Cays of Tongatapu." iv -|- 16 pages, 6 plates, 5 

182. F. I. Norman. "The Murine Rodents Rattiis Rattus, Exulans, and Nor- 
vegicus as Avian Predators." iv -|- 13 pages. 

183. Harald A. Rehder, and John E. Randall. "Ducie Atoll: Its History, 
Physiography and Biota." iv + 55 pages, 29 figures. 

184. George H. Balazs. "Marine Turtles in the Phoenix Islands." ii -|- 7 
pages, 1 figure. 

185. "Island News and Comment." ii -f 40 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. 

186. Roger B. Clapp, and William O. Wirtz II. "The Natural History of 
Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." x -(- 196 pages, 52 figures, 
47 tables. February 15, 1975. 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


APPENDIX 6. Bibliography of Research Supported Through the 
FaciUties of the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute Marine Laboratories During Their first 
Ten Years, 1965-1975 

The summer of 1975 marks the tenth anniversary of the establishment of 
a Marine Program at stri. During the summer of 1965 small laboratories 
were opened to take advantage of the unique access to two oceans af- 
forded by the Isthmus of Panama. The great variety of marine life and 
habitats found in the tropical regions of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific 
has attracted many students, fellows, and visiting scientists in addition to 
our own staff of marine biologists. These investigators have published 
over 180 scientific papers on work performed at stri facilities. These 
studies are listed below and include such diverse areas as: the genetics 
of fishes, physiology of tuna and sea snakes, the effects of oil on corals, 
the ecology and development of coral reefs, the behavior of a variety of 
marine organisms including fishes, crabs, sea snakes, starfishes and 
squids. Such research has contributed toward establishing a worldwide 
reputation for stri. 


Glynn, Peter W. "Active Movements and Other Aspects of the Biology of 
Astochopus and Leptosynapta (Holothuroidea)." Biological Bulletin, volume 
129, number 1, pages 106-127. 

. "Community Composition, Structure, and Interrelationships in the 

Marine Intertidal Endocladia muricata — Balanus glandula Association in 
Monterrey Bay, California." Beaufortia, volume 12, number 148, 198 pages. 

Rubinoff, Ira. "Distributional and Ecological Relationships of Panamanian 
Shore Fishes." Year Book of American Philosophical Society, pages 346-349. 

. "Mixing Oceans and Species." Natural History, volume 74, number 7, 

pages 69-72. 


Mead, Giles W., and Ira Rubinoff. "Avocettinops yanoi, A New Nemichthyid 
Eel from the Southern Indian Ocean." Breviora, number 241, 6 pages. 

Rubinoff, Ira. "Cymnothorax galetae, A New Moray Eel from the Atlantic 
Coast of Panama." Breviora, number 240, 4 pages. 


Dawson, C. E. "Notes on the Species of the Goby Genus Evorthodus." Copeia, 

number 4, pages 855-857. 
Topp, Robert. "An Adjustable Macroplankton Sled." Progressive Fish Cultural- 

ist, volume 29, number 3, page 184. 
. "An Internal Capsule Fish Tag." California fish and Came, volume 53, 

number 4, pages 288-289. 

Appendix 6. Bibliography of STRI Research, 1965-1975 I 363 

. "A Re-examination of the Osteology of Cheimarrichthys fosteri Haas 

1874." Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, volume 9, num- 
ber 16, pages 189-191. 


Chesher, Richard H. "Lytechinous williamsi, A New Sea Urchin from Panama." 
Breviora, number 305, 13 pages. 

. "Transport of Marine Plankton through the Panama Canal." Lim- 
nology and Oceanography, volume 13, number 2, pages 387-388. 

Dawson, C. E. "Meristic and Morphometric Data on the Flatfish Citharichthys 
gilherfi from Panama." Culf Research Reports, volume 2, number 3, pages 

. "Eastern Pacific Wormfishes, Microdesmus dipus Gunther and Micro- 

desmus dorsipunctatus Sp. Nov." Copeia, number 3, pages 512-531. 

Delmonte, Peter J., Ira Rubinoff, and Roberta W. Rubinoff. "Laboratory Rear- 
ing through Metamorphosis of Some Panamanian Gobies." Copeia, number 
2, pages 411-412. 

Glynn, Peter W. "A New Genus and Two New Species of Sphaeromatid Iso- 
pods from the High Intertidal Zone at Naos Island, Panama." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 81, pages 587-604. 

. "Ecological Studies on the Associations of Chitons in Puerto Rico, 

with Special Reference to Sphaeromid Isopods." Bulletin of Marine Science, 
volume 18, number 3, pages 572-626. 

-. "Mass Mortalities of Echinoids and Other Reef Flat Organisms Coin- 

cident with Midday, Low Water Exposures in Puerto Rico." Marine Biology, 

volume 1, number 3, pages 226-243. 
Menzies, Robert J. "Transport of Marine Life Between Oceans through the 

Panama Canal." Nature, volume 220, number 5169, pages 802-803. 
Menzies, Robert J., and Peter W. Glynn. "The Common Marine Isopod 

Crustacea of Puerto Rico; A Handbook of Marine Biologists." Studies on 

the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, volume 27, 133 pages. 
Rubinoff, Ira. "Central American Sea-level Canal: Possible Biological Effects." 

Science, volume 161, pages 857-861. 
Rubinoff, Roberta, and Ira Rubinoff. "Interoceanic Colonization of a Marine 

Goby, through the Panama Canal." Nature, volume 217, number 5127, pages 

Topp, Robert. "An Estimate of Fecundity of the Winter Flounder, Pseudo- 

pleuronectes americanus." Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 

Canada, volume 25, number 6, pages 1299-1302. 


Briggs, John C. "The Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) of Panama." Copeia, number 

4, pages 774-778. 
Dawson, C. E. "A New Eastern Pacifiic Sand Stargazer, Dactyloscopus byersi 

(Pisces: Dactyloscopidae)." Copeia, number 1, pages 44-51. 
. "A new Seven-spined Goby, Gobiosoma (Austrogobius) polyporosum, 

from the Pacific Coast of Panama." Copeia, number 3, pages 510-514. 
Lang, Judith C. "Novel Characters in Coral Taxonomy (abstract)." Association 

of Island Marine Laboratories, 8th Meeting, Jamaica. 
Rubinoff, Roberta W., and Ira Rubinoff. "Fisch-Austausch zwischen Atlantik 

und Pazifik durch den Panamakanal." Umschau in Wissenschaft und Tech- 

nik, number 4, page 121. 
. "Observations on the Migration of a Marine Goby through the 

Panama Canal." Copeia, number 2, pages 395-397. 
Topp, Robert W. "Interoceanic Sea-level Canal: Effects on the Fish Faunas." 

Science, volume 165, number 3900, pages 1324-1327. 

364 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Dawson, C. E. "The Caribbean Atlantic Blenny Lupinoblennius Dispar (Tribe: 
Blenniini), with Observations on a Pacific Population." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 26, pages 273-286. 

Glynn, Peter W. "Biology of the West Indian Chitons Acanthopleura granu- 
lata Gmelin and Chiton tuberculatus Linne: Density, Feeding, Reproduction 
and Growth." Association of Islands Marine Laboratory, 7th Meeting, 2 

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"A Note on the Brazilian Bromeliad Crabs (Crustacea, Grapsidae)." 

Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar, volume 12, number 2, pages 123-126. 

"A Reevaluation of the Neopanope texana-sayi Complex with Notes 

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"A review of the Ambidexter (Crustacea: Decapoda: Processidae) in 

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"The Status of Sesarma angustipes Dana, 1852, S. trapezium Dana, 

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Abele, Lawrence G., and Ian E. Efford. "A New Species of Lepidopa L. dexterae 
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Dawson, C. E. "A Redescription of Lophogobius cristulatus Ginsburg (Pisces: 
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Dexter, Deborah M. "Comparison of the Community Structure in a Pacific and 
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Earle, Sylvia A. "A Review of the Marine Plants of Panama." Bulletin of the 
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. "Rediscovery of Paracerceis edithae Boone (Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) 

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Glynn, Peter W., Robert H. Stewart, and John E. McCosker. "Pacific Coral 
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Kropach, Chaim. "A Field Study of the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus (Linnaeus) 
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Abele, Lawrence G., and Robert H. Gore. "Selection of a Lectotype for Mega- 
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Dawson, C. E. "Occurrence of an Exotic Eleotrid Fish in Panama with Dis- 
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Glynn, Peter W. "Acanthaster: Effect on Coral Reef Growth in Panama." 
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Glynn, Peter W., and Robert H. Stewart. "Distribution of Coral Reefs in the 
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Gore, Robert H., and Lawrence G. Abele. "Three New Species of Porcellanid 
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Graham, Jeffrey B. "Aquatic Respiration and the Physiological Responses to 
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"Terrestrial Life of the Amphibious Fish Mnierpes macrocephaliis." 

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Lehman, John T., and James W. Porter. "Chemical Activation of Feeding 

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Ogden, John C, and Nancy S. Buckman. "Movements, Foraging Groups, and 

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Porter, James W. "Biological, Physical, and Historical Forces Structuring Coral 

Reef Communities on Opposite Sides of the Isthmus of Panama." Ph.D. 

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"Notes and News, Submersible Device for Collecting Small Crusta- 

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Todd, Eric S. "Positive Buoyancy and Air-Breathing: A New Piscine Gas 

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Abele, Lawrence G. "Species Diversity of Decapod Crustaceans in Marine 

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-. "Rolling Stones among the Scleractinia: Mobile Corallith Communi- 

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Graham, Jeffrey B. "Aquatic Respiration in the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus." 

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. "Body Temperatures of the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus." Copeia, 

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"Heat Exchange in the Black Skipjack and the Yellow Fin Tuna and 

the Blood-Gas Relationships of Warm-Bodied Fishes." In Proceedings of 
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Lang, Judith C. "Biological Zonation at the Base of a Reef." American Sci- 
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Macintyre, Ian G., and Peter W. Glynn. "Internal Structure and Develop- 
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Glynn, Peter W., D. M. Dexter, and T. E. Bowman. "Excirolana braziliensis, A 
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change Functions of the Lung of the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus." Com- 
parative Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 50, number 3A, pages 477- 

Macintyre, Ian G. "A Diver-Operated Hydraulic Drill for Coring Submerged 
Substrates." Atoll Research Bulletin, number 185, pages 21-25. 

Macurda, D. B., and D. L. Meyer. "The Microstructure of the Crinoid Endo- 

skeleton." University of Kansas, Paleontology Contributions, volume 74, 
pages 1-22. 

McCosker, John E., and Richard H. Rosenblatt. "Fishes Collected at Malpelo 
Island." In "Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island," edited by J. B. 
Graham. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 176, 98 pages. 

Reimer, Amada Alvarez. "Effects of Crude Oils on Corals." Marine Pollution 
Bulletin, volume 6, number 3, pages 39-44. 

Warner, Robert R. "Adaptive Significance of Sequential Hermaphroditism in 
Animals." American Naturalist, volume 109, pages 61-82. 

. "The Reproductive Biology of the Protogynous Hermaphrodite 

Pimelometopon pulchrum (Pisces: Labridae)." Fishery Bulletin, volume 73, 
pages 262-281. 

372 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

APPENDIX 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Staff in 
Fiscal Year 1975 

Publications are by staff members unless otherwise noted. 


Goode, James M. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C.; a Compre- 
hensive Historical Guide. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1974, pages 1-615. 

Stann, E. Jeffrey. "Transporation and Urbanization in Caracas, 1891-1936." 
Journal of hiteramerican Studies and World Affairs, volume 17 (1975), 
pages 82-100. 



National Anthropological Film Center 

Sorenson, E. Richard. "Anthropological Film: A Scientific and Humanistic Re- 
source." In Science, volume 186 (December 20, 1974), pages 1079-1085. 

. "Culture and the Expression of Emotion." In Psychological Anthro- 
pology, edited by Thomas R. Williams. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. 

"Ecological Disturbance and Population Distribution in the Fore 

Region of New Guinea." In China to the Antipodes, edited by Willis E. 
Sibley. The Hague: Mouton, 1976. 

"To Further Phenomenological Inquiry: The National Anthropological 

Film Center." Current Anthropology, volume 16 (June 1975), pages 267-269. 
"Visual Records, Human Knowledge and the Future." In Principles of 

Visual Anthropology, edited by Paul Hockings. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. 

Sorenson, E. Richard, and Allison Jablonko. "Research Filming of Naturally 
Occurring Phenomena: Basic Strategies." In Principles of Visual Anthro- 
pology, edited by Paul Hockings. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. 

Sorenson, E. Richard, and Foster O. Chanock. "Research Films and the Com- 
munications Revolution." In Principles of Visual Anthropology, edited by 
Paul Hockings. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. 

Vaczek, Nicolas L., and Dirk A. Ballendorf. "Cameras on the World." Peace 
Corps Program and Training Journal, volume 8, number 1 (1975). 

Research Jnstitute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Bryce-Laporte, Roy. "Crossing out the Cross." [commentary on Time on the 
Cross] Contemporary Sociology, volume 4, number 4 (July 1975), pages 

. "Dreams and Realities." Continuities, July 1975. 


Beane, Marjorie, Steven A. Dubner, and J. Kevin Sullivan. Citizen Participa- 
tion in Maryland's Continuing Plajtning Process for Water Quality Man- 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 2>73 

agement. Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, Working 
Paper No. 3. January 1975. 

Beane, Marjorie, and John Ross. The Role of Technical Information in 
Decisions on Nuclear Power Plants. Center for Human Systems, Institute 
for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Report 19. Madison, 
September 1974. 

Falk, John H. "Estimating Experimenter-Induced Bias in Field Studies: A 
Cautionary Tale." Oikos, volume 25 (1974), pages 374-378. 

. "Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies: Development and Evalua- 
tion." The American Biology Teacher, volume 37, number 3 (1975), pages 

Faust, Maria A. "Micromorphology of Cell Wall of Prorocentrum mariae- 
lebouriae (Parke and Ballantine) Nov. Comb." Journal of Phychology, vol- 
ume 10 (1974), pages 315-322. 

. "Structure of the Periplast of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris." 

Journal of Phychology, volume 10 (1974), pages 121-124. 

Lynch, James F. "Aneides flavipunctatus." In Catalogue of American Am- 
phibians and Reptiles, 158.1-158.2. 1974. 

. "Ontogenetic and Geographic Variation in the Morphology and Ecol- 
ogy of the Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus)." Ph.D. thesis. Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, 1974, 430 pages. 

Lynch, James F., and N. K. Johnson. "Turnover and Equilibria in Insular Avi- 
faunas, with Special Reference to the California Channel Islands." Condor, 
volume 76 (1974), pages 370-384. 

Lynch, James F., and D. B. Wake. "Aneides lugubris." In Catalogue of Ameri- 
can Amphibians and Reptiles, 159.1-159.2. 1974. 

. "Systematics of the Chiropterotriton bromeliacia Group (Amphibia: 

Caudata), with Description of Two New Species from Guatemala." Los 
Angeles County Museum Contributions in Science, number 265 (1975), 
pages 1-40. 


Gore, Robert H. "Biological Results of the University of Miami Deep-Sea Ex- 
peditions. 102. On a Small Collection of Porcellanid Crabs from the 
Caribbean Sea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura)." Bulletin of Marine Sci- 
ence, volume 24, number 3 (1974), pages 700-721. 

. "Studies on Decapod Crustacea from the Indian River Region of 

Florida. II. Megalobrachium soriatum (Say, 1818) : The Larval Development 
under Laboratory Culture (Crustacea; Decapoda; Porcellanidae)." Bulletin 
of Marine Science, volume 23, number 4 (1974), pages 837-856. 

Gore, Robert H., and Linda J. Becker. "Studies on Stomatopod Crustacea 
of the Indian River Region of Florida. I. Rediscovery and Extension of 
Range of Heterosquilla Armata (Smith, 1881)." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 88 (1975), pages 21-27. 

Gore, Robert H., and R. E. Grizzle. "Studies on Decapod Crustacea from the 
Indian River Region of Florida. III. Callinectes bocourti A. Milne Edwards, 
1879 (Decapoda, Portunidae) from the Central East Coast of Florida." 
Crustaceana, volume 27, number 3 (1974), pages 306-308. 

Rice, Mary E. "Sipuncula." Chapter 4 in Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, 
by A. C. Giese and J. Pearse, volume 2, pages 67-127. New York: Aca- 
demic Press. 

. "Unsegmented Coelomate Worms: Sipuncula, Echiura, Priapula." 

Chapter in Light's Manual of Intertidal Invertebrates of the Coast of 
California, edited by R. I. Smith, revised edition, pages 128-134. University 
of California Press, 1975. 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "Gametogenesis in Three Species of Sipuncula: Phascolosoma 

agassizii, Golfingia pugettensis and Themiste pyroides. La Cellule, volume 
70, number 2 (1974), pages 1-35. 

[Review] The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura, by A. C. Stephen and 

S. J. Edmonds. Quarterly Reinew of Biology, volume 49, number 2 (1974), 
page 160. 


Bondurant, Russell Lynn. "The Planetarium Artistically Speaking." Proceed- 
ings of the International Society of Planetarium Educators. Special publi- 
cation 4^6 (October, 1974), pages 33-34. 

Boyne, Walter J., "Last Fighter From Curtiss." Airpower. 

, "Martin's Mercenaries." Wings. 

, "The Hall-Aluminum Story." Airpower. 

, "The Other Martin." Wirigs. 

, "McCook Field Story, Part One." Wings. 

, "McCook Field Story, Part Two." Airpower. 

, "Rocheville, Imagineer Emeritus." Aviation Quarterly. 

, "The Fortunate Fairchild." Aviation Quarterly. 

, "Weird Wonderful Warplanes." Air Force Magazine. 

Casey, Louis, and John Batchelor. Naval Aircraft, 1939-1945. London: Phoebus 
Publishing Co., 1975. 

Chamberlain, Von Del. "The Night Tourist." Astronomy, volume 3 (1975), 
pages 43-47. 

. "Stars of Wonder," Youth News, volume 56 (1974), pages 20-22. 

Chamberlain, Von Del, John C. Brandt, Stephen P. Maran, Ray Williamson, 
Robert S. Harrington, Clarion Cochran, Muriel and William J. Kennedy. 
"Possible Rock Art Records of the Crab Nebula Supernova in the Western 
United States." In Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America, edited by 
A. F. Aveni. University of Texas Press, 1975. 

Collins, Michael. Carrying the Fire. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974. 

Crouch, Thomas D. "Mason's Aerial Steamship." Journal of the American 
Aviation Historical Society, volume 19, number 2 (Summer 1974). 

Durant, F. C. Ill, co-editor. First Steps Toward Space. Smithsonian Annals of 
Flight, number 10. 1974, vi -(- 307 pages, illustrated. Presented at the First 
and Second Symposia on the History of Astronautics 1967, 1968, Congress 
of the International Astronautical Federation. 

El-Baz, F. "Orbital Photographs of the Moon — Why We Need More." In Lunar 
Science VI. Sixth Lunar Science Conference, Goddard Space Flight Center, 
Supplementary Abstract X-682-75-46. 1975, pages 5-6. 

. "A Possible History of the Moon and the Evolution of Its Surface." 

In NASM Center Set Up to Study Apollo Data, by R. Friedman. Smith- 
sonian Institution Research Reports, Number 8. 1974, pages 5 and 8. 

"Surface Geology of the Moon." Annual Reviews of Astronomy and 

Astrophysics, volume 12 (1974), pages 135-165. 

[Review] The Moon: Its Past Development and Present Behavior, by 

J. H. Tatsch. Sudbury, Mass.: Tatsch Assoicates. Geotimes, volume 19, 

number 12 (1974), page 34. 
El-Baz, F., and D. A. Mitchell. "Remote Sensing as a Tool for Development." 

First Islamic Conference on Science and Technology, University of Riyad, 

Riyad, Saudi Arabia: 1975, pages 1-11. 
El-Baz, F., and D. E. Wilhelms. "Photogeological, Geophysical, and Geo- 

chemical Data on the East Side of the Moon." In Lunar Science VI, Lunar 

Science Institute, Houston, 1975, pages 239-241. 
Mikesh, Robert C. "Art and the Airman." American Aviation Historical So- 
ciety Journal, Winter 1974, pages 324-325. 

Appendix 7 . Publications of the Staff I 375 

. "Bars for the Star." American Aviation Historical Society Journal, 

Fall 1974, pages 205-207. 

. "Dinner Key." Aviation Quarterly, volume 1, number 1 (1974). 

"LTA's Parasite Sparrowhawk." Koku Fan, January 1975, pages 90-92, 

108-117; February 1975, pages 86-89; 136-138. 
. "Messerschmidtt Bf.l09G Reborn." Koku Fan, August 1974, pages 

. "Return of the Ausburg Eagle." Airpower, November 1974, pages 

. "A Study of Zero Fighter Serial Sequencing," Koku Fan, May 1975, 

pages 80-83. 
. "That Great Hook-Up in the Sky." Wings, February 1975, pages 


Strain, P. L., and El-Baz, F. "Sinuous Rilles of the Harbinger Mountains Re- 
gion of the Moon." In Lunar Science VI, Lunar Science Institute, Houston, 
1975, pages 786-788. 

Winter, Frank H., co-author. "Edward M. Boxer and His Rockets in Peace and 
War." Spaceflight, November 1974. 

Wolfe, R. W., and Giese, R. F. "Hydroxyl Orientation and Interlayer Bonding 
in Trioctahedral 1:1 Phyllosilicates." 23rd Annual Clay and Minerals Con- 
ference, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1974. 

. "Interlayer Bonding in 1-Layer Kaolin Structures." Clays and Clay 

Minerals, volume 22 (1974), page 137. 

Zisfein, M. B. "A Home for the National Air and Space Museum." Virginia 
Aviation, January-March 1975. 


Department of Anthropology 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Early Neolithic People of Nea Nikomedeia. Fundamenta. 
Die Anfange des Neolithikums von Orient bis Nordeuropa." In Anthro- 
pologic, edited by I. Schwidetzky, volume 8, pages 103-112. 1974. 

. "Patterns of Fractures from Neolithic to Modern Times." Anthro- 

pologiai Kozlemenyek 18, pages 9-18. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1974. 

Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Maggers. "Introducao. Programa Nacional de 
Pesquisas Arqueologicas, Resultados Preliminares do Quinto Ano, 1969- 
1970." Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Pubis. Avulsas No. 26, pages 7-10. 
Belem, 1974. 

Ewers, John C. Ethnological Report on the Blackfeet and Gros Ventres Tribes 
of Indians. New York and London: Garland Publishing Company, Inc., 
1974, pages 23-202. 

. Ethnological Report on the Chippewa-Creek Tribe of the Rocky Roys 

Reservation and the Little Shell Bank of Indians. New York and London: 
Garland Publishing Co., Inc., 1974, pages 9-182. 

"The American West as a Theater of Conflict." Chapter in Frontier 

America: The Far West. [Exhibition Catalog] Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
Massachuetts, pages 78-85. 1975. 

"Horsemen of the Plains." Chapter in The World of the American 

Indian. Washington, D.C. : National Geographic Society, 1974. 

Introduction to Indians of the United States and Canada, a Bibliog- 

raphy, edited by Dwight L. Smith, pages xiii-xvi. Santa Barbara, California: 
American Bibliographical Center, 1974. 
Fitzhugh, William W. "Ground Slates in the Scandinavian Younger Stone Age 
with Reference to Circumpolar Maritime Adaptations." Proceedings of the 
Prehistoric Society. 1974. 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "Smithsonian Fieldwork on the Central Labrador Coast." Canadian 

Archeological Associatioii, Bulletin 6. 1974. 

-. "Comparative Approach to Maritime Adaptations, ICAES Congress, 

Chicago, 1973." In Maritime Adapitations of the Circumpolar Zone. The 
Hague: Mouton, 1975. 

-, editor. Maritime Adaptations of the Circtimpohir Zone. ICAES Con- 

gress, 1973, Chicago. The Hague: Mouton, 1975. 
Hare, P. E., D. J. Ortner, D. W. Von Endt, and R. E. Taylor. "Amino Acid 

Dating of Bone and Teeth." Abstracts with Programs 1974, Annual Meetings 

of the Geological Society of America, volume 6 (1974), page 778. 
Meggers, Betty J. "Environment and Culture in Amazonia." In Man in the 

Amazon, edited by Charles Wagley, pages 91-110. Gainesville: University 

of Florida Press, 1974. 
. "The Transpacific Origin of MesoAmerican Civilization: A Prelimi- 
nary Review on the Evidence and its Theoretical Implications." American 

Anthropologist, volume 77 (1975), pages 1-27. 
Ortner, Donald J. "Porotic Hyperostosis of the Skull in Metabolic Disease." 

[Abstract] American Journal of Physical Anthropologists, volume 42 (1975), 

page 321. 
. "A Precision Microdissection Procedure for Undecalcified Bone Thin 

Sections." Calcified Tissue Research, volume 17 (1975), pages 169-172. 
Riesenberg, Saul M. "Six Pacific Island Discoveries." The American Neptune, 

volume 34, number 4 (1974), pages 249-257. 
Rose, Carolyn L. "A New Approach to Archeological Conservation." Bulletin 

of the International h^stitute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic 

Works, 1975. 
Stanford, Dennis J. "Preliminary Report of the Excavation of the Jones-Miller 

Hell Gap Site, Yuma County, Colorado." Southwestern Lore, volume 40, 

numbers 3 and 4 (1975), page 29. 
Stewart, T. D. Human Skeletal Remains from Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico, 

with a Revieiv of Cranial Deformity Types in the Maya Region. Middle 

American Research Institute, Tulane University, Publication 31. National 

Geographic Society: Tulane University Program of Research in Yucatan, 

1974, pages 199-225. 
. "Recent Developments in Understanding the Relationship Between the 

Neanderthals and Modern Man." Chapter 5 in Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, the 

Man and his Works, edited by A. P. Elkin and N. M. G. Macintosh, pages 

67-82. Sydney: University of Sydney Press, 1974. 

"Perspectives on Some Problems of Early Man Common to America 

and Australia." Chapter 10 in Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, the Man and his 
Works, edited by A. P. Elkin and N. M. G. Macintosh, pages 114-135. 
Sydney: University of Sydney Press, 1974. 

"Cranial Dysraphism Mistaken for Trephination." American Journal 

of Physical Anthropology, volume 42, number 3 (1975), pages 435-437. 

-. "Nonunion of Fractures in Antiquity, with Descriptions of Five 

Cases from the New World Involving the Forearm." Bulletin of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, second series, volume 50, number 8 (1974), 
pages 875-891. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Woodsmen and Villagers of the East." In The World 
of the American Indian, edited by Jules B. Billard. Washington: National 
Geographic Society, 1974. 

. "Huns, Free-Thinking Americans, and the AAA." History of Anthro- 
pology Newsletter, volume 2, number 1 (1975), pages 4-6. 

-. "Commentary on Papers by TePaske and Tanner." In Eighteenth- 

Century Florida and its Borderlands, edited by Samuel Proctor, pages 
40-47. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1975. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 377 

, editor. Boxes and Bowls: Decorated Containers by Nineteenth-Century 

Haida, Tlingit, Bella Bella, and Tsimshian Indian Artists. [Exhibition Cata- 
logue] Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press for the Renwick Gallery, 
1974, 93 pages. 

Trousdale, William. "The Long Sword and Scabbard Slide in Asia." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Anthropology, number 17. 1975. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Reconstruction of Demographic Profiles from Ossuary 
Skeletal Samples, A Case Study From the Tidewater Potomac." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Anthropology, number 18. 1975. 

Van Beek, Gus W. "Tell Gemmeh." Israel Exploration Journal, volume 24 

Von Endt, D. W., and P. E. Hare. "The Chemical Basis for Amino Acid 
Dating of Bone." [Abstract] American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 
volume 42 (1975), page 337. 

Von Endt, D. W., P. E. Hare, D. J. Ortner, and A. I. Stix. "Amino Acid 
Isomerization Rates and Their Use in Dating Archeological Bone." Proceed- 
ings of the Society of American Archeology, volume 66 (1975). 

Wedel, Mildred M. "The Benard de la Harpe Historiography on French Co- 
lonial Louisiana." Louisiana Studies, volume 13, number 1 (1974), pages 
9-67. Natchitoches. 

. "Le Sueur and the Dakota Sioux." In Aspects of Great Lakes Anthro- 
pology, Papers in Honor of Lloyd A. Wilford, edited by Elden Johnson, 
pages 157-171. Minnesota Historical Society. 

. "The Prehistoric and Historic Habitat of the Missouri and Oto 

Indians." In American Indian Ethnohistory, Plains Indians, compiled and 

edited by David Agee Horr, pages 25-76. Garland Publishing Co., 1974. 
Wedel, Waldo R. "The Prehistoric and Historic Habitat of the Kansa Indians." 

In Pawnee and Kansas (Kaw) Indians, compiled and edited by David Agee 

Horr, pages 421-453. Garland Publishing Co., 1974. 
. "Some Early Euro-American Percepts of the Great Plains and Their 

Influence on Anthropological Thinking." In Images of the Great Plains, 

edited by B. W. Blouet and M. P. Lawson. University of Nebraska Press, 


Department of Botany 

Agostini, Getulio, and Dieter C. Wasshausen. "Tetramerium (Acanthaceae), 

Un Genero Nuevo para la Flora de Venezuela." Acta Botanica Venezuelica, 

volume 8, numbers 1-4 (1973), pages 163-166. 
Ayensu, Edward S. "Science and Technology in Black Africa." In World 

Encyclopedia of Black Peoples, edited by Keith Irvine, pages 306-317. St. 

Clair Shores, Michigan: Scholarly Press Inc., 1975. 
. "Beautiful Gamblers of the Biosphere." Natural History, volume 83, 

number 8 (1974), pages 37-45. 

"Endangered and Threatened Orchids of the United States." American 

Orchid Society Bulletin, volume 44, number 5 (1975), pages 384-394. 

-. "Leaf Anatomy and Systematics of New World Velloziaceae." Smith- 

sonian Contributions to Botany, number 15 (1974), pages 1-125. 

-. "Plant and Bat Interactions in West Africa." Annals of the Missouri 

Botanical Garden, volume 61, number 3 (1974), pages 702-727. 
Ayensu, Edward S., and Albert Bentum. "Commercial Timbers of West Africa." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 14 (1974), pages 1-69. 
Ayensu, Edward S., and John J. Skvarla. "Fine Structure of Velloziaceae 

Pollen." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, volume 101, number 5 (1974), 

pages 250-266. 

378 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Chater, Arthur O., Robert A. DeFilipps, and Vernon H. Heywood. "Report of 

a Discussion on the Future of the Flora Europaea Organization." Boletim da 

Sociedade Broteriana, volume 47, Suplemento (1974), pages 409-412. 
Cuatrecasas, J. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora VI." Phytologia, 

volume 29, number 5 (1975), pages 369-385. 
DeFilipps, Robert A. "Cuzmania megastachya (Baker) Mez." Ashingtonia, 

volume 1, number 7 (July 1974), pages 74-75. 
. "A New Combination in Platanthera L. C. Rich." American Orchid 

Society Bulletin, volume 44, number 5 (May 1975), page 405. 
Fosberg, F. R. "Dr. Raven's Proposals." Taxon, volume 24 (1975), pages 192- 

. "Miscellaneous Notes on the Flora of Aldabra and Neighboring 

Islands. III." Kew Bulletin, volume 29 (1974), pages 253-266. 
Hale, Mason E., Jr. "Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: The Lichens 

(Thelotremataceae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 16 

(1974), 46 pages. 
. "Bulbothrix, Parmelina, Relicina, and Xanthoparmelia, Four New 

Genera in the Parmeliaceae (Lichens)." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 


"Delimitation of the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale." 

Phythologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 340-342. 

"New Combinations in the Lichen Genus Parmotrema Massalongo." 

Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 334-339. 

"New Combinations in the Lichen Geus Pseudoparmelia Lynge." 

Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 188-191. 

-. "Notes on Species of Parmotrema (Lichenses: Parmeliaceae) Contain- 

ing Yellow Pigments." Mycotaxon, volume 1 (1974), pages 105-116. 

Hermann, F. J., and H. Robinson. "Additions to the Bryophyte Flora of Bo- 
livia." The Bryologist, volume 77 (1974), pages 643-645. 

Jenkins, Dale W., and Edward S. Ayensu. "The Nation's First Census of En- 
dangered Plants Finds One-Tenth May be Marked for Extinction." Smith- 
sonian, volume 5, number 10 (1975), pages 92-96. 

King, R. M., and H. Robinson. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). 
CXX. Additions to the Genus Koanophyllon in Panama." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 28 (1974), pages 67-72. 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXI. Additions to the 

Genus Fleischmannia." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 73-96. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXII. A New Genus, 

Sartorina." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 97-100. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXIII. Additions to the 

Genus Mikania." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 272-281. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXIV, A New Genus, 

Eitenia." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 282-285. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXV. Additions to the 

Genus Bartlettina." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 286-293. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXVI. A New Species of 

Ageratum." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 491-493. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXVIII. Four Additions to 

the Genus Ageratina from Mexico and Central Am.erica." Phytologia, 
volume 28 (1974), pages 494-502. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXX VII. Additions to the 

American and Pacific Adenostemmatinae. Adenostemma, Cymnocoronis 
and Sciadocephala." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 1-20. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXIX. A New Genus, Vit- 

tetia." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 121-122. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXX. Notes on Campu- 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 2>79 

lodinium, Koanophyllon, Mikania and Symphyopappus." Phytologia, volume 
29 (1974), pages 123-129. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXII. The Genus Pha- 

lacraea." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974). pages 251-256. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXI. A New Genus, 

Cuevaria." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 257-263. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXIII. A New Genus, 

Piqeriella." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 264-266. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXIV. A New Species of 

Sciadocephala from Panama." Phytologia, volume 29 (1975), pages 343-346. 
"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXV. A New Species 

of Ageratina from Panama." Phytologia, volume 29 (1975), pages 347-350. 
"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXVI. Four New Species 

of Neomirandea." Phytologia, volume 29 (1975), pages 351-361. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXVII. Two New Species 

of Neomirandea." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 9-14. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXVIII. A New Genus, 

Critoniella." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 284-285. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXXIX. A New Genus, 

Aristeguietia." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 217-220. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXL. A New Genus 

Grosvenoria." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 221-222. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLI. A New Genus, 

Asplundianthus." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 223-228. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLII. A New Genus, 

Badilloa." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 229-234. 

Lellinger, David B. "The Correct Name of a Lycopodium New to Panama." 
American Pern Journal, volume 64, number 2 (1974), page 64. 

. "Publication of the Ferns and Fern-Allies in the "Primitiae Florae 

Costaricensis.' " American Fern Journal, volume 64, number 3 (1974), pages 

Maguire, B., J. J. Wurdock, and Y. Huang. "Pollen Grains of Some American 
Olacaceae." Crana, volume 14, number 1 (December 1974), pages 26-38. 

Mueller-Dombois, D., and F. R. Fosberg. "Vegetation Map of Hawaii Vol- 
canoes National Park (at 1: 52,000)." Technical Report (Cooperative Na- 
tional Park Resources Studies Unit), number 4 (1974), pages 1-44. 

Nicolson, D. H. Introduction to Flora Idica, by W. Roxburgh (facsimile re- 
print of 1st edition, 1820-1824), pages vii-ix. New York: Oriole Editions, 

. "A New Lectotypification of the Genus Xanthosoma Schott (Aca- 

ceae)." Taxon, volume 24 (1975), pages 345-347. 

"Orthography of Names and Epithets: The i/j and u/v Problem." 

Taxon, volume 23 (1974), pages 843-851. 

"Orthography of Names and Epithets: Latinization of Personal 

Names." Taxon, volume 23 (1974), pages 549-561. 
Nowicke, Joan W. "Three New Species of Tournefortia (Boraginaceae) 

from the Andes and Comments on the Manuscripts of E. P. Killip." Bulletin 

of the Torrey Botanical Club, volume 101 (1975). pages 229-234. 
Nowicke, Joan W., and John J. Skvarla. "A Palynological Investigation of the 

Genus Tournefortia (Boraginaceae)." American Journal of Botany, volume 

61 (1974), pages 1021-1036. 
Porter, D. M., and J. Cuatrecasas. "Brunelliaceae." In "Flora of Panama," by 

Robert E. Woodson, Jr., Robert W. Schery and Collaborators, Annals of 

the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, number 1 (1975), pages 11-14. 
Read, Robert W. "The Genus Thrinax (Palmae: Coryphoideae)." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Botany, number 19 (1975), pages iii-98. 

380 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Read, Robert W., and G. E. Daniels. "Puya in Costa Rica." Journal of the 
Bromeliad Society, volume 25, number 2 (1975), pages 43-47. 

Robinson, H. "Additions to the Genus Taxiphyllum (Hypnaceae, Musci)." 
Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 64-66. 

. "Notes on the mosses of Juan Fernandez and Southern South 

America." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 116-120. 

"Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). III. A New Species of 

Schistocarpha." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 247-250. 

-. "Studies in the Heliantheae (Asterasceae). IV. A New Species of 

Schistocarpha from Panama." Phytologia, volume 29 (1975), pages 339-342. 
-. "Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). XI. The Genus Arrioglos- 

siim." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 294-295. 

Robinson, H., and F. D. Bowers. "A New Species of Oreoweisia from 
Mexico (Dicranaceae, Musci)." Phytologia, volume 29 (1974), pages 

Robinson, H., and R. D. Bretell. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). II. 
Preliminary Survey of the Genera." Phytologia, volume 28 (1974), pages 

Robinson, H., and D. Griffin III. "A New Species of Rhynchotegiopsis from 
Costa Rica (Hookeriaceae, Musci)." Phytologia, volume 30 (1975), pages 

Sachet, M.-H. "State of Knowledge of Coral Reefs as Ecosystems." In "Com- 
parative Investigations of Tropical Reefs Ecosystems, Background for an 
Integrated Coral Reef Program," edited by M.-H. Sachet and A. L. Dahl. 
Atoll Research Bulletin, number 172 (1974), pages 121-169. 

Schubert, Bernice G., and Lyman B. Smith. "Begoniales." Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica, fifteenth edition. 1974, volume 2, pages 801-804. 

Shetler, Stanwyn G. "The Flora North America Generalized System for De- 
scribing the Morphology of Organisms." Museum Data Bank Research Re- 
port, number 4 (January 1975). 

. "A Generalized Descriptive Data Bank as a Basis for Computer- 
Assisted Identification." In Biological Identification with Computers, edited 
by R. J. Pankhurst, pages 197-235. New York and London: Academic Press, 

"Information Systems and Data Banking." In Vascular Plant Syste- 

matics, by Albert E. Radford, William C. Dickison, Jimmy R. Massey, and 
C. Ritchie Bell, revised edition, pages 791-821. New York: Harper and 
Row, 1974. 

"Natural History for Everyone." Audubon Naturalist News, volume 1, 

number 4 (1975), page 2. 

"Natural History of the Season: April's Riot of Wildflowers." 

Audubon Naturalist News, volume 1, number 3 (1975), page 12. 

"Natural History of the Season: March is for the Bluebirds." Audu- 

bon Naturalist News, volume 1, number 2 (1975), page 7. 

"Our Vanishing Natural Space." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 30, 

number 1 (1975), page 2. 

-. "Singing Bushes in Your Garden." Audubon Naturalist News, volume 

1, number 3 (1975), page 2. 
Simpson, Beryl B. "Glacial Climates in the Eastern Tropical Pacific." Nature, 

volume 253 (1975), pages 34-36. 
. "Glacial Migrations of Plants: Island Biogeographical Evidence." 

Science, volume 185 (1974), pages 698-700. 
Skog, Laurence E. "New Peruvian Gesneriaceae." Phytologia, volume 28, 

number 3 (1974), pages 233-240. 
Smith, Lyman B. "Bromeliales." Encyclopedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 

1974, volume 3, pages 323-327. 
. "Key to the Subfamilies and Genera of the Bromeliaceae." In 

Appendix 7 . Publications of the Staff I 381 

Bromeliads, a Cultural Handbook, by Mulford B. Foster and others, second 
edition, pages 9-11. Arcadia, California: The Bromeliad Society, Inc., 1974. 
"Lost Bromeliad Identified." Journal of the Bromeliad Society, 

volume 24, number 5 (1974), page 196. 

"Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXV." Phytologia, volume 28, number 1 

(1974), pages 24-42. 

"Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXVI." Phytologia, volume 28, number 4 

(1974), pages 319-333. 

"Tillandsia velickeana." Journal of the Bromeliad Society, volume 24, 

number 6 (1974), page 224. 
Smith, Lyman B., and Edward S. Ayensu. "Velloziaceae." In Flora of Tropical 

East Africa, edited by R. M. Polhill, pages 1-8. London: Crown Agents, 

Smith, Lyman B., and R. J. Downs. "Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae." Flora 

Neotropica, monograph number 14 (1974), pages 1-658. 
Smith, Lyman B., and Robert W. Read. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXVII." 

Phytologia, volume 30, number 5 (1975), pages 289-303. 
Smith, Lyman B., Harold E. Robinson, and Roberto M. Klein. "Hipocra- 

teaceas." Florula da llha de Santa Catarina, fascicle HIPO (1974), pages 

Solbrig, Otto T., and Beryl B. Simpson. "Components of Regulation of a 

Natural Population of Dandelions in Michigan." Journal of Ecology, vol- 
ume 62 (1974), pages 473-486. 
Soderstrom, T. R., and C. E. Calderon. "Primitive Forest Grasses and Evolution 

of the Bambusoideae." Biotropica, volume 6 (1974), pages 141-153. 
Soderstrom, T. R., and J. E. Vidal. "An Ecological Study of Vegetation of the 

Nam Ngum Reservoir (Laos)." Prepared for the Mekong Committee through 

the Smithsonian Office of Ecology (xeroxed). 46 pages. 
Stern, William Louis. "The Bond Between Botany and Medicine." Bulletin of 

the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, volume 4 (1974), pages 41-60. 
. "The Botanist as Sleuth." Bulletin of the International Wood Col- 
lectors Society, volume 27, number 7 (1974), pages 4-9. 

"Comparative Anatomy and Systematics of Woody Saxifragaceae. 

Escallonia." Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society of London, volume 68 
(1974), pages 1-20. 

"Development of the Amentiferous Concept." Brittonia, volume 25 

(1974), pages 316-333. 

"Saxifragales." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1974, volume 16, pages 291- 

Steyermark, J. A., and Lyman B. Smith. "A New Drosera from Venezuela." 

Rhodora, volume 76, number 807 (1974), pages 491-493. 
Terrell, E. E., and H. Robinson. "Luziolinae, a New Subtribe of Oryzoid 

Grasses." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, volume 101 (1974), pages 

Wasshausen, Dieter C. "The Genus Aphelandra (Acanthaceae)." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Botany, number 18 (1975), pages 1-157. 
Wetmore, Ralph H., Elso 5. Barghoorn, and William Louis Stern. "The Harvard 

University Wood Collection in the Rejuvenation of Systematic Wood 

Anatomy." Taxon, volume 23 (1974), pages 739-745. 
Wurdack, J. J. "Notes on Brazilian Polygalaceae." Phytologia, volume 28, num- 
ber 1 (May 1974), pages 10-14. 
. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXIII." Phytologia, volume 28, number 2 

(October 1974), pages 135-151. 

Depari^ment of Entomology 

Baumann, Richard W. "What is Alloperla imbecilla (Say)? Designation of a 
Neotype, and a New Alloperla from Eastern North America (Plecoptera: 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Chloroperlidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 87 (1974), pages 257-264. 

Baumann, Richard W., and Arden R. Gaufin. "Relocation of Plecoptera Type 
Specimens." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
volume 76 (1974), pages 450-451. 

Burger, John F. "Horse Flies of Arizona IV. Notes on the Keys to the Adult 
Tabanidae of Arizona, Subfamily Tabaninae, Genus Tabanus (Diptera). 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 77 (1975), 
pages 15-33. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. "The National Collection of Lepidoptera." Journal of the 
Lepidopterists' Society, volume 28 (1975), pages 181-204. 

Davis, Donald R. "A New Species of Paraclemensia from Europe with Com- 
ments on the Distribution and Speciation of the Genus (Lepidoptera: In- 
curvariidae)." Alexanor, volume 8 (1974), pages 342-348, 12 figures. 

. "Two New Species of Bagworm Moths from Venezuela with Special 

Remarks on Reproductive Morphology in Psychidae (Lepidoptera: Psy- 
chidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 
77 (1975), pages 66-77. 

Duckworth, W. Donald, and Thomas D. Eichlin. "Clearwing Moths of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology, number 180 (1974), 45 pages. 

Erwin, Terry L. "The Genus Coptocarpus Chaudoir of the Australian Region 
with Notes on Related African Species (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Oodini)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 184 (1974), pages 1-25. 

. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembi- 

diini). Part II: A Revision of the New World-Australian Genus Pericompsus 
LeConte." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 162 (1974), pages 

"Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembi- 

diini) Supplement A: Lectotype Designations for New World Species, Two 
New Genera, and Notes on Generic Concepts." Proceedings of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 76, number 2 (1974), pages 123- 

[Review] Surtsey, Iceland: The Development of a New Fauna, 1963- 

1970, Terrestrial Invertebrates, by Carl H. Lindroth, Hugo Anderson, Hogni 
Bodvarsson, and Sigurdur H. Richter. Entomologica Scandinavica, Suppl. 5, 
1973. Copenhagen, Denmark: Munksgaard, International Booksellers and 
Publishers Ltd. 

Field, William D. "Ctenuchid Moths of Ceramidia Butler, Ceramidiodes Hamp- 
son and the Caca Species Group of Antichloris Hiibner." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, number 198 (1975), 45 pages. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "The Genus Culoptila in the United States with Two New 
Combinations (Trichoptera: Glossosmatidae)." Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington, volume 76 (1974), page 284. 

. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XV: The Trichoptera of Surinam." 

Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and other Cuyanas, volume 14 (1974), 
pages 1-151. 

"Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XVII: The Genus Smicridea from 

North and Central America (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, number 167 (1974), 65 pages. 

"Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XIX: The Genus Cailloma 

(Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, volume 87 (1974), pages 473-484. 

-. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XX: Trichoptera Collected by the 

Hamburg South — Peruvian Expedition." Entomologische Mitteilungen aus 
dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg, volume 4 (1975), pages 565-573. 
. [Review] Trichoptera (Kocherfliegen), by Hans Malicky, 1973. Pro- 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 383 

ceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 87 (1975), 
page 14. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "Heteroptera." Encyclopedia Britannica, fifteenth edi- 
tion. 1974, volume 8, pages 845-853. 

. "Three New Species of Burrowing Bugs Found in Association with 

Ants in Brazil (Hemiptera: Cydnidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological 
Society, volume 48, number 1 (1975), pages 105-110. 

Harrison, Bruce A., and J. M. Klein. "A Revised List of the Anopheles of 
Cambodia." Mospuito Systematics, volume 7 (1975), pages 9-12. 

Harrison, Bruce A., J. F. Reinert, S. Sirivanakarn, Y-M, Huang, E. L. Peyton, 
and Botha de Meillon. "Distributional and Biological Notes on Mosquitoes 
from Sri Lanka (Ceylon) (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, vol- 
ume 6 (1974), pages 142-162. 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "Lectotype Designation for Aedes (Stegomyia) chemul- 
poensis Yamada with a Note on its Assignment to the aegypti Croup of 
Species (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, volume 76 (1974), pages 208-211. 

. "A New Species of Aedes (Stegomyia) from the Andaman Islands 

(Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6 (1974), pages 137- 

"Occurrence of Two Types of Gynandromorphism in a Sibling Series 

of Aedes (Stegomyia) craggi (Barraud) (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito 
News, volume 34 (1974), pages 428-430. 

"A Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) pseudoscutellaris (Theo- 

bald) with a Note on the Taxonomic Status of Aedes (Stegomyia) poly- 
nesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 7 
(1975), pages 87-101. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., Roland L. Fisher, Kenneth L. Knight, Charles D. Michener, 
W. Wayne Moss, Paul Oman, and Jerry A. Powell. "Report of the Ad- 
visory Committee for Systematics Resources in Entomology." Bulletin of the 
Entomological Society of America, volume 20 (1974), pages 237-242, 1 
figure, 1 table. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., and E. Gorton Linsley. "The Principal Larrea Bees of the 
Southwestern United States (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology, volume 193 (1975), 74 pages, 18 figures, 15 tables. 

. "Some Insects Other Than Bees Associated with Larrea tridentata in 

the Southwestern United States." Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, volume 77 (1975), pages 100-120. 

"The Status of Nomia mesillensis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Halicti- 

dae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 76 
(1974), pages 198-199. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Supplement to a List of the Wasps of Gebel 'Uweinat, 
Libyan Desert (Hymenoptera: Aculeata)." Revue Zoologique Africaine, vol- 
ume 88, number 2 (1974), pages 450-452. 

Peyton, E. L. "Uranotaenia srilankensis, A New Species of the Subgenus 
Pseudoficalhia from Sri Lanka (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, 
volume 6 (1974), pages 222-227. 

Reinert, John F. "Medical Entomology Studies — I. A New Interpretation of 
the Subgenus Verrallina of the Genus Aedes (Diptera; Culicidae)." Con- 
tributions of the American Entomological Institute, volume II, number 1 
(1974), pages 1-249. 

Sirivanakarn, Sunthorn. "Redescription of Culex (Culex) bihamatus Edwards 
with a Discussion of its Affinity." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6 (1974), 
pages 259-262. 

. "The Systematics of Culex vishnui Complex in Southeast Asia with 

the Diagnosis of Three Common Species (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito 
Systematics, volume 7 (1975), pages 69-85. 

384 / Sniithsonian Year 1975 

Spangler, Paul J. "A Description of the Larva of Hydrobiomorpha casta 
(Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)." Journal of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences, volume 63, number 4 (1974), pages 160-164. 

Ward, Ronald A. "African Trypanosomiasis." In Medical Entomology, edited 
by Vernon J. Tipton, pages 201-214. Entomological Society of American and 
Brigham Young University, 1974. 

. [Review] Insects and Disease, by Keith R. Snow, 1974. American So- 
ciety for Microbiology News, volume 41 (1975), page 252. 

-. [Review] Man Against Tsetse. Struggle for Africa, by John J. 

McKelvey, Jr., 1973. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, vol- 
ume 20 (1974), page 208. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Barnard, J. L. "Evolutionary Patterns in Gammaridean Amphipoda." Crusta- 
ceana, volume 27 (1974), pages 137-146. 

. "Identification of Gammaridean Amphipods." In Light's Manual: 

Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast, pages 314-352. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975. 

Bayer, Frederick M. "A New Species of Trichogorgia and Records of Two 
Other Octocorals New to the Palau Islands." Micronesica, volume 10, 
number 2 (1974), pages 257-271, 3 plates. 

Bowman, T. E. "The California Freshwater Isopod, Asellus tomalensis, Re- 
discovered and Compared with Asellus occidentalis. Hydrobiologia, volume 
44, number 4 (1974), pages 431-441. 

. "A New Genus and Species of Troglobitic Cirolanid Isopod from San 

Luis Potosi, Mexico." Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech Uni- 
versity, volume 27 (1975), pages 1-7. 

Bowman, T. E., Peter W. Glynn, and Deborah M. Dexter. "Excirolana bra- 
ziliensis, a Pan-American Sand Beach Isopod: Taxonomic Status, Zonation 
and Distribution." Journal of Zoology, London, volume 175 (1975), pages 

Bowman, T. E., and Charlotte Holmquist. "Asellus (Asellus) alaskensis, n. sp., 
the First Alaskan Asellus, with Remarks on its Asian Affinities (Crustacea: 
Isopoda: Asellidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 88, number 7 (1975), pages 59-72. 

Bowman, T. E., and Helmut Kiihne. "Cymodetta gambosa, a New Sphaeromatid 
Isopod (Crustacea) from Australia, with Notes on its Mating Behavior." 
Records of the Australian Museum, volume 29, number 9 (1974), pages 
235-244, plate 8. 

Bowman, T. E., and George A. Schultz. "The Isopod Crustacea Genus Mun- 
nogonium George and Stromberg, 1968 (Munnidae, Asellota)." Proceedings 
of the Biological Sdciety of Washington, volume 87, number 25 (1974), pages 

Bowman, T. E., Austin B. Williams, and David M. Damkaer. "Distribution, 
Variation and Supplemental Description of the Opossum Shrimp, Neo- 
mysis americana (Crustacea: Mysidacea)." Fishery Bulletin, volume 72, 
number 3 (1974), pages 835-842. 

Chace, Fenner A., Jr. "Cave Shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) from the Do- 
minican Republic." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 88, number 4 (1975), pages 29-44, 7 figures. 

Child, C. A. "Hedgpethius tridentatus, a New Genus and New Species, and 
Other Pycnogonida from Key West, Florida, U.S.A." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 87, number 43 (31 December 
1974), pages 493-500. 

. "Pycnogonida of Western Australia." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, 190 (1975), pages 1-29, 11 figures. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 385 

Cressey, R. F. A New Family of Parasitic Copepods (Cyclopoida: Shiinoidea)." 
Crustaceana, volume 28, number 2 (1975), pages 211-219, 22 figures. 

. "A Redistribution of Hermilius pyriventris Heller with the First De- 
scription of the Male." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 87, number 22 (1974), pages 235-244. 

Harshbarger, J. C, and Dawe, C. J. "Neoplasms in Feral Fishes: Their Sig- 
nificance to Cancer Research." Chapter 35 in The Pathology of Fishes, 
edited by W. E. Ribelin and G. Migaki, pages 871-894. Madison: The Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Press, 1975. 

. "Radiation, Neoplasms, Carcinogenic Chemicals, and Insects." Chap- 
ter 8 in Insect Diseases, edited by G. E. Cantwell, pages 377-416. New 
York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1974. 

"Integumentary Papillomas and Carcinomas in Fish. Symposium No. 

43: Environmental Carcinogens in Feral Aquatic Animals." In Abstracts: 
Xlth International Cancer Congress, Florence, [Italy], 20-26 October 1974, 
volume 1, pages 218-219. Milan: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 1974. 

-. "The Study of Invertebrate and Poikilothermic Vertebrate Neoplasms 

by the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals." Bulletin of the Society of 
Pharmacology and Environmental Pathology, volume 2, number 3 (1974), 
pages 10-14. 

Hart, C. W., Jr. The Ostracod Family Entocytheridae. The Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, Monograph 18. 1974, 239 pages, 49 text 
figures, 62 plates. 

. Ostracoda: Podocopa: Entocytheridae." Crustaceorum Catalogus (Den 

Haag). 1975, part 4, pages 1-64. 

-. "Surface Water Pollution Surveys." In Environmental Engineers Hand- 

book, edited by Bela G. Liptak, volume 1, pages 244-253. Philadelphia: 
Chilton Co., 1974. 

Hart, C. W., and Samuel L. H. Fuller, editors. Pollution Ecology of Freshwater 
Invertebrates. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1974, 389 pages. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "A Checklist of the North and Middle American Cray- 
fishes (Decapoda: Astacidae and Cambaridae)." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology, 166 (1974). 161 pages, 294 figures. 

. "Crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae)." In Pollution Ecology of Fresh- 
water Invertebrates, by C. W. Hart, Jr., and S. L. H. Fuller, pages 195-214. 
New York: Academic Press, 1974. 

"New Entocytherid Ostracods from Tennessee with a Key to the 

Species of the Genus Ascetocythere." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 88, number 2 (1975), pages 5-20, 2 figures. 

Hope, W. Duane. "Nematoda." In Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, by 
A. C. Giese and J. S. Pearse, volume 1, pages 391-469. New York: Aca- 
demic Press Inc., pages 391-469. 

. "Deontostoma timmerchioi n. sp., a New Marine Numatode (Lepto- 

somatidae) from Antarctica, with a Note on the Structure and Possible 
Function of the Ventromedian Supplement." Transactions of the American 
Microscopical Society, volume 93, number 3 (1974), pages 314-324. 

Jones, M. L. "On the Caobangiidae, a New Family of the Polychaeta, with a 
Redescription of Caohangia billeti Giard." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, Number 175 (1974), 55 pages, 25 figures, 11 plates. 

. "Brandtika asiatica New Genus, New Species, from Southeastern Asia 

and a Redescription of Monroika africana (Monro) (Polychaeta: Sabellidae)." 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 87 (1974), 
pages 217-230, 4 figures. 

. "Gatun Lake as a Freshwater Barrier in the Panama Canal." [Ab- 
stract]. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union for 1973 (1974), 
page 46. 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Kenk, R. "Index of the Genera and Species of the Freshwater Triclads (Tur- 
bellaria) of the World." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 183 
(1975), 80 pages. 

. "Phagocata cornuta Shishkov, 1903 (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria) : 

Request for Suppression under the Plenary Powers Z.N.(S.) 2055." Bulletin 
of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 31, number 1 (1974), pages 62-63. 

"Flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida)." In Pollution Ecology of 

Freshwater Invertebrates, edited by C. W. Hart and Samuel L. H. Fuller, 
pages 67-80. New York and London: Academic Press, 1974. 

Kornicker, Louis 5. "Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of Cape Cod Bay, Massachu- 
setts." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 173 (1974), 20 pages, 
11 figures. 

. "Revision of the Cypridinacea of the Gulf of Naples (Ostracoda)." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 178 (1974), 64 pages, 26 

"Spread of Ostracodes to Exotic Environs on Transplanted Oysters." 

In Biology and Paleobiology of Ostracoda, Paleontological Research Institu- 
tion, pages 129-139, 3 figures. Ithaca, New York, 1975. 

Kornicker, Louis S., and F. E. Caraion. "West African Myodocopid Ostracoda 
(Cylindroleberididae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 179 
(1974), 78 pages, 43 figures. 

Muzik, Katherine M. and Frederick M. Bayer. "Rediscovery of Biological 
Treasures." Sea Frontiers, volume 21, number 2 (1975), pages 110-120. 

Pawson, David L. "Echinoderms." Encyclopaedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 
1974, volume 6, pages 178-186. 

Perez Farfante, Isabel. "Range Extension of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) occidentalis 
Streets, 1871 (Decapoda: Penaeidae) into the Golfo de Tehuantepec." Crus- 
taceana, volume 27, number 3 (1974), pages 316-319, 1 figure. 

Rehder, H. A. "Marine Biological Research in Southeastern Polynesia. Na- 
tional Geographic Society Research Reports, 1967 Projects, (1974), pages 
243-254, 5 figures. 

. "Comment on the Request for the Designation of a Type-Species of 

Tutufa Jousseaume, 1881. Z.N.(S.) 2021." Bulletin of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture, volume 31, number 1 (1974), pages 11-12. 

Rehder, H. A., and J. E. Randall. "Ducie Atoll: Its History, Physiography and 
Biota." Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 183 (1975), 40 pages, 29 figures. 

Rice, M. "Gametogenesis in Three Species of Sipuncula: Phascolosoma agas- 
sizii, Colfingia pugettensis, and Themiste pyroides." La Cellule, volume 70, 
numbers 2 and 3 (1974), pages 295-313, 7 plates. 

. "Sipuncula." In Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates, edited by 

Giese and Pearse, volume 2. Academic Press, 1975. 

"Unsegmented Coelomate Worms: Sipuncula, Echiura, Priapula." In 

Light's Manual of Intertidal Invertebrates of the Coast of California, edited 
by R. I. Smith, revised edition. University of California Press: 1975. 

Roper, C. F. E. "The Shell in Cephalopod Phylogeny." [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Malacological Union, vol. 40 (1975), pages 71-72. 

Rosewater, J. "An Annotated List of the Marine Mollusks of Ascension Is- 
land, South Atlantic Ocean." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 189 
(1975), 41 pages, 24 figures. 

. 1975. "Mollusks of Gatun Locks, Panama Canal." Bulletin of the 

American Malacological Union for 1974 (1975), pages 42-43. 

Ruetzler, Klaus. "The Burrowing Sponges of Bermuda." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology, 165 (1974), 32 pages, 26 figures. 

. "The Role of Burrowing Sponges in Bioerosion." Oecologia (Berlin), 

volume 19 (1975), pages 203-216. 

Sohn, I. G. and L. S. Kornicker. "Variation in Predation Behavior of Ostra- 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 387 

code Species on Schistosomiasis Vector Snails." In Biology and Paleobiology 

of Ostracoda, Paleontological Research Institution. Ithaca, New York (1975), 

pages 217-223, 2 figures. 
Villalobos, Alejandro and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "Three New Crustaceans from 

La Media Luna, San Luis Potosi, Mexico." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, 174 (1974), 18 pages, 8 figures. 
Williams, Austin B. "A New Species of Hypsophrys [Decapoda: Homolidae] 

from the Straits of Florida with Notes on Related Crabs." Proceedings of 

The Biological Society of Washington, volume 87, number 42 (1974), pages 

485-492, 12 figures. 
. "The Swimming Crabs of the Genus Callinectes [Decapoda: Portuni- 

dae]." Fishery Bulletin, volume 72, number 3 (1974), pages 685-798, 27 


-. "Two New Axiids [Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Calocaris] 

from North Carolina and the Straits of Florida." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 87, number 39 (1974), pages 451-464, 
18 figures. 
Williams, Austin B., T. E. Bowman and D. M. Damkaer. "Distribution, Varia- 
tion, and Supplemental Description of the Opossum Shrimp, Neomysis 
americana [Crustacea: Mysidacea]." Fishery Bulletin, volume 72, number 3 
(1974), pages 835-842, 5 figures. 

Department of Mineral Sciences 

Appleman, D. E. "Sedimentary Carbonate Minerals," [Review], Bulletin of 

American Association of Petroleum Geologists, volume 59 (1975), pages 

Dunn, P. J. "Chromian Spinel Inclusions in American Peridots," Zeitschrift 

filr Cemmologische Gesellschaft, volume 23, number 4 (1974), pages 304- 

. "Elbaite from Newry, Maine," The Mineralogical Record, volume 6, 

number 1 (1975), pages 22-25. 

-. "Emeralds in the Smithsonian," The Lapidary Journal, volume 28, 

number 10 (1975), pages 1572-1575. 

"Gem Spodumene and Achroite Tourmaline from Afghanistan," The 

Journal of Gemmology, volume 14, number 4 (1974), pages 170-174. 

"Guest Editorial: On Guest Speakers and Courtesy," The Mineralogi- 

cal Record, volume 5, number 3 (1974), page 102. 

"Inclusions in Beryllonite from Stoneham, Maine," The Journal of 

Gemmology, volume 14, number 5 (1975), pages 208-212. 

"Inclusions of Albite and Phenakite in Gem Topaz from the Tarryall 

Mountains, Colorado," Gems and Gemology, volume 14, number 11 (1974), 
pages 337-340. 

"Personality Sketch: C. Wroe Wolfe," The Mineralogical Record, 

volume 6, number 1, page 13. 

. "Personality Sketch: John Stewart," Rocks and Minerals, April 1975. 

-. "Wroewolfeite, a New Copper Sulfate Hydroxide Hydrate," Minera- 

logical Magazine, volume 40 (1975), pages 1-5. 
Fredriksson, Kurt, A. Dube, E. Jarosewich, J. Nelen and A. Noonan. "The 

Pulsora Anomaly: A Case Against Metamorphic Equilibration in Chodrites." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Sciences, no. 14 (1975), pages 44-53. 
Fredriksson, Kurt, J. Nelen and A. Noonan. "Al-Ca Rich Chodrules in the 

Coolidge Chondrite" [Abstract], Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), pages 384- 

Fredriksson, Kurt, A. Noonan, and J. Nelen. "The Bhola Stone — A True 

Polymict Breccia" [Abstract], Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), pages 338-339. 

388 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Fudali, Robert F. and A. Noonan. "Gobabeb, a New Chondrite from SW 
Africa: The Coexistence of Equilibrated Silicates and Unequilibrated 
Spinels," Meteoritics, volume 10, number 1 (1975), pages 31-39. 

Jarosewich, E., R. H. Gibbs, Jr., and H. L. Windom. "Heavy Metal Concentra- 
tion in Museum Fish Specimens: Effect on Preservatives and Time," Science, 
volume 160 (1974), pages 457-477. 

Jarosewich, E., and G. R. Levi-Donati. "The Mills New Mexico Chondrite — A 
New Find," Meteoritics, number 2 (1974), pages 145-156. 

Mason, Brian H. 'Aluminum-Titanium-Rich Pyroxenes, with Special Reference 
to the AUende Meteorite," American Mineralogist, volume 59 (1974), pages 

. "Compositional Limits of Wollastonite and Bustamite," American 

Mineralogist, volume 60 (1975), pages 209-212. 

"Elements, Geochemical Distribution of." Encyclopedia Britannica, 

fifteenth edition. 1974, volume 6, pages 700-713. 

-. "Notes on Australian Meteorites," Records of the Australian Museum, 

volume 29 (1974), pages 169-186. 
Mason, Brian H., and P. J. Dunn. "An Unusual Occurrence of Bobierrite at 

Wodgina, Western Australia," Mineralogical Record, volume 5 (1974), page 

Mason, Brian H., and E. P. Henderson. "Australian Meteorite Expedition, 

1967," National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1967 Projects (1974), 

pages 158-159. 
Mason, Brian H., S. Jacobson, J. A. Nelen, W. G. Melson, T. Simkin and G. 

Thompson. "Regolith Compositions from the Apollo 17 Mission," Proceed- 
ings of the Fifth Luriar Science Conference (1974), volume 1, pages 879- 

Mason, Brian H., and P. M. Martin. "Major and Trace Elements in the Allende 

Meteorite," Nature, volume 249 (1974), pages 333-334. 
Melson, W. G., et al. "Deep Sea Drilling Project: Leg 37 — The Volcanic Layer," 

Ceotimes, pages 16-18. 
Moreland, G., R. Johnson and M. Goodway. "An Improved Technique for the 

Presentation of Polished Metallurgical Sections," Metallography, volume 8, 

number 5 (1975). 
Noonan, A. F. "The Clovis (no. 1), New Mexico, Meteorite and Ca, Al and 

Ti-Rich Inclusions in Ordinary Chondrites," Meteoritics, volume 10 (1974), 

pages 51-60. 
. "Glass Particles and Shock Features in the Bununu Howardite," 

Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), pages 233-242. 
Noonan, A. F., R. L. Methot, E. Jarosewich, and A. A. DeGasparis. "The Isna 

Meteorite — A C3 Find From Egypt," Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), pages 

Noonan, A. F., R. S. Rajan and A. A. Chodos. "Microprobe Analyses of 

Glassy Particles from Howardites," Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), pages 

Simkin, T., and J. Filson. "An Application of a Stochastic Model to a Vol- 
canic Earthquake Swarm," Bulletin and Seismological Record of America, 

volume 65 (1975), pages 351-358. 
Simkin, T., P. T. Taylor, D. J. Stanley, and W. Jahn, "Gilliss Seamount: De- 
tailed Bathymetry and Modification by Bottom Currents," Marine Geology, 

volume 18 (1975). 
Switzer, G. S. "Memorial to Victor Ben Meen," The Geological Society of 

America, 3 pages. 1974. 
. "Some Famous Jewels and their History," In The Great Book of 

Jewels, by Ernst A. and Jean Heiniger, pages 281-307. New York Graphic 

Society of Boston, 1974. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 389 

. "Levyne-Offretite Intergrowths from Basalt near Beech Creek, Grant 

County, Oregon," American Mineralogist, volume 59 (1974), pages 837-842. 

White, John C, Jr. "Collecting Minerals," Encyclopedia of Earth Science, 

. "Encyclopedia of Minerals" [Book Review] Mineralogical Record. 

. "Gemstone and Mineral Data Book" [Review] American Scientist. 

. editor and publishor, Mineralogical Record (bimonthly record). 

, editor and publishor. "Glossary of Mineral Species, 1975." 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, W. H., Tomiataro Masaki, and Hidetsuga Akiota. "Ezo epiyessoense, 
a New Parasitic Genus and Species of Corallinaceae." Phycologia, volume 
13 (1974), pages 329-344. 

Banks, H. P., 5. Leclercq, and F. M. Huebner. "Anatomy and Morphology of 
Psilophyton dawsonii, sp. n., from the Late Lower Devonian of Quebec 
(Gaspe), and Ontario, Canada." Paleontographica Americana, number 48 
(1975), pages 77-127. 

Barnard, L. A., I. G. Macintyre, and J. W. Pierce. "Tropical Coral Reefs: Non- 
Carbonate Detrital Indicator." Nature, volume 252, number 5480 (1974), 
pages 219-220. 

Benson, R. H. "Preliminary Report on the Ostracodes of Leg 24: Deep Sea 
Drilling Project Initial Reports." hiitial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling 
Project, volume 24 (1974), pages 1037-1043. 

. "The Origin of the Psychrosphere as Recorded in Changes of Deep- 

Sea Ostracode Assemblages." Lethaia, volume 8, number 1 (1975), pages 

-. "Morphologic Stability in Ostracoda." In Biology and Paleobiology of 

Ostracoda, Symposium University of Delaware, 1972, edited by F. M. Swain, 
687 pages. Bulletins of American Paleontology, volume 65, number 282 

Benson, R. H., and Guilliano Ruggieri. "The End of the Miocene, a Time of 
Crisis in Tethys-Mediterranean History." Annals of the Geological Survey 
of Egypt, volume 4 (1974), pages 237-250. 

Boardman, R. S. "Taxonomic Characters for Phylogenetic Classification of 
Cyclostane Bryozoa." In Bryozoa — 1975: Proceedings of the Third Inter- 
national Bryozoology Association Conference, Lyon, France, edited by L. 
David. Document Laboratorie Geologique, Faculte des Science, 1975. 

Buzas, M. A. "Vertical Distribution of Ammohaculites in the Rhode River, 
Maryland." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, volume 4, number 3 (1974), 
pages 144-147. 

Cheetham, A. H. "Taxonomic Significance of Autozooid Size and Shape in 
Some Early Multiserial Cheilostomes from the Gulf Coast of the United 
States." In Bryozoa — 1975: Proceedings of the Third International Bryo- 
zoology Association Conference, Lyon, France, edited by L. David, 12 pages, 
3 plates. Document Laboratorie Geologique, Faculte des Science, 1975. 

Cifelli, R. "Planktonic Foraminifera from the Mediterranean and Adjacent 
Atlantic Waters (Cruise 49 of the Atlantis II, 1969)." Journal of Foramini- 
feral Research, volume 4, number 4 (1974), pages 171-183. 

Cifelli, R., and R. K. Smith. "Distributional Patterns of Planktonic Foramini- 
fera in the Western North Atlantic." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 
volume 4, number 3 (1974), pages 112-125. 

Colquhoun, D. J., J. W. Pierce, and D. Comer. "Nature of Estuarian Deposits, 
Atlantic Coast of North America." In Proceedings of the Symposium on 
International Relations of Estuarine and Continental Shelf Sedimentation, 
pages 247-252. Memoires de I'Institut de Ceologie du Bassin d' Aquitaine, 
number 7 (1974). 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Dahl, A. L., I. G. Macintyre, and A. Antonius. "A Comparative Survey of 
Coral Reef Research Sites." Atoll Research Bulletin, volume 172 (1974), 
pages 37-120. 

Got, H., and D. J. Stanley. "Sedimentation in Two Catalonian Canyons, 
Northwestern Mediterranean." Marine Geology, volume 16, number 10 
(1974), pages M91-M100. 

Grant, R. E. "Methods and Conclusions in Functional Analysis: A Reply." 
Lethaia, volume 8, number 1 (1975), pages 31-33. 

Hickey, L. J. "Classification de la Arquitectura de las Hojas de Dicotiladoneas." 
Boletin de la Sociednd Argentina de Botanica, volume 16 (1974), pages 1-26. 

. "Earth Science in the New Exhibits Program at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution." [Abstract] Geological Society of Ainerica Abstracts with Programs, 
volume 7, number 6 (1975), p. 782. 

"Foliar Venation." In Vascular Plant Systeniatics, edited by A. E. Rad- 

ford et al., pages 192-198. New York: Harper and Row, 1974. 

Hotton, Nicholas, III. "A New Dicynodont (Reptilia, Therapsida) from Cyno- 
gnathus Zone Deposits of South Africa." Annals of the South African 
Museum, volume 64 (1974), pages 157-165, 2 plates. 

Huang, T. C, and D. J. Stanley. "Current Reversal at 10,000 Years B. P. at 
the Strait of Gibraltar — A Discussion." Marine Geology, volume 17, number 
1 (1974), pages M1-M7. 

Kauffman, E. G. "Cretaceous Assemblages, Communities, and Associations; 
Western Interior United States and Caribbean Islands." In Principles of 
Benthic Community Analysis: Sedimenta IV, edited by A. M. Ziegler et al., 
pages 12.1-12.27. University of Miami Comparative Sedimentology Labora- 
tories, 1974. 

. "Evolution of Western Interior Cretaceous Paleocommunities and 

Faunal Associations." [Abstract] American Association of Petroleum 
Geologists and Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists 
(Rocky Mountain Section) Abstracts with Programs, 1975, page 18. 

-. "A New Look at Biostratigraphy." [Abstract] Proceedings of the 

Western Interuniversities Geological Conference, 1974, pages 1-3. 

Kauffman, E. G., and B. Runnegar. "Atomodesma (Bivalvia), and Permian 
Species of the United States." Journal of Paleontology, volume 49, number 
1 (1974), pages 23-51. 

Kauffman, E. G., and R. W. Scott. "Basic Concepts of Community and Paleo- 
ecology." [Abstract] Geological Society of American Abstracts with Pro- 
grams, volume 7, number 6 (1974), pages 815-816. 

Kelling, G., H. Sheng, and D. J. Stanley. "Mineralogic Composition of Sand- 
Sized Sediment on the Outer Margin off the Mid-Atlantic States: Assess- 
ment of the Influence on the Ancestral Hudson and Other Fluvial Systems." 
Geological Society of America Bulletin, volume 86, number 6 (1975), pages 

Kelling, G., and D. J. Stanley. "Sedimentation in Canyon, Slope, and Base-of- 
Slope Environments." In The Neiv Concepts of Continental Margin Sedi- 
mentation, II, edited by D. J. Stanley and D. P. J. Swift, pages 741-855. 
Washington, D. C. : American Geological Institute, 1974. 

Macintyre, I. G. Report of the Harbor Branch Coral-Reef Workshop. Link 
Port, Florida, 1974, 101 pages. 

. "A Diver-Operated Drill for Coring Submerged Substrates." Atoll 

Research Bulletin, volume 185 (1974), pages 21-26. 

-. "Some Aspects of Recent Coral-Reef Geological Research." In Recent 

Advances in Carbonate Studies, edited by L. C. Gerhard and H. G. Multer, 
50 pages. Special Publication 6, West Indies Laboratory. St. Croix, U. S. 
Virgin Islands, 1974. 
Macintyre, I. G., and P. W. Glynn. "Internal Structure and Development 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 391 

Stages of a Modern Caribbean Fringe Reef, Galeta Point, Panama." In 
Proceedings of the 7th Caribbean Geological Conference, Guadeloupe, 
July 1-5, 1974. 

Macintyre, I. G., and S. V. Smith. "X-radiographic Studies of Skeletal De- 
velopment in Coral Colonies." In Proceedings of the Second International 
Coral Reef Symposium, Great Barrier Reef Committee, pages 277-287. 
Brisbane, 1974. 

Macintyre, I. G., S. V. Smith, and J. C. Zieman. "Carbon Flux Through a 
Coral Reef Ecosystem: A Conceptual Model." journal of Geology, volume 
82 (1974), pages 161-171. 

Pierce, J. W., D. J. Colquhoun, and D. D. Nelson. "Suspended Sediment 
Effluent from Charleston Harbor." In Proceedings of the Symposiwn on 
International Relations of Estuarine and Continental Shelf Sedimentation, 
edited by G. P. Allen, pages 95-102. Memoires de I'Institut de Geologic du 
Bassin d' Aquitaine, number 7 (1974), pages 95-102. 

Pierce, J. W., J. B. Southard, and D. J. Stanley. "Shelf Break Processes and 
Suspended Sediment Transport on the Outer Continental Margin." In The 
New Concepts of Continental Margin Sedimentation, II, edited by D. J. 
Stanley, and D. P. J. Swift, pages 639-740. Washington, D. C. : American 
Geological Institute, 1974. 

Roberts, W. P., and J. W. Pierce. "Sediment Yield in the Patuxent River (Md.) 
Undergoing Urbanization, 1968-1969." Sedimentary Geology, volume 12 
(1974), pages 179-197. 

Rupke, N. A., and D. J. Stanley. "Distinctive Properties of Turbiditic and 
Hemipelagic Mud Layers in the Algero-Balearic, Western Mediterranean." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Science, number 13 (1975), 40 pages. 

Rupke, N. A., D. J. Stanley, and R. Stuckenrath. "Late Quaternary Rates of 
Abyssal Mud Deposition in the Western Mediterranean Sea." Marine 
Geology, volume 17, number 2 (1974), pages M9-M16. 

So, C. L., J. W. Pierce, and F. R. Siegel. "Sand Waves in the Gulf of San 
Matias, Argentina." Ceografiska Annaler, volume 56, series A (1974), pages 

Sohl, N. F., E. G. Kauffman, and A. G. Coates. "Macrofossil Biostratigraphy 
and Correlation of the Jamaican and Puerto Rican Cretaceous Succession." 
[Abstract] 7th Carrihbean Geological Conference, Recueil des Resumes de 
Communications, 1974, p. 64. 

Stanley, D. J. "Suspended Sediment at the Shelf-Break and on the Slope, 
Wilmington Canyon off Delaware Bay." National Geographic Society Re- 
search Reports, 1967 Projects (1974), pages 271-275. 

Stanley, D. J., G. Kelling, J. A. Vera, and H. Sheng. "Sands in the Alboran 
Sea: A Model of Input in a Deep Marine Basin." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Earth Science, number 15 (1975), 51 pages, 23 figures, 8 tables. 

Stanley, D. J., F. W. Mc Coy, and L. Diester-Haass. "Balearic Abyssal Plain: 
An Example of Modern Basin Plain Deformation by Salt Tectonism." 
Marine Geology, volume 17, number 3 (1974), pages 183-200. 

Urbanek, Adam, and K. M. Towe. "Ultrastructural Studies on Graptolites, 2: 
The Periderm and its Derivatives in the Graptoloidea." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Paleobiology, number 22 (1975), 24 pages, 24 plates. 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

All, Salim, and S. Dillon Ripley. "Flowerpeckers to Buntings." Handbook of 
the Birds of India and Pakistan, volume 10. Bombay, London & New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1974. 

Allen, Gerald R., and Victor G. Springer. "Amphiprion calliops Schultz, a 
Junior Synonym of the Red Saddleback Anemonefish Amphiprion ephippium 

392 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

(Bloch)." Tropical Fish Hobbyist, volume 23 (April 1975), pages 53-57, 4 
figures, 1 table. 

Ash, John S. "The Boran Cisticola in Ethiopia." Bulletin of the British Orni- 
thologists' Club, volume 94, number 1 (20 March 1974), pages 24-26. 

Ash, John 5., and J. F. Monk. "K. D. Smith." [Obituary]. The Ibis, volume 116, 
number 2 (April 1974), pages 235-236. 

Benson, G. W., H. H. Beamish, C. Jouanin, J. Salvan, and G. E. Watson. "The 
Birds of the lies Glorieuses." Atoll Research Bulletin, number 176 (15 Jan- 
uary 1975), pages 1-34. 

Delacour, Jean, and S. Dillon Ripley. "Description of a New Subspecies of 
White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons." American Mtiseum hlovitates, 
number 2565 (1975), 4 pages. 

Divoky, George J., James C. Bartonek, and George E. Watson. "The Breeding 
of the Black Guillemot in Northern Alaska." The Condor, volume 76 (25 
September 1974), pages 339-343. 

Fink, William L., and Stanley H. Weitzman. "The So-called Cheirodontin 
Fishes of Central America with Descriptions of Two New Species (Pisces: 
Characidae)." Sfnithsonia^^ Contributions to Zoology, number 172 (4 Sep- 
tember 1974), 46 pages, 26 figures, 15 tables. 

Heyer, W. Ronald, and M. Judith Diment. "The Karyotype of Vanzolinius 
discodactylus and Comments on Usefulness of Karyotypes in Determining 
Relationships in the Leptodactylus-complex (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)." 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 87, number 29 
(22 October 1974), 10 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. 

Kaiser, Makram N., Harry Hoogstraal, and George E. Watson. "Ticks (Ixodio- 
dea) on Migrating Birds in Cyprus, Fall 1967 and Spring 1968, and Epidemi- 
ological Considerations." Bulletin of Entomological Research, volume 64, 
number 1 (1974), pages 97-110. 

Kemp, Graham E., Ottis R. Causey, Henry W. Setzer, and Dorothy L. Moore. 
"Isolation of Viruses from Wild Mammals in West Africa, 1966-1970." 
Journal of Wildlife Diseases, volume 10 (July 1974), pages 279-293. 

Lachner, Ernest A., and James F. McKinney. "Barbuligobius boehlkei, a New 
Indo-Pacific Genus and Species of Gobiidae (Pisces), with Notes on the 
Genera Callogobius and Pipidonia." Copeia, number 4 (31 December 1974), 
11 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables. 

Ma, N. S. F., T. C. Jones, R. W. Thorington, and R. W. Cooper. "Chromosome 
Banding Patterns in Squirrel Monkeys." Journal of Medical Primatology, 
volume 3 (1974), pages 120-137. 

Mead, J. G., and R. S. Payne. "A Specimen of the Tasman Beaked Whale, 
Tasmacetus shepherdi, from Argentina." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 
56, number 1 (1975), pages 213-218. 

Monath, Thomas P., V. F. Newhouse, Graham E. Kemp, Henry W. Setzer and 
Anthony Cacciapuoti. "Lassa Virus Isolation from Mastomys natalensis 
Rodents During an Epidemic in Sierra Leone." Science, volume 185, number 
4147 (19 July 1974), pages 263-265. 

Olson, Storrs L. "Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 23 (June 1975), 49 

. "An Evaluation of the Supposed Anhinga of Mauritius." Auk, volume 

92 (30 April 1975), pages 374-376. 

-. "The Fossil Rails of C. W. De Vis, Being Mainly an Extinct Form of 

Tribonyx mortierii from Queensland." Emu, volume 75 (April 1975), pages 

"Ichthyornis in the Cretaceous of Alabama." Wilson Bulletin, volume 

87 (26 March 1975), pages 103-105. 
. "A New Species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with Notes on 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 393 

Other Fossil Rails from the West Indies (Aves: RalHdae)." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 87 (31 December 1974), 
pages 439-450. 
. "Remarks on the Generic Characters of Bulweria." Ibis, volume 117 

(January 1975), pages 111-113. 
. "The South Pacific Gallinules of the Genus Pareudiastes." Wilson 

Bulletin, volume 87 (26 March 1975), pages 1-5, color frontispiece. 
. "Telecrex Restudied: A Small Eocene Guineafowl." Wilson Bulletin, 

volume 86 (30 September 1974), pages 246-250. 

[Review] Ascension — The Story of a South Atlantic Island, by D. 

Hart-Davis. Frontiers, volume 38 (summer 1974), page 29. 

-. [Review] Systematics and Ezwlution of the Gruiformes (Class Aves). 

3. Phylogeny of the Suborder Grues, by J. Cracraft. Auk, volume 91 (9 

October 1974), pages 862-865. 
Orejas-Miranda, Braulio R., and George R. Zug. "A New Tricolor Lepto- 

typhlops (Reptilia: Serpentes) from Peru." Proceedings of the Biological 

Society of Washington, volume 87 (1974), pages 167-174. 
Ripley, 5. Dillon. "Ducks on Your Pond," In Raising Wild Ducks, edited by 

D. O. Hyde, pages 23-25. New York: Dutton, 1974. 
. "Endangered Waterfowl of the World," In Raising Wild Ducks, edited 

by D. O. Hyde, pages 288-297. New York: Dutton, 1974. 

[Review] Ecology and Biogeography in India. Science, volume 186 

(1974), pages 916-917. 

[Review] The Fozules of Heauen or History of Birdes. Isis, volume 66, 

number 1 (1975), pages 137-138. 

-. [Review] To Ride the Wind. Atlantic Naturalist, volume 29, number 

3 (1974), pages 136-137. 

Springer, Victor G., and Martin F. Gomon. "Revision of the Blenniid Fish 
Genus Omobranchus with Descriptions of Three New Species and Notes on 
Other Species of the Tribe Omobranchini." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, number 177 (2 April 1975), 135 pages, 52 figures, 12 tables. 

Springer, Victor G., and John E. Randall. "Two New Species of the Labrid 
Fish Genus Cirrhilabrus from the Red Sea." Israel Journal of Zoology, 
volume 23, number 1 (March 1975), pages 45 54, 6 figures, 2 tables. 

Thorington, Richard W., Jr. "The Basic Problems: Introductory Remarks [to a 
seminar on The Present Status of Primates and Methods for Conservation]." 
In Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the Interna- 
tional Primatological Society, 1975, edited by S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, 
and S. Kawamura. 

. "Conclusions of the Primate Surveys in Colombia and Peru." In 

Primate Censusing in Peru and Colombia, pages 97-99. Pan American 
Health Organization, 1975. 

-. "Report on Primate Conservation Group." Laboratory Primate News- 

letter, volume 13, number 4 (1974), pages 19-21. 

'The Relevance of Vegetational Diversity for Primate Conservation 

in South America." Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress 
of the International Primatological Society, 1975, edited by S. Kondo, M. 
Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura. 

"A Summary of Discussions on Primate Conservation." In Proceed- 

ings from the Syinposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primato- 
logical Society, edited by S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura. 

Watson, George E. "Addition to the Application Concerning the Suppression 
of Diomedea leptorhyncha Coues, 1866." Bulletin of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture, volume 31 (July 1974), pages 8-9. 

. "Charge to the Committee on the Scientific and Educational Use of 

Wild Birds." The Auk, volume 91, number 4 (9 October 1974), pages 347- 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "Observations on Lemche's Comments on the Proposed Preservation 

of Eudyptes sclateri BuIIer, 1888, and Eudyptes robustus Oliver 1953." 
Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 31 (July 1974), page 64. 

"Proceedings of the Ninety-second Stated Meeting of the American 

Ornithologists' Union." The Auk, volume 92, number 2 (30 April 1975), 
pages 347-368. 

-. "World Check-lists, a Book Commentary." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 

30, number 1 (Spring 1975), pages 18-19. 

Watson, George E. and George J. Divoky. "Marine Birds of the Western 
Beaufort Sea." In "The Coast and Shelf of the Beaufort Sea," Proceedings 
of a Symposium on Beaufort Sea Coast and Shelf Research, San Francisco, 
California, January 7-9, 1974, pages 681-695. Arlington, Virginia: Arctic 
Institute of North America, February 1975. 

Weitzman, Stanley H. "Fish." Encyclopaedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 
1974, volume 7, pages 330-345, 6 figures. 

. "Osteology and Evolutionary Relationships of the Sternoptychidae, 

with a New Classification of Stomiatoid Families." Bulletin of the American 
Museum of Natural History, volume 153, article 3 (26 July 1974), pages 
327-478, 113 figures, 1 table. 

. "Teleostei." Encyclopedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 1974, volume 

18, pages 81-82. 
Weitzman, Stanley H., and J. Stanley Cobb. "A Revision of the South Ameri- 
can Fishes of the Genus Nannostomus Gunther (Family Lebiasinidae)." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 186 (5 March 1975), 36 

pages, 34 figures. 
Wingate, David B. and George E. Watson. "First North Atlantic Record of 

the White Tern." The Auk, volume 91, number 3 (26 July 1974), pages 

Zug, George R. "Crocodilian Galloping: an Unique Gait for Reptiles." Copeia, 

number 2 (1974), pages 550-52. 
. "Locomotion." Encyclopaedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 1974, 

volume 11, pages 15-24. 
Zusi, R. L. "An Interpretation of Skull Structure in Penguins." In The Biology 

of Penguins, edited by Bernard Stonehouse, pages 59-84. London: The 

Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1975. 
. "Charadriiformes." Encyclopaedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 1974, 

volume 4, pages 33-42. 


Office of Zoological Research 

Buechner, H. K. "Implications of Social Behavior in the Management of 
Uganda Kob." In The Behaviour of Ungulates and Its Relation to Manage- 
ment, edited by V. Geist and F. Walther, pages 853-870. lUCN Publications, 
new series, number 24. 1974. 

-. [Review] Mountain Sheep, by V. Geist. Quarterly Review of Biology, 

volume 49 (1974), pages 168-169. 

Eisenburg, J. F. "Design and Administration of Zoological Research Programs." 
In Research in Zoos and Aquariums, pages 12-18. Washington, D. C: ILAR 
National Academy of Sciences, 1975. 

. "The Function and Motivational Basis of Hystricomorph Vocaliza- 
tions." In The Biology of Hystricomorph Rodents, edited by I. W. Rolands 
and B. Weir, pages 211-244. Symposium of Zoological Society of London, 
No. 34. 1974. 

Eisenberg, J. F. and G. M. McKay (Research Associate). "Comparison of 
Ungulate Adaptations in the New World and Old World Tropical Forests 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 395 

with Special Reference to Ceylon and the Rainforests of Central America." 
In The Behaviour of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, edited by 
V. Geist and F. Walther, volume 2, pages 585-602. lUCN Publication No. 
24. 1974. 

Kleiman, D. G. "Management of Breeding Programs in Zoos." In Research in 
Zoos and Aquariums, pages 157-177. Washington, D. C. : ILAR National 
Academy of Sciences, 1975. 

. "Patterns of Behavior in Hystricomorph Rodents." In The Biology of 

Hysticomorph Rodents, edited by I. W. Rowlands and B. Weir, pages 171- 
209. Symposium of Zoological Society of London, 34. 1974. 

McKay, G. M. (Research Associate) and J. F. Eisenberg. "Movement Patterns 
and Habitat Utilization of Ungulates in Ceylon." In The Behavioiu of 
Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, edited by V. Geist and F. 
Walther, volume 2, pages 708-721. lUCN Publication 24. 1974. 

Montgomery, G. G. "Communication in Red Fox Dyads: A Computer Simula- 
tion Study." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 187 (1974), 
pages 1-30. 

Montgomery, G. G. and M. E. Sunquist. "Impact of Sloths on Neo-tropical 
Forest Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling." In Tropical Ecological Systems: 
Trends in Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, edited by Frank B. Golley and 
Ernesto Medina, pages 69-111. Ecological Studies 11. New York: Springer- 
Verlag, 1975. 

Morton, E. S. "Ecological Sources of Selection on Avian Sounds." American 
Naturalist, volume 109 (1974), pages 17-34. 

Wilson, S. C. "Juvenile Play of the Common Seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) 
with Comparative Notes on the Grey Seal {Halichoerus grypiis)." Behavior, 
volume 48 (1974), pages 37-60. 

. "Mother-Young Interactions in the Common Seal {Phoca vitulina 

vitulina)." Behavior, volume 48 (1974), pages 23-36. 


Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 

Citron, Robert A., and John R. Whitman, et al., editors Directory of EPA, 
State, and Local Environmental Quality Monitoring and Assessment Actiin- 
ties. United States Environmental Protection Agency, December, 1974. 

Feininger, Coman (Research Correspondent). "The La Gasca Debris Flow of 
25 February 1975: A Geomorphologic Report." Quito, Ecuador, April, 1975. 

Maina, Shirley L. 2974 CSLP Pollution Review. Smithsonian Institution, 1975. 

Maina, Shirley L., and David R. Squires, editors. CSLP 1974, Annual Report 
and Review of Events. June 1975. 


Andrews, J. T., R. Stuckenrath, H. Nichols and G. H. Miller. "Radiocarbon 
Dates and Pollen Analyses from the Baffin Island National Park." Parks 
Canada, volume 73-66 (1974), 41 pages. 

Bender, M. E., and D. L. Correll. "The Rise of Wetlands as Nutrient Removal 
Systems." Chesapeake Research Consortium Publication No. 29 (1974), 
12 pages. t 

Correll, D. L., "Indirect Effects of Tropical Storm Agnes Upon the Rhode 
River." In Symposium on the Effects of Tropical Storm Agnes Upon the 
Chesapeake Bay Estuarine System, College Park, Md., May 1974, pages 
C47-58. Chesapeake Research Consortium Publication No. 34. 

Gantt, Elisabeth, and Claudia A. Lipschultz. "Phycobilisomes of Porphyridium 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

cruentum: Pigment Analysis." Biochemistry , volume 13 (1974), pages 2960- 

Gray, Brian H., and E. Gantt. "Spectral Properties of Phycobilisomes and 
Phycobiliproteins from the Blue-Green Alga Nostoc sp." Photochemistry 
and Photobiology, volume 21 (1975), pages 121-128. 

Harding, Roy W. "The Effect of Temperature on Photoinduced Carotenoid 
Biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa." Plant Physiology, volume 54 (1974), 
pages 142-147. 

Hayes, Rebecca Gettens, and William H. Klein. "Spectral Quality Influence 
of Light During Development of Arahidopsis thaliana Plants in Regulating 
Seed Germination." Plant and Cell Physiology, volume 15 (1974), pages 

Klein, W. H., and B. Goldberg. Solar Radiation Measurements/1968~1973. 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, 76 pages. 

Margulies, Maurice M., H. Lee Tiffany, and Allan Michaels, "Vectorial Dis- 
charge of Nascent Polypeptides Attached to Chloroplast Thylakoid Mem- 
branes." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Cotnmunications, volume 64 
(1975), pages 735-739. 

Michaels, Allan, and Maurice M. Margulies. "Amino Acid Incorporation Into 
Protein by Ribosomes Bound to Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes: Forma- 
tion of Discrete Products." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, volume 390 (1975), 
pages 352-362. 

Mitrakos, K., L. Price and H. Tzanni. "The Growth Pattern of the Flowering 
Shoot of Urginea Maritima." American Journal of Botany, volume 61 (1974), 
pages 920-924. 

Shropshire, W., Jr. "A Consortium Experiment in Graduate Training in Biol- 
ogy: Phase I." AIB5 Education Review, volume 3, no. 3 (September 1974), 
pages 1-4. 

. "Phototropism — Introductory Lecture. Progress in Photobiology." In 

Proceedings of the VI International Congress on Photobiology, edited by 
Giinther O. Schenck, pages 1-5. Frankfurt: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur 
Lichtforschung e.V., 1974. 

"Unicellular-Plant Transducers." In Interdisciplinary Aspects of 

General Systems Theory, Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Meeting of the 
Middle Atlantic Regional Division. Society for General Systems Research, 
pages 50-57. 1975. 
Suraqui, S., H. Tabor, W. H. Klein, and B. Goldberg. "Solar Radiation Changes 
at Mt. St. Katherine After Forty Years." Solar Energy, volume 16 (1974), 
pages 155-158. 


Aaronson, M., J. H. Black, and C. F. McKee. "A Search for Molecular Hydro- 
gen in Quasar Absorption Spectra." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
191 (1974), pages L53-L56. 

Aaronson, M., C. F. McKee, and J. C. Weisheit. "The Identification of Absorp- 
tion Redshift Systems in Quasar Spectra." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
198 (1975), pages 13-30. 

Aksnes, K. "Short-Period and Long-Period Perturbations of a Spherical 
Satellite due to Direct Solar Radiation." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 341. 

Aksnes, K., and F. A. Franklin. "Reduction Techniques and Some Results from 
Occultations of Europa by lo." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 382. 

. "Mutual Phenomena of the Galilean Satellites in 1973. I. Total and 

Near-Total Occultations of Europa by lo." Astronomical Journal, volume 80 
(1975), pages 56-63. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 397 

Aksnes, K., and B. G. Marsden. "The Orbit of Jupiter XIII." [Abstract] Bulle- 
tin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 342. 

Argyle, E., G. Baird, J. Grindlay, H. Helmken, and E. O'Mongain. "Search for 
Correlations between Giant Radio-Pulses and 10'^ eV Gamma-Rays from 
NP 0532." // Nuovo Cimento, volume 24 (1974), pages 153-156. 

Avrett, E. H. "Formation of the Solar EUV Spectrum." [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 360. 

Avrett, E. H., R. J. Davis, W. A. Deutschman, K. L. Haramundanis, C. Payne- 
Gaposchkin, R. L. Kurucz, E. Peytremann, and R. E. Schild. "Report on the 
Celescope Ultraviolet Observations from the OAO-2 Satellite and Asso- 
ciated Research at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory." In Space 
Research XIV, edited by M. J. Rycroft and R. D. Reasenberg, pages 515-521. 
Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1974. 

Ball, J. A. "Reverse-Polish or Algebraic Entry." Electronic Design, volume 23 
(1975), pages 50-52. 

Barkat, Z. K., J.C. Wheeler, J.-R. Buchler, and G. Rakavy. "Envelope Dynamics 
of Iron-Core Supernova Models." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 
29 (1974), pages 267-283. 

Bieniek, R. J. "Semi-Classical Uniform Approximation in Penning Ionization." 
Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 7 (1974), pages 

Billiris, H. G., M. D. Papagiannis, C. G. Lehr, and M. R. Pearlman. "Beam 
Wavefront Distortions in a Laser Ranging System." Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory Laser Report, No. 7 (1975), 19 pages. 

Black, J. H., E. J. Chaisson, J. A. Ball, H. Penfield, A. E. Lilley. "Radiofrequency 
Emission from CH in Comet Kohoutek (1973f)." Astrophysical Journal 
(Letters), volume 191 (1974), pages L45-L47. 

Bokhari, S. H., A. Javed, and M. D. Grossi. "Data Storage for Adaptive 
Meteor Scatter Communications." Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers Transactions on Communications, volume COM-23, number 3 
(1975), pages 397-399. 

Bottcher, C, and A. Dalgarno. "A Constructive Model Potential Method for 
Atomic Interactions." Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, series A, 
volume 340 (1974), pages 187-198. 

Brumer, P. "Rotational Excitation and Interference Effects in Atom-Rotor 
Collisions." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 28 (1974), pages 345-351. 

Cameron, A. G. W. "Concluding Remarks." In Physics of Dense Matter, edited 
by C. J. Hansen, pages 321-327. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1974. 

. "Clumping of Interstellar Grains during Formation of the Primitive 

Solar Nebula." Icarus, volume 24 (1975), pages 128-133. 

"Cosmogonical Considerations Regarding Uranus." Icarus, volume 24 

(1975), pages 280-284. 

-. "Hot Vibrating White Dwarf Models of Pulsating X-Ray Sources." 

Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 32 (1975), pages 215-229. 
Cameron, A. G. W., and V. Canuto. "Neutron StSrs: General Review." In 

Astrophysics and Gravitation, pages 221-278. Bruxelles, Belgium: Editions 

de I'University de Bruxelles, 1974. 
Carleton, N. P., and W. A. Traub. "Observations of Spatial and Temporal 

Variations of the Jovian H- Quadrupole Lines." Exploration of the Planetary 

System, edited by A. Woszczyk and C. Iwaniszewska-Lubienska, pages 

345-349. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 
Carleton, N. P., W. A. Traub, and J. Noxon. "A Search for Martian Dayglow 

Resulting from Ozone Photolysis" [Abstract]. Bulletin of the American 

Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 372. 
Carlsten, J. L. "Laser Selective Excitation of a Three-Level Atom: Barium." 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 7 (1974), pages 

"Photoionization of Barium Clouds via the ^D Metastable Levels." 

Planetary Space Science, volume 23 (1975), pages 53-60. 
Carlsten, J. L., and P. C. Dunn. "Stimulated Stokes Emission with a Dye 

Laser: Intense Tuneable Radiation in the Infrared." Optics Communications, 

volume 14 (1975), pages 8-12. 
Carlsten, J. L., T. J. Mcllrath, and W. H. Parkinson. "Measurement of the 

Photoionization Cross Section from the Laser-Populated ^D Metastable 

Levels in Barium." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, 

volume 7 (1974), pages L244-L248. 
. "Absorption Spectrum of the Laser-Populated ■''D Metastable Levels 

in Barium." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 8 

(1975), pages 38-51. 
Chaisson, E. J. "High-Frequency Observations of Possible 'Heavy-Element' 

Recombination Lines." Astrophysical Journal, volume 191 (1974), pages 

. "Microwave Observations of Rho Ophiuchi." [Abstract] Bulletin of 

the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 436. 

"Microwave Observations of the Rho Ophiuchi Dark Cloud." Astro- 

physical Journal (Letters), volume 197 (1975), pages L65-L68. 

-. "On Nebular Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics." United States Na- 

tional Committee / International Union of Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, 

Colorado, October 1974; Program of Abstracts, page 73. 
Chaisson, E. J., and C. A. Beichman. "Magnetism in Dense Interstellar Clouds." 

[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 

page 336. 
Chaisson, E. J., R. I. Ingalls, A. E. E. Rogers, and I. I. Shapiro. "An Upper 

Limit on the Radar Cross-Section of Comet Kohoutek." Icarus, volume 24 

(1975), pages 188-189. 
Chase, R. C, L. Golub, A. Krieger, J. K. Silk, G. S. Vaiana, M. Zombeck, and 

A. F. Timothy. "Temperature and Density Measurements of Coronal 

Loops." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 

7 (1975), page 346. 
Chetin, T., C. J. Forman, and W. Liller. "Optical Characteristics of Candidate 

Stars for X-Ray Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud." [Abstract] Bulletin 

of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 304. 
Chu, S.-I., and A. Dalgarno. "Fine Structure of C* in Collision with H^." 

Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 62 (1975), pages 4009-4015. 
. "The Rotational Excitation of Carbon Monoxide by Hydrogen Atom 

Impact." Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, series A, volume 342 

(1975), pages 191-207. 

"Rotational Excitation of CH* by Electron Impact." Physical Review 

A, volume 10 (1974), pages 788-792. 
Dalgarno, A. "The Formation of Interstellar Molecules by Ion-Molecule 

Reactions." In Interactions Between Ions and Molecules, edited by P. 

Ausloos, pages 341-352. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1975. 
Dalgarno, A., T. de Jong, M. Oppenheimer, and J. H. Black. "Hydrogen 

Chloride in Dense Interstellar Clouds." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 

volume 192 (1974), pages L37-L39. 
Dalgarno, A., and M. Oppenheimer. "Chemical Heating of Interstellar Clouds." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 597-599. 
Davis, M. "Television Surface Photometry of the Edge-On Spiral Galaxies 

NGC 3987 and NGC 5907." Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 


Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 399 

Davis, M., and D. T. Wilkinson. "Search for Primeval Galaxies at Large 
Redshift." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 251-259. 

Dickinson, D. F. "Water Vapor in Infrared Stars." [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 340. 

Dickinson, D. F., and E. J. Chaisson. "An OH Survey of the Hoffmann 100 m 
Sources." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 938-940. 

Dickinson, D. F., J. A. Frogel, and S. E. Persson, "CO Emission Associated 
with Sharpless H II Regions." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), 
pages 347-350. 

Dickinson, D. F., G. Kojoian, and S. E. Strom. "A Strong Water Maser Asso- 
ciated with a Herbig-Haro Object." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
194 (1974), pages L93-L95. 

Docken, K. K. "A Test of the R-Centroid Method." Chemical Physics Letters, 
volume 30 (1975), pages 334-336. 

Docken, K. K., and R. R. Freeman. "Some Molecular Properties of LiH and 
LiD." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 61 (1974), pages 4217-4223. 

Doyle, H., M. Oppenheimer, and A. Dalgarno. "Bound-State Expansion Method 
for Calculating Resonance and Nonresonance Contributions to Continuum 
Processes: Theoretical Development and Application to the Photoionization 
of Helium and the Hydrogen Negative Ion." Physical Review, series A, 
volume 11 (1975), pages 909-915. 

Dupree, A. K. "Ultraviolet Observations of Capella from Copernicus." [Ab- 
stract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 359. 

. "Ultraviolet Observations of Chromospheric Emission Lines in G 

Stars." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 
6 (1974), page 446. 

Dupree, A. K., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. 
Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Extreme 
Ultraviolet Solar Spectra from Skylab-Apollo Telescope Mount." [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 349. 

Elliot, J. L., L. H. Wasserman, J. Veverka, C. Sagan, and W. Liller. "Occupa- 
tion of /3 Scorpii by Jupiter. V. The Emersion of /3 Scorpii C." Astronomical 
Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 323-332. 

Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinmann, R. W. Noyes, E. L. Wright, and F. J. Low. "A 
Balloon-Borne 1-Meter Telescope for Far-Infrared Astronomy." In Pro- 
ceedings of the Symposium on Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Re- 
search, Ames Research Center, California, NASA TM X-62, 397, pages 38- 
50. 1974. 

Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinman, R. W. Noyes, E. L. Wright, M. Zeilik, II, and 
F. J. Low. "A High Resolution Map of the Orion Nebula at Far-Infrared 
Wavelengths." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 192 (1974), pages 

. "High Resolution Maps of H II Regions at Far-Infrared Wavelengths." 

In H II Regions in the Galactic Centre, Eighth ESLAB Symposium, edited 
by A. F. M. Moorwood, pages 79-85. Neuilly, France: European Space Re- 
search Organization, 1974. 

Field, G. B. "Intergalactic Gas." In Confrontation between Cosmological 
Theories and Observational Data, edited by M. S. Longair, pages 13-30. 
Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

. "The Physics of Interstellar Matter." In Highlights of Astronomy, 

edited by G. Contopoulos, volume 3, pages 37-50. Dordrecht, Holland: D. 
Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

-. "Intergalactic Matter in Clusters of Galaxies." [Abstract] Bulletin of 

the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 275. 

"Interstellar Depletion." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American As- 

tronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 262. 
400 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Fireman, E. L. "Regolith History from Cosmic-Ray-Produced Nuclides." In 
Proceedings of the Fifth Lunar Science Conference, Geochrimica et Cosmo- 
chimica Acta, supplement 5, volume 2, pages 2075-2092. New York: 
Pergamon Press, 1974. 

Fireman, E. L., J. D'Amico, and J. DeFelice. "Solar Wind Tritium Limit from 
Surveyor 3." In Lunar Science VI, pages 266-267. Houston, Texas: Lunar 
Science Institute, 1975. 

Ford, A. L., K. K. Docken, and A. Dalgarno. "The Photoionization and Disso- 
ciative Photoionization of H-, HD, and D-." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
195 (1975), pages 819-824. 

Forman, W., R. Giacconi, C. Jones, E. Schreier, and H. Tananbaum. "Uhuru 
Observations of Short-Time-Scale Variations of the Crab." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 193 (1974), pages L67-L70. 

Foukal, P. V. "The Pressure Balance and Currents in Active Region Loop 
Structures." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), page 346. 

. "A Three-Component Concept of the Chromosphere and Transition 

Region." Solar Physics, volume 37 (1974), pages 317 321. 

Foukal, P. v., M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Extreme Ultraviolet Observa- 
tions of Sunspots with the Harvard Spectrometer on ATM." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 193 (1974), pages L143-L145. 

Franklin, F. A. "Structure of Saturn's Rings: Optical and Dynamical Con- 
siderations." In The Rings of Saturn, edited by F. D. Palluconi and G. H. 
Pettengill, NASA SP-343, pages 3-15. Washington, D. C, 1974. 

Franklin, F. A., and A. F. Cook. "Photometry of Saturn's Satellites: The 
Opposition Effect of lapetus at Maximum Light and the Variability of 
Titan." Icarus, volume 23 (1974), pages 355 362. 

Freeman, R. R., E. M. Mattison, D. E. Pritchard, D. Kleppner. "Alkali-Metal 
Hyperfine Shift in the Van der Waals Molecule KAr." Physical Review 
Letters, volume 33 (1974), pages 397-399. 

Frogel, J. A., and S. E. Persson. "Compact Infrared Sources Associated with 
Southern H II Regions." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 

. "Infrared Emission from OH 284.2-0.8." Astrophysical Journal, volume 

197 (1975), pages 351-353. 

Frogel, J. A., S. E. Persson, M. Aaronson, E. E. Becklin, K. Matthews, and G. 
Neugebauer. "Stellar Content of the Nuclei of Elliptical Galaxies Determined 
from 2.3-Micron CO Band Strengths." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 195 (1975), pages L15-L18. 

. "Stellar Content of Elliptical Galaxy Nuclei." [Abstract] Bulletin of 

the American Astronomical Society, volume 1 (1974), page 441. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "Earth's Gravity Field to the Eighteenth Degree and Geo- 
centric Coordinates for 104 Stations from Satellite and Terrestrial Data." 
Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 79 (1974), pages 5377-5411. 

Garton, W. R. S., and W. H. Parkinson. "Series of Autoionization Resources 
in Ba I Converging on Ba II 6-P." Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 
series A, volume 341 (1974), pages 45-48. 

Garton, W. R. S., E. M. Reeves, and F. S. Tomkins. "Hyperfine Structure and 
Isotope Shift of the 6s6p' T1/2 Level of TI I." Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, London, series A, volume 341 (1974), pages 163-166. 

Gerassimenko, M., J. M. Davis, R. C. Chase, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, and 
G. S. Vaiana. "Simultaneous X-Ray Spectra and X-Ray Images of an Active 
Region." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 
7 (1975), page 347. 

Giacconi, R. "X-Ray Sky." In X-Ray Astronomy, edited by R. Giacconi and 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 401 

H. Gursky, pages 155-168. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Com- 
pany, 1974. 

Giacconi, R., and H. Gursky, editors. X-Ray Astronomy. Dordrecht, Holland: 
D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

Gillett, F. C, D. E. Kleinmann, E. L. Wright, and R. W. Capps. "Observations 
of M82 and NGC 253 at 8-13 Microns." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 198 (1975), pages L65-L68. 

Gingerich, O. J. "The Astronomy and Cosmology of Copernicus." In High- 
lights in Astronomy, edited by G. Contopoulos, volume 3, pages 67-85. 
Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

. " 'Crisis' Versus Aesthetic in the Copernican Revolution." Vistas in 

Astronomy, volume 17 (1975), pages 85-96. 

"Does Science Have a Future?" In The Nature of Scientific Discovery, 

pages 237-245. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian Press, 1975. 

"E. Reinhold." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 11, pages 

365-367. New York: Scribner's, 1975. 

"Kepler's Place in Astronomy." Vistas in Astronomy, volume 18 

(1975), pages 261-279. 

'Laboratory Exercises in Astronomy — Proper Motion." Sky and Tele- 

scope, volume 49 (1975), pages 96-98. 

"Views in Collision." In Science Year, The World Book Science An- 

nual, page 249. Chicago: Field Enterprises, 1974. 

-, editor. The Nature of Scientific Discovery. Washington, D. C: Smith- 

sonian Press, 1975, 616 pages. 

[Introductions] New Frontiers in Astronomy (Readings from The 

Scientific American). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1975. 

Gingerich, O. J., and B. Welther. "Note on Flamsteed's Lunar Tables." British 
Journal of the History of Science, volume 7 (1974), pages 254, 257-258. 

Goad, J. W. "Kinematic Phenomena in the Nuclear Region of M81." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 311-317. 

Golub, L., A. Krieger, R. Simon, G. Vaiana, and A. F. Timothy. "Temporal 
and Spatial Properties of Coronal Bright Points." [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 350. 

Gorenstein, P. "Interstellar Medium." X-Ray Astronomy, edited by R. Giac- 
coni and H. Gursky, pages 299-319. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publish- 
ing Company, 1974. 

. "Empirical Relation between Interstellar X-Ray Absorption and 

Optical Extinction." Astrophysical Journal, volume 198 (1975), pages 95-101. 

Gorenstein, P., H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, Jr., A. De Caprio, and P. Bjorkholm. 
"Large Area Soft X-Ray Imaging System for Cosmic X-Ray Studies from 
Rockets." Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on 
Nuclear Science, volume NS-22 (1975), pages 616-619. 

Gorenstein, P., F. R. Harnden, Jr., and W. H. Tucker. "The X-Ray Spectra of 
the Vela and Puppis Supernova Remnants and the Shock-Wave Model of 
Supernova Remnants." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 

Gorenstein, P., H. Helmken, and H. Gursky. "X-Ray Camera for the Detec- 
tion and Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts." In The Context and Status of 
Gamma-Ray Astronomy, Ninth ESLAB Symposium, edited by B. G. Taylor, 
pages 51+ . Noordwijk, The Netherlands: ESRO Scientific and Technical 
Branch, 1974. 

Gorenstein, P., and W. H. Tucker. "Supernova Remnants." In X-Ray As- 
tronomy, edited by R. Giacconi and H. Gursky, pages 267-297. Dordrecht, 
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

Gottlieb, E. W., E. L. Wright, and W. Liller. "Optical Studies of Uhuru Sources. 
XI. A Probable Period for Scorpius X-1 = V818 Scorpii." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 195 (1975), pages L33-L35. 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Grindlay, J. E. "Monte Carlo Calculations of Nuclear Cascades and Associated 
Cerenkov Radiation in Extensive Air Showers." Physical Review, series D, 
volume 11 (1975), pages 517-522. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis and L. Allen. 
"Evidence for the Detection of Gamma Rays froTi Centaurus A at Ey — 3 X 
10^1 eV." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 197 (1975), pages L9-L12. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis and L. R. Allen. 
"Observations of Southern Sky Gamma Ray Sources at Ey — 3 X 10^^ eV." 
In The Cotitext and Status of Cainnia-Ray Astronomy, Ninth ESLAB Sym- 
posium, edited by B. G. Taylor, pages 279-285. Noordwijk, The Netherlands: 
ESRO Scientific and Technical Branch, 1974. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, and T. C. Weekes. "Observations of NP 0532 
at 10^1 — 10^- eV Gamma Ray Energies." In The Context and Status of 
Camma-Ray Astronomy, Ninth ESLAB Symposium, edited by B. G. Taylor, 
pages 301-306. Noordwijk, The Netherlands: ESRO Scientific and Technical 
Branch, 1974. 

Grindlay, J. E., E. L. Wright, and R. E. McCrosky. "Search for Optical Emission 
from Cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
192 (1974), pages L113-L114. 

Gursky, H., H. Schnopper, E. Schreier, and D. Parsignault. "Preliminary X-Ray 
Results from the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS)." [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 

Gursky, H., and D. Schwartz. "Observational Techniques." In X-Ray As- 
tronomy, edited by R. Giacconi and H. Gursky, pages 25-98. Dordrecht, 
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

Harvey, J. W., A. S. Krieger, J. M. Davis, A. F. Timothy, and G. S. Vaiana. 
"Comparison of Skylab X-Ray and Ground-Based Helium Observations." 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 358. 

Hayes, D. S., and D. W. Latham. "A Rediscussion of the Atmospheric Extinc- 
tion and the Absolute Spectral-Energy Distribution of Vega." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 197 (1975), pages 593-601. 

Hayes, D. S., D. W. Latham, and S. H. Hayes. "Measurements of the Mono- 
chromatic Flux from Vega in the Near Infrared." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 197 (1975), pages 587-592. 

Henry, J. P. "Extreme-Ultraviolet Astronomy." Ph.D. thesis. University of 
California, Berkeley, 1974. 

Henry, J. P., R. Cruddace, F. Paresee, M. Lampton, and S. Bowyer. "Large 
Area Extreme Ultraviolet Focusing Collector." Reviezv of Scientific Instru- 
ments, volume 46 (1975), pages 355-361. 

Hodge, P. W. "Dark Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud." Publications of 
the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 86 (1974), pages 263-266. 

. "The Distribution of Star Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud." 

Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 860 863. 

"Filaments from the Galaxy NGC 1569." Astrophysical Journal 

(Letters), volume 191 (1974), pages L21-L22. 

'Photometry of the Globular Clusters of NGC 185." Publications of 

the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 86 (1974), pages 289-293. 
"The Radial Velocity and Distance of GR8." Publications of the 

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 86 (1974), pages 645-648. 

"The Transparency of the Small Magellanic Cloud." Astrophysical 

Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 21-27. 
Hodge, P. W., and F. W. Wright. "Catalog of 86 New Star Clusters in the 

Small Magellanic Cloud." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 

Huber, M. C. E. "Hook-Method Measurements of gf- Values for Ultraviolet 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 403 

Fe I and Fe II Lines on a Shock Tube." Astrophysical Journal, volume 190 
(1974), pages 237-240. 

Huber, M. C. E., P. V. Foukal, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Extreme-Ultraviolet Observa- 
tions of Coronal Holes: Initial Results from Skylab." Astrophysical Journal 
(Letters), volume 194 (1974), pages L115-L118. 

Huber, M. C. E., R. J. Sandeman, and E. F. Tubbs. "The Spectrum of Cr I 
between 179.8 and 200 nm Wavelengths, Absorption Cross Sections, and 
Oscillator Strengths." Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, series A, 
volume 342 (1975), pages 431-438. 

Huber, M. C. E., P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson. "Measurement of the 
Refractive Index of Helium and of Krypton for 1700 A ^ \ ^ 2880 A" 
(abstract). Bulletin of the American Physical Society, volume 19 (1974), 
page 1177. 

Jacchia, L. G. "A Search for Lunar Tides in the Thermosphere." Journal of 
Geophysical Research, volume 80 (1975), pages 1374-1375. 

Jones, C, R. Giacconi, W. Forman, and H. Tananbaum. "Observations of 
Circinus X-1 from Uhuru." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 191 
(1974), pages L71-L74. 

Jones, C, W. Forman, and W. Liller. "X-Ray Sources and Their Optical 
Counterparts I." Sky and Telescope, volume 48 (1974), pages 289-291. 

. "X-Ray Sources and Their Optical Counterparts II." Sky and Tele- 
scope, volume 48 (1974), pages 372-375. 

-. "X-Ray Sources and Their Optical Counterparts III." Sky and Tele- 

scope, volume 49 (1975), pages 10-13. 

Jordan, C. "The Measurement of Electron Densities from Beryllium-Like Ion 
Line Ratios." Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 34 (1974), pages 69-73. 

Kahler, S. W., A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "General Properties of Soft 
X-Ray Flare Images." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 355. 

Kalkofen, W., and P. Ulmschneider. "The Theoretical Temperature Minimum." 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 363. 

Kellogg, E. M. "Extragalactic X-Ray Sources." In X-Ray Astronomy, edited by 
R. Giacconi and H. Gursky, pages 321-357. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel 
Publishing Company, 1974. 

. "X-Ray Astronomy in the Uhuru Epoch and Beyond." Astrophysical 

Journal, volume 197 (1975), pages 689-704. [Abstract] Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 321. 

Kellogg, E., and S. Murray. "Studies of Cluster X-Ray Sources; Size Measure- 
ments." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 193 (1974), pages L57-L60. 

Kinoshita, H. "Formulas for Precession." Smithsonian 'Astrophysical Observa- 
tory Special Report Number 364 (February 1975). 

Kleinmann, D. E., and E. L. Wright. "10-fj. Observations of Southern Hemi- 
sphere Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 191 (1974), pages 

Knowles, S. H., K. J. Johnston, E. O. Hulburt, J. M. Moran, B. F. Burke, K. Y. 
Lo, and G. D. Papadopoulos. "Further Interferometer Observations of the 
Water Vapor Sources in W49." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), 
pages 925-932. 

Kohl, J. L., W. H. Parkinson, and E. M. Reeves. "Measurements of Solar Line 
Profiles Between 1175 and 3200 A." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 360. 

Kojoian, G., D. Dickinson, R. A. Sramek, and H. M. Tovmassian. "Flux 
Density Measurements of Markarian Objects at Centimeter Wavelengths." 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 
page 342. 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Kowal, C. T., K. Aksnes, B. G. Marsden, and E. Roemer. "Thirteenth Satellite 
of Jupiter." Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 460-464. 

Kurucz, R. L., and E. Peytremann. "A Table of Semiempirical gf Values." 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special Report Number 362, 4 parts 
(February 1975). 

Lada, C. J., and E. J. Chaisson. "Observations of Formaldehyde Toward Ml7." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 195 (1975), pages 367-377. 

Lada, C. J., T. R. Gull, C. A. Gottlieb, and E. W. Gottlieb. "Radio CO and 
Optical Ionization Structure of M8." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 426. 

Lada, C. J., C. A. Gottlieb, M. M. Litvak, and A. E. Lilley. "Molecular Studies 
of Two Dark Nebulae Associated with Herbig-Haro Objects." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 194 (1974), pages 609-618. 

Laughlin, C. "Is22s -S^^.. — Is2s2p ■*?-/, and ls-2s2 ^S,, — ls-2s2p ^Po Mag- 
netic Quadrupole Transitions." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, volume 8 (1975), pages 842-851. 

Laughlin, C., and G. A. Victor. "Multiplet Splittings and ^S,, — 'Tj Intercom- 
bination-Line Oscillator Strengths in Be I and Mg I." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 192 (1974), pages 551-556. 

Lautman, D. A. "Perturbations of a Close Earth Satellite Due to Sunlight Re- 
flected from the Earth." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 341. 

Lecar, M. "Bode's Law." In The Stability of the Solar 'System and of Small 
Stellar Systems, edited by Y. Kozai, page 21. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel 
Publishing Company, 1974. 

Lecar, M., and F. A. Franklin. "On the Original Distribution of the Asteroids." 
In The Stability of the Solar System and of Small Stellar Systems, edited 
by Y. Kozai, pages 37-56. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Com- 
pany, 1974. 

Liller, W. "Optical Studies of Uhuru Sources. X. The Photometric History of 
He 2-177 (= 3U 1639-62?)." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 192 
(1974), pages L89-L91. 

Litvak, M. M. "Coherent Molecular Radiation." Annual Review of Astronomy 
and Astrophysics, volume 12 (1974), pages 97-112. 

Lo, K. Y., R. C. Walker, B. F. Burke, J. M. Moran, K. J. Johnston, and M. 5. 
Ewing. "Evidence for Zeeman Splitting in 1720-MHz OH Line Emission." 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 261. 

Mader, G. L., K. J. Johnston, J. M. Moran, S. H. Knowles, S. A. Mango, and 
P. R. Schwartz. "The Relative Positions of the H.O and OH Masers in W49 
and W30H." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 6 (1974), pages 442-443. 

Mariska, J. T., and G. L. Withbroe. "Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Limb Brighten- 
ing Observations of Lithium-Like Ions." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 354. 

Marsden, B. G. Catalogue of Cometary Orbits, second edition. International 
Astronomical Union Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, 1975, 83 

-. "Joseph Haines Moore." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

9, pages 503-504. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"Nongravitational Effects on Comets: A Progress Report." In Aste- 

roids, Comets, Meteoric Matter, edited by C. Cristescu, W. J. Klepczynski, 
and B. Milet, pages 181-185. Bucharest: Academiei Republicii, 1974. 

"On Following Up Newly-Discovered Earth-Approaching Minor 

Planets." In Asteroids, Comets, Meteoric Matter, edited by C. Cristescu, 
W. J. Klopczynski, and B. Milet, pages 73-75. Bucharest: Academiei Re- 
publicii, 1974. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 405 

. "Annual Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams." 

International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin Number 32 (1974), 
pages 4-5. 

"Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams." Transactions of the 

International Astronomical Union, volume XVB (1974), pages 187-191. 

"Comets." Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 14 

(1974), pages 1-21. 

"Comets in 1973." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical So- 

ciety, volume 15 (1974), pages 433-460. 

"The Kohoutek Controversy." Hermes, volume 21 (1974), pages 123- 


. "Simon Newcomb." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 10, 

pages 33-36. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"William Henry Pickering." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 10, pages 601-602. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"Report of lAU Colloquium No. 25." International Astronomical 

Union Commission 20, Circular, number 2 (1975), pages 6-7. 

"Report of Meeting of Commission 6." Transactions of the Interna- 

tional Astronomical Union, volume XVB (1974), pages 75-76. 

-. "Report of Meeting of Commission 20." Transactions of the Interna- 

tional Astronomical Union, volume XVB (1974), pages 123-126. 

Marsden, B. C, and R. F. Griffin. "On the Azimuth of the Sun." The Observa- 
tory, volume 94 (1974), pages 316-318. 

Marsden, B. G., and E. Roemer. "Cometary Brightness Predictions." Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Commission 15, Circular Letter, number 3 
(1974), page 7. 

Marvin, U. B. "Continental Drift." Encyclopaedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 
1974, volume 5, pages 108-115. 

. "Specimen 72235 Documentation." In Interdisciplinary Studies of 

Samples from Boulder 1, Station 2 Apollo 17. Compilation of the Studies 
of the Consortium Indomitabile, volume 2, pages A-1 to A-5. 1974. 

"Specimen 72215." In Interdisciplinary Studies of Samples from 

Boulder 1, Station 2 Apollo 17. Compilation of the Studies of the Consor- 
tium Indomitabile, volume 2, pages B-1 to B-13. 1974. 
Marvin, U. B., D. B. Stoeser, and J. Bower. "Marble-Cake Clast: A Miniature 

Rock Complex from the Lunar Highlands." Meteoritics, volume 9 (1974), 

pages 377-379. 
. "Niobium and Zirconium-Bearing Minerals of the Civet Cat Lunar 

Norite." Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, volume 

6 (1974), page 585. 
Marvin, U. B., D. B. Stoeser, R. W. Wolfe, J. A. Wood, and J. Bower. "Petro- 

graphic Studies of a Boulder from the South Massif." [Abstract] In Lunar 

Science V, part II, pages 743-745. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 

Mather, J. C, and M. M. Litvak. "Vibrationally Excited Silicon Monoxide 

Masers with Radiation Trapping." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 

Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), pages 487-488. 
Maxwell, A., and R. Rinehart. "Shock Waves Generated by the Intense Solar 

Flare of 1972, August 7, 15:00 UT." Solar Physics, volume 37 (1974), pages 

Mazurek, T. J. "Chemical Potential Effects on Neutrino Diffusion in Super- 
novae." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 

6 (1974), page 314. 
Mazurek, T. J., R. J. Buchler, and J. W. Truran. "The Afterclap of Degenerate 

Carbon Ignition." Comments on Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 6 


406 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Mendillo, M., G. S. Hawkins, and J. A. Klobuchar. "A Large-Scale Hole in the 

Ionosphere Caused by the Launch of Skylab." Science, volume 187 (1975), 

pages 343-346. 
Menzel, D. H. "The Escape of Planetary Atmospheres." Expyloration of the 

Planetary System, edited by A. Woszczyk and C. Iwaniszewska-Lubienska, 

pages 37-39. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 
Mercier, C, and H. Rosenberg. "Type III Solar Radio Bursts (Observed at 169 

MHz: Height and Relative Positions in Pairs." Solar Physics, volume 39 

(1974), pages 193-206. 
Mertz, L. "Applicability of the Rotation Collimator to Nuclear Medicine." 

Optics Communications, volume 12 (1974), pages 216-219. 
. "Mode-Locked Maser Theory of Pulsars." Astrophysics and Space 

Science, volume 30 (1974), pages 43-55. 
Mitchell, C. J. "Neutral Magnesium: Determination of f-values of Principal 

Series and Intercombination Transitions by the Hook Method." Journal of 

Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 8 (1975), pages 25-30. 
Mitler, H. E. "Formation of an Iron-Poor Moon by Partial Capture, or: Yet 

Another Exotic Theory of Lunar Origin." Icarus, volume 24 (1975), pages 

Mohr, P. A. "Mapping of the Major Structures of the African Rift System." 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special Report number 361, (Oc- 
tober 1974). 
Moran, J. M., K. Y. Lo, R. C. Walker, B. F. Burke, K. J. Johnston, G. L. Mader, 

S. H. Knowles, E. O. Hulburt, and G. D. Papadopoulos. "VLBI Studies of 

H2O Maser Sources." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 

Society, volume 6 (1974), pages 436-437. 
Nolte, J., A. S. Krieger, D. Webb, G. S. Vaiana, A. J. Lazarus, J. Sullivan, and 

A. F. Timothy. "The Coronal Source of Recurrent, High Speed Solar Wind 

Streams." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 

volume 7 (1975), page 358. 
Noyes, R. W. "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sunspots." [Abstract] 

Bidletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1975), page 428. 
O'Mongain, E., and T. C. Weekes. "A Search for Radio-Optical Bursts from 

Catastrophic Events." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the 

Pacific, volume 86 (1974), pages 470-476. 
Onello, J. S. "(ls)-3s ^S, (ls)=3p -P and (ls)-3d -D States of the Lithium 

Isoelectronic Sequence." Physical Review, volume 11 (1975), pages 743-748. 
Onello, J. S., and L. Ford. "Magnetic Quadrupole Decay of the (Is2s2p)^ 

P'^-/2 — (ls)22s S'^j/., Transition." Physical Revip.w, volume 11 (1975), pages 

Oppenheimer, M. "Comets and Interstellar Masers." Nature, volume 254 

(1975), pages 677-678. 
. "Gas Phase Chemistry in Comets." Astrophysical Journal, volume 196 

(1975), pages 251-259. 
Oppenheimer, M., and A. Dalgarno. "The Fractional Ionization in Dense 

Interstellar Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 (1974), pages 29-32. 
Payne-Gaposchkin, C. H. "Distribution and Ages of the Magellanic Cepheids." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics, number 16 (1974), 32 pages 
. "Period, Color, and Luminosity for Cepheid Variables." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Astrophysics, number 17 (1974), 10 pages. 
Pennypacker, C. R., B. M. Lasker, S. B. Bracker, and J. E. Hesser. "An Upper 

Limit on Optical Pulsations from Sanduleak 160." Astrophysical Journal. 

volume 198 (1975), pages 161-162. 
Pennypacker, C. R., C. Papaliolios, C. Canizares, and J. McClintock. "Binary 

Pulsar." International Astronomical Union Circular, number 2720 (1974). 
Perrenod, S. C, and G. A. Shields. "X-Ray Heating and the Optical Light 

Appendix 7 . Publications of the Staff I 407 

Curve of HZ Herculis." Astrophysical Journal, volume 198 (1975), pages 
153-160. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 
6 (1974), page 304. 

Perri, F., and A. G. W. Cameron. "Hydrodynamic Instability of the Solar 
Nebula in the Presence of a Planetary Core." Icarus, volume 22 (1974), 
pages 416-425. 

Persson, S. E., and J. A. Frogel. "1.2 m to 3.5 m Photometry of Eight Optical 
H II Regions." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
volume 86 (1974), pages 985-988. 

Petrasso, R. D., S. W. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, and G. S. Vaiana. "The 
Location of the Site of Energy Release in an X-Ray Sub-Flare." [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 352. 

Peytremann, E., and R. J. Davis. "Ultraviolet Television Data from the Orbit- 
ing Astronomical Observatory. II. Stellar Ultraviolet Colors and Interstellar 
Extinction." Astrophysical Journal Supplement, volume 28 (1974), pages 

Podolak, M., and A. G. W. Cameron. "Further Investigations of Jupiter 
Models." Icarus, volume 25 (1975), pages 627-634. 

. "Models of the Giant Planets." Icarus, volume 22 (1974), pages 123-148. 

. "Possible Formation of Meteoritic Chondrules and Inclusions in the 

Pre-Collapse Jovian Protoplanetary Atmosphere." Icarus, volume 23 (1974), 
pages 326-333. 

Porter, N. A., T. Delaney, and T. C. Weekes. "Observations of the Crab 
Pulsar with a Wide Angle Atmospheric Cherenkov System." In The Con- 
text and Status of Gamma-Ray Astronomy, Ninth ESLAB Symposium, 
edited by B. G. Taylor, pages 295-299. Noordwijk, The Netherlands: ESRO 
Scientific and Technical Branch, 1974. 

Reeves, E. M., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. J. Schmahl, 
J. G. Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Solar EUV Photo- 
electric Observations from Skylab." In Coronal Disturbances, edited by 
G. Newkirk, pages 497-500. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1974. 

Roig, R., and M. H. Miller. "Relative Transition Probabilities of Cobalt." 
Journal of the Optical Society of Arnerica, volume 64 (1974), pages 1479- 

Romanowicz, B. A. "On the Tesseral-Harmonics Resonance Problem in Arti- 
ficial-Satellite Theory." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special 
Report number 365 (March 1975). 

Rybicki, G., and P. Harrison. "Wiener Filtering of Sampled Astronomical 
Spectra." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 
6 (1974), page 306. 

Ryder, G. "A Rationale for the Origins of Massif Anorthosites." Lithos, vol- 
ume 7 (1974), pages 139-146. 

Salisbury, W. W., and D. H. Menzel. "Gyron Field-Gravitational Analogue of 
Magnetic Force." Nature, volume 252 (1974), pages 664-665. 

Schild, R. E. and F. H. Chaffee. "The Balmer Discontinuities of 09-B2 Super- 
giants." Astrophysical Journal, volume 196 (1975), pages 503-513. 

Schmahl, E. J. "Eruptive Prominences in the EUV: Observations with the 
Harvard Spectrometer on ATM." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 348. 

Schmahl, E. J., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Solar Prominences in the 
Extreme Ultraviolet as Observed from the Apollo Telescope Mount." Solar 
Physics, volume 39 (1974), pages 337-347. 

Schnopper, H. W., and J. P. Delvaille. "Radiative Electron Capture and Brems- 
strahlung." Physica Fennica, volume 9 (1974), pages 19-21. 

. "Radiative Electron Capture and Bremsstrahlung." In Atomic Colli- 

408 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

sions in Solids, edited by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C. D. Moak, pages 
481-498. New York: Plenum Press, 1975. 

Schwartz, D. "Comments on the Diffuse X-Ray Background: 2-82 keV." In 
International Conference on X-Rays in Space, edited by D. Venkatesan, 
pages 1096-1120. Calgary, Canada: University of Calgary, 1975. 

. "Can the Constraint of Finite Mass Smooth Fluctuations in the Back- 
ground Radiation?" Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 194 (1974), 
pages L139-L142. 

"Geomagnetic Background Events Observed by Uhuru." In Particle 

Contamination of Low Energy X-Ray Astronomy Experiments, edited by 
S. Holt. Goddard Space Flight Center Publication No. X-661-74-130, pages 
131-148. 1974. 

Schwartz, D., and H. Gursky. "The Cosmic X-Ray Background." In X-Ray 
Astronomy, edited by R. Giacconi and H. Gursky, pages 359-388. Dordrecht, 
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

Schwartz, D. A., and L. E. Peterson. "The Spectrum of Diffuse Cosmic X-Rays 
Observed by OSO-3 between 7 and 100 keV." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
190 (1974), pages 297-303. 

Sekanina, Z. "On the Nature of the Anti-Tail of Comet Kohoutek (1973f). I. 
A Working Model." Icarus, volume 23 (1974), pages 502-518. 

. "A Study of the Icy Tails of the Distant Comets." Icarus, volume 25 

(1975), pages 218-239. 

Shaffer, D. B., and G. A. Shields. "A Search for Additional Radio Sources in 
the Kukarkin Variable Star Catalog." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 192 (1974), pages L83-L84. 

Shields, G. A. "Composition Gradients across Spiral Galaxies." Astrophysical 
Journal volume 193 (1974), pages 335-341. 

. "The Underabundance of Gaseous Iron in the Planetary Nebula NGC 

7027." Astrophysical Journal, volume 195 (1975), pages 475-478. 

Shields, G. A., and J. B. Oke. "The Emission-Line Spectrum of NGC 1068." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 197 (1975), pages 5-16. 

Silk, J. K., S. W. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Time Changes in 
the Structure and Spectrum of an X-Ray Flare." [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 355. 

Simon, G. W., P. H. Seagraves, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, and R. W. Noyes. 
"Observed Heights of EUV Lines formed in the Transition Zone and 
Corona. II: NRL Rocket Observations." Solar Physics, volume 39 (1974), 
pages 121-128. 

Sistla, G., G. Kojoian, and E. J. Chaisson. "Radio Continuum Measurements 
of Planetary Nebulae at 15.5 GHz." Astrophysical Journal, volume 192 
(1974), pages 165-168. 

Slowey, J. W. "Earth Radiation Pressure and the Determination of Density 
from Satellite Drag." In Space Research XIV, edited by M. J. Rycroft and 
R. D. Reasenberg, pages 143-149. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1974. 

. "Systematic Winds at Heights between 350 and 675 km from Analysis 

of the Orbits of Four Balloon Satellites." Planetary and Space Science, 
volume 23 (1975), pages 879-886. 

Sprott, G. F., H. V. Bradt, G. W. Clark, W. H. G. Lewin, and H. W. Schnopper. 
"Limit on X-Ray Emission from a Supernova During Maximum Light." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 191 (1974), pages 739-742. 

Steinbrunn, F., and E. L. Fireman. "Titanium Spallation Cross Section between 
30 and 584 MeV and Ar^^ Activities on the Moon." In Proceedings of the 
Fifth Lunar Science Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, supple- 
ment 5, volume 2, pages 2205-2209. New York: Pergamon Press, 1974. 

Stephens, T. L., and A. Dalgarno. "Long Range Interactions of Excited Hydro- 
gen Atoms." Molecular Physics, volume 28 (1974), pages 1049-1059. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 409 

Stewart, R. F. "Static Polarizabilities of the Ne, Mg and Ar Isoelectronic Se- 
quences." Molecular Physics, volume 29 (1975), pages 787-792. 

. "A Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock Study of the Neon Isoelectronic 

Sequence." Molecular Physics, volume 29 (1975), pages 1577-1584. 

"Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock Theory for Three- and Four-Electron 

Atom Systems." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, 
volume 8 (1975), pages 1-10. 

Stoeser, D. B., Ursula B. Marvin, and Janice Bower. "Petrology and Petro- 
genesis of Boulder 1." In Interdisciplinary Studies of Samples from Boulder 
1, Station 2, Apollo 17. Compilation of the Studies of Consortium Indom- 
itabile, volume 2, pages III-l to III-51. 1974. 

Stoeser, D. B., G. Ryder, and Ursula B. Marvin. "Lunar Granite Clasts with 
Unique Ternary Feldspars." [Abstract] In Lunar Science V/, pages 780-782. 
Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1975. 

Stoeser, D. B., R. W. Wolfe, Ursula B. Marvin, J. A. Wood, and J. B. Bower. 
"Petrology of a Stratified Boulder from South Massif, Taurus-Littrow." In 
Proceedings of the Fifth Lunar Science Conference, Ceochimica et Cosmo- 
chimica Acta, supplement 5, volume 1, pages 355-377. New York: Pergamon 
Press, 1974. 

Tilmann, S. E., S. B. Upchurch, and G. Ryder. "Land Use Site Reconnaissance 
by Computer-Assisted Derivative Mapping." Bulletin of the Geological 
Society of America, volume 86 (1975), pages 23-34. 

Timothy, J. G. "The Relationship between Coronal Bright Points and the 
Chromospheric Network." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 350. 

Timothy, J. G., R. M. Chambers, A. M. dTntremont, N. W. Lanham, and 
E. M. Reeves. "A Sounding Rocket Spectroheliometer for Photometric 
Studies at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths." Space Science Instrumenta- 
tion, volume 1 (1975), pages 23-49. 

Timothy, J. G., and E. M. Reeves. "Measurements of the Absolute Solar Flux 
at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths from the ATM and ATM Calibration 
Rocket Spectroheliometers." [Abstract] Transactions of the American Geo- 
physical Union, volume 56 (1974), page 1156. 

Tinsley, B. M., and A. G. W. Cameron. "Possible Influence of Comets on the 
Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy." Astrophysics and Space Science, 
volume 31 (1974), pages 31-35. 

Traub, W. A., and N. P. Carleton. "Observations of O., HgO and HD in 
Planetary Atmospheres." Exploration of the Planetary System, edited by 
A. Woszczyk, and C. Iwaniszewska-Lubienska, pages 223-228. Dordrecht, 
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974. 

. "Observations of Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Jovian H, 

Quadrupole Lines." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical So- 
ciety, volume 6 (1974), page 376. 

"A Search for H.^O and CHj in Comet Kohoutek." Icarus, volume 23 

(1974), pages 585-589; [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 6 (1974), page 389. 

"Spectroscopic Observations of Winds on Venus." Journal of the 

Atmospheric Sciences, volume 32 (1975), pages 1045-1059. 

Trombka, J. I., E. L. Eller, R. L. Schmadebeck, I. Adler, A. E. Metzger, D. Gil- 
man, P. Gorenstein, and P. Bjorkholm. "Observation of a Cosmic-Ray Burst 
on Apollo 16. II. X-Ray Time Profile and Source Location." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 194 (1974), pages L27-L33. 

Ulmer, M. P. "Galactic X-Ray Sources." International Conference on X-Rays 
in Space, edited by D. Venkatesan, pages 128-146. Calgary, Canada: Uni- 
versity of Calgary, 1975. 

. "Gamma-Ray Bursts." International Conference on X-Rays in Space, 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

edited by D. Venkatesan, pages 163-171. Calgary, Canada: University of 
Calgary, 1975. 

-. "Observations of Six Binary X-Ray Sources with the UCSD OSO-7 

X-Ray Telescope." Astrophysical Journal, volume 196 (1975), pages 827-835. 

Ulmer, M. P., W. A. Baity, W. A. Wheaton, and L. E. Peterson. "Upper Limit 
to the X-Ray Flux from the Supernova in NGC 5253 above 7 keV from 
the OSO-7." Astropihysical Journal, volume 193 (1974), pages 535-537. 

Van Biesbroeck, C, C. D. Vesely, and B. G. Marsden. "Observations of 
Comets and Minor Planets." Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 

. "Orbit of Comet 1911 VI (Quenisset)." Astronomical Journal, volume 

79 (1974), pages 1455-1456. 

Van Speybroeck, L. P. "Recent Progress in X-Ray Telescopes at AS&E." In 
Proceedings of the X-Ray Optics Symposium, edited by P. W. Sanford, 
pages 31-68. University College, London: Mullard Space Science Laboratory, 

Vernazza, J. E. "Time Variations in the EUV Line Emission from the Chromo- 
sphere and Corona." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 365. 

Victor, G. A., and D. B. Slavsky. "Van der Waals Coefficients for Be and Mg." 
Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 61 (1974), pages 3484-3485. 

Walker, J. C. G., D. G. Torr, P. B. Hays, D. W. Rusch, K. Docken, G. Victor, 
and M. Oppenheimer. "Metastable -P Oxygen Ions in the Daytime Thermo- 
sphere." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 80 (1975), pages 1026- 

Walker, R. C, K. Y. Lo, B. F. Burke, J. M. Moran, and K. J. Johnston. "VLBI 
Observations of Cygnus A." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 461. 

Ward, W. R. "Climatic Variations on Mars. 1. Astronomical Theory of Insola- 
tion." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 79 (1974), pages 3375-3386. 

. "Tidal Friction and Generalized Cassini's Laws in the Solar System." 

Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 64-70. 

Ward, W. R., B. C. Murray, and M. C. Malin. "Climatic Variations on Mars. 
2. Evolution of Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere and Polar Caps." Journal of 
Geophysical Research, volume 79 (1974), pages 3387-3395. 

Weekes, T. C, and N. A. Porter. "Antineutrino Bursts and Cosmic-Ray Air 
Shower Experiments." [Letter] Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 37 
(1974), pages 447-449. 

Weekes, T. C, and G. H. Rieke. "The Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique for 
Gamma-Ray Astronomy." In The Context and Status of Gamma-Ray As- 
tronomy, Ninth ESLAB Symposium, edited by B. G. Taylor, pages 287-293. 
Noordwijk, The Netherlands: ESRO Scientific and Technical Branch, 1974. 

Wheeler, J. C, and A. G. W. Cameron. "The Effect of Primordial Hydrogen/ 
Helium Fractionation on the Solar Neutrino Flux." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 196 (1975), pages 601-605. 

Wheeler, J. C, C. F. McKee, and M. Lecar. "Neutron Stars in Close Binary 
Systems." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 192 (1974), pages L71-L74. 

Whipple, F. L. "Do Comets Play a Role in Galactic Chemistry and 7-Ray 
Bursts?" [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 
7 (1975), page 343. 

. "On the Splitting of New Comets." [Abstract] Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 389. 

Whitney, C. A. Whitney's Star Finder. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1974. 

Williamson, M. R., and E. M. Gaposchkin. "The Estimates of 550 km X 550 
km Mean Gravity Anomalies." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Special Report, number 363 (February 1975). 

Willson, R. F., and E. J. Chaisson. "Radiofrequency Observations of the 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 411 

Trifid Nebula." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 6 (1974), page 350. 

Withbroe, G. L., and D. T. Jaffe. "Polar Transients Observed in the EUV." 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 354. 

Wright, F. W. "An Identification Atlas of the Small Magellanic Cloud." [Ab- 
stract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 
page 462. 

Wood, J. A. "Lunar Petrogenesis in a Well-Stirred Magma Ocean." In Lunar 
Science VI, pages 881-883. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1975. 

Wright, F. W., and P. W. Hodge. "New Variable Stars in the Small Magel- 
lanic Cloud." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), page 1369. 

Zeilik, M. Film Notes for Explorations in Space and Time. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin Company, 1974. 

. "A PSI Astronomy Course." American Journal of Physics, volume 42 

(1974), 1095-1100. 

"PSI Astronomy Unit — Astrology: The Space Age Science?" Ameri- 

can Journal of Physics, volume 42 (1974), pages 538-542. 
Zeilik, II, M., and R. J. Bieniek. "PSI Astronomy at Harvard." [Abstract] 

Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 331. 
Zeilik, M., II, and C. J. Lada. "H 92a Recombination Line Observations of 

Ml6." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 786-790. 
Zeilik, M., II, and E. L. Wright. "Infrared Photometry of Comet Kohoutek." 

Icarus, volume 23 (1974), pages 577-579. 
Zuckerman, B., B. E. Turner, D. R. Johnson, F. O. Clark, F. J. Lovas, N. 

Fourikis, P. Palmer, M. Morris, A. E. Lilley, J. A. Ball, C. A. Gottlieb, M. M. 

Litvak, and H. Penfield. "Detection of Interstellar Trans-Ethyl Alcohol." 

Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 196 (1975), pages L99-L102. 
Zuckerman, B., B. E. Turner, D. R. Johnson, F. O. Clark, F. J. Lovas, N. 

Fourikis, M. Morris, P. Palmer, C. A. Gottlieb, A. E. Lilley, M. M. Litvak, 

and H. Penfield. "Ethyl Alcohol Detected in Interstellar Space." [Abstract] 

Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 443. 


Abele, Lawrence G. "The Macruran Decapod Crustacea of Malpelo Island." 
In "Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia," edited by J. B. 
Graham. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 176, (1975). 

Andrews, Robin (Research Associate) and A. Stanley Rand (Staff). "Reproduc- 
tive Effort in Anoline Lizards." Ecology, volume 55, number 6 (1974), pages 

Bertsch, Hans (Fellow). "Additional Data for Two Dorid Nudibranchs from 
the Southern Caribbean Seas." The Veliger, volume 17, number 4 (1975), 
pages 416-417. 

Birkeland, Charles (Staff), D. L. Meyer (Staff), J. P. Stames (Staff) and 
Caryl L. Buford. "Subtidal Communities of Malpelo Island." In "Biological 
Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia," edited by J. B. Graham. Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 176 (1975). 

Brattegard, Torleiv. "Mysidacea from Shallow Water on the Caribbean Coast 
of Panama." Sarsia, volume 57 (1974), pages 87-108. 

Croat, Thomas B. "A New Species of Myrcia (Myrtaceae) for Panama." 
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 61, number 3 (1974), 
pages 886-888. 

. "A Reconsideration of Spondias monbin L. (Anacardiaceae)." Annals 

of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 61, number 2 (1974), pages 483- 

Downey, Maureen E. "Asteroidea from Malpelo Island with Description of a 

412 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

New Species of the Genus Tamaria." In "Biological Investigation of Malpelo 

Island, Colombia, edited by J. B. Graham. Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, number 176 (1975). 
Dressier, Robert L. "El Genero Hexisea." Orquidea, volume 4, number 7 

(1974), pages 191-196. 
. "The Genus Hexisea." Orquidea, volume 4, number 7 (1974), pages 


"Una Notylia Poco Usual del Peru con Comentarios Sobre Algunas 

Especies Afines." Orquideologia, volume 9 (1974), pages 211-218. 
Dressier, Robert L. (Staff) and Glenn E. Pollard. El Cenero Encyclia en 

Mexico. Asociacion Mexicana de Orquideologia, Mexico, 1974, 158 pages. 
Eberhard, Mary Jane West (Research Associate). "The Evolution of Social 

Behavior by Kin Selection." The Quarterly Review of Biology, volume 50, 

number 1 (1975), pages 1-33. 
Eberhard, William G. (Research Associate). "The 'Inverted Ladder' Orb Web 

Scoloderus sp. and the Intermediate Orb of Eustala (?) sp. Araneae: 

Araneidae." Journal of Natural History, volume 9 (1975), pages 93-106. 
Elton, Charles S. "Conservation and the Low Population Density of Inverte- 
brates Inside a Neotropical Rain Forest." Biological Conservation, volume 7 

(1975), pages 3-15. 
Findley, Lloyd T. "A New Species of Goby from Malpelo Island (Teleostei: 

Gobiidea: Chriolepis)." In "Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, 

Colombia," edited by J. B. Graham. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

number 176 (1975). 
Gentry, Alwyn H. "Notes on Panamanian Apocynaceae." Annals of the 

Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 61, number 3 (1974), pages 891-900. 
Glynn, Peter "The Impact of Acanthaster on Corals and Coral Reefs in the 

Eastern Pacific." Environmental Conservation, volume 1, number 4 (1974), 

pages 295-304. 
. "Rolling Stones Among the Scleractinia: Mobile Coraliths in the Gulf 

of Panama." Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Coral 

Reefs, volume 2 (1974), pages 183-198. 
Glynn, Peter W. (Staff), D. M. Dexter (Fellow), and T. E. Bowman. "Exciro- 

lana braziliensis, a Pan-American Sand Beach Isopod. Taxonomic Status, 

Zonation, and Distribution." Journal of Zoology, London, volume 175 (1975), 

pages 211-222. 
Glynn, Peter W. (Staff), and C. S. Glynn. "On the Systematics of Ancinus 

(Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) with Description of a New Species from the 

Tropical Eastern Pacific." Pacific Science, volume 28, number 4 (1974), pages 

Graham, Jeffrey B. "Aquatic Respiration in the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus." 

Respiration Physiology, volume 21 (1974), pages 1-7. 
. "Heat Exchange in Yellow Fin (Thunnus albacares) and Skipjack 

{Katsuioonus pelamis) Tunas and the Adaptive Significance of Elevated 

Body Temperatures in Scombird Fishes." Fishery Bulletin, volume 73 (1975). 
editor. "Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 176 (1975), 98 pages. 

Graham, Jeffrey B. (Staff), John H. Gee, and Fred S. Robinson. "Hydrostatic 
and Gas Exchange Functions of the Lung of the Sea Snake Pelamis platurus." 
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 50A (1975), pages 477- 

Haines, Bruce (Fellow). "Impact of Leaf-Cutting Ants on Vegetation Develop- 
ment at Barro Colorado Island." In Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in 
Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, edited by F. B. Golley and Ernesto 
Medina. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975. 

Hecht, Max K., Chaim Kropach (Fellow), and Bessie M. Hecht. "Distribution 
of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake Pelamis platurus and its Significance in 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 413 

Relation to the Fossil Record." Herpetologica, volume 30, number 4 (1974), 
pages 387-396. 

Karr, James R. (Fellow). "Production, Energy Pathways, and Community Di- 
versity in Forest Birds." In Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in Terres- 
trial and Aquatic Research, edited by F. B. Golley and Ernesto Medina. 
New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975. 

Linares, Olga F. (Staff), Payson D. Sheets, and E. Jane Rosenthal. "Prehistoric 
Agriculture in Tropical Highlands." Science, volume 187, number 4172 
(1975), pages 137-145. 

McCosker, John E. (Fellow), and R. H. Rosenblatt. "Fishes Collected at Malpelo 
Island." In "Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia," edited 
by J. B. Graham. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 176 (1975). 

Macurda, D. B. and D. L. Meyer (Staff). "The Microstructure of the Crinoid 
Endoskeleton." University of Kansas, Paleontological Contributions, volume 
74 (1975), pages 1-22. 

Milstead, William W., A. Stanley Rand (Staff), and Margaret M. Stewart. 
"Polymorphism in Cricket Frogs: an Hypothesis." Evolution, volume 28, 
number 3 (1974), pages 489-491. 

Montgomery, Gerald Gene. "Communication in Red Fox Dyads: a Computer 
Simulation Study." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 187 

Montgomery, G. G. and M. E. Sunquist. "Impact of Sloths on Neotropical 
Forest Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling." In Tropical Ecological Systems: 
Trends in Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, edited by F. B. Golley and 
Ernesto Medina. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975. 

Morton, Eugene S. (Fellow). "Ecological Sources of Selection on Avian 
Sounds." American Naturalist, volume 109, number 965 (1975), pages 17-34. 

Muschett Ibarra, Daniel M. "Sobre la Composicion Quimica y el Aporte 
Nutritivo de los Rios y Lluvias Adyacentes al Golfo de Panama." Thesis, 
University of Panama, 1974. 

Orians, Gordon, J. L. Apple, Neal G. Smith (Staff), and others. "Tropical 
Population Ecology." In Fragile Ecosystems, edited by E. C. Farnsworth and 
F. B. Golley, section 2. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1974. 

Porter, James W. (Fellow). "Community Structure of Coral Reefs on Opposite 
Sides of the Isthmus of Panama." Science, volume 186, number 4163 (1974), 
pages 543-545. 

. "Zooplankton Feeding by the Caribbean Reef-Building Coral Mon- 

tastrea cavernosa." Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on 
Coral Reefs, volume 1 (1974), pages 111-124. 

Ricklefs, Robert E. "Energetics of Reproduction in Birds." In "Avian Ener- 
getics," edited by R. A. Paynter. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological 
Club, number 15 (1974), pages 152-297. 

Roberts, John L. and Jeffrey B. Graham (Staff). "Swimming and Body Tem- 
perature of Mackerel." American Zoologist, volume 14, number 4 (1974), 
page 125. 

Robinson, Michael H. "The Evolution of Predatory Behavior in Araneid 
Spiders." In Festschrift for N. Tinbergen F. R. S., pages 292-312. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1975. 

Robinson, Michael H. (Staff) and Barbara Robinson (Research Associate). 
"Adaptive Complexity: the Thermoregulatory Postures of the Golden-web 
Spider Nephila clavipes at Low Latitudes." American Midland Naturalist, 
volume 92, number 2 (1974), pages 386-396. 

Rubinoff, Roberta W., editor. "Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data; 
Tropical Studies." (Compiled under the Smithsonian Institution Environ- 
mental Science Program.) Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1974, 465 

414 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Smith, Alan P. "Bud Temperature in Relation to Nyctinastic Leaf Movement 
in an Andean Giant Rosette Plant." Biotropica, volume 6, number 4 (1974), 
pages 263-266. 

Smith, Neal Griffith. "Reproductive Behaviour." Encyclopedia Britannica, 
fifteenth edition. 1974, volume 15, pages 679-690. 

. "Spshing Noise': Biological Significance of its Attraction and Non- 
attraction by Birds." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 
volume 72, number 4 (1975), pages 1411-1414. 

Vollrath, Evelyn. "Barro Colorado Island — eine Biologische Forschungs-station 
in Panama." Zeitschrift fiir Kolner Zoo, volume 109, number 3 (1974), 
pages 87-94. 

Warner, Robert R. (Fellow). "The Adaptive Significance of Sequential Her- 
maphroditism in Animals." American Naturalist, volume 109, number 965 
(1975), pages 61-82. 

. "The Reproductive Biology of the Protogynous Hermaphrodite Pime- 

lometopon pulchrum (Pisces: Labridae)." Fishery Bulletin, volume 73 (1975), 
pages 262-281. 

Zaret, Thomas M. and W. Charles Kerfoot. "Fish Predation on Bosmina 
longirostris: Body-Size Selection versus Visibility Selection." Ecology, 
volume 56, number 1 (1975), pages 232-237. 



Brown, Robert, editor. History of Easton, Massachusetts, 1886-1974. volume 2. 
Karlstrom, Paul. "California and the Archives of American Art." Los Angeles 

Institute of Contemporary Art Journal. December 1974. 
McCoy, Garnett. [Review] A Nezv Deal for Artists, by Richard McKinzie, 

Art for the Millions, by Francis O'Connor. American Historical Review, 

April 1975. 


Department of Drawings and Prints 

Dee, Elaine. (Article on Winslow Homer exhibition in London.) The Antique 

Textile Department 

Sonday, Milton. [Review] Spratig, by Peter Collingwood, Craft Horizons, 
December 1974. 

Wallpaper Collection 

Frangiamore, Catherine. "From the Cooper-Hewitt Collections: Evidence 
about Wallpapers LJsed in America." In Catalogue, Delaware Antiques 
Show, Delaware, December 5-7, 1974. 

. "Rescuing Historic Wallpaper: Identification, Preservation, Restora- 
tion." [Technical Leaflet] History Nexos (Nashville, Tenn. : The American 
Association for State and Local History), volume 29 (July 1974), number 7. 
"Wallpaper: Technological Innovations and Changes in Design and 

Use." In Technological Innoimtion and the Decorative Arts, Winterthur 
Conference Report, 1973, edited by IMG Quimby and Polly Anne Earle, 
pages 277-305. Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1974. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 415 


Atil, Esin. Art of the Arab World. Washington, D. C: Freer Gallery of Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, 1975. 154 pages, 106 illustrations. 

. "Islamic Ceramics." al-Majal, number 59, 1974, pages 18-20 (in 


. "Heritage of Islam." Pegasus, volume IX (1975), pages 46-53. 

-, translator. Turkish Miniature Painting, by N. Atasoy and F. Cagman, 

Istanbul, 1974. 

Chase, W. Thomas, III. "Comparative Analysis of Archaeological Bronzes," 
Chapter 9 in Archaeological Chemistry. American Chemical Society, Ad- 
vances in Chemistry Series, No. 138 (1974). Washington, D. C, 1974. 

Winter, John. "Preliminary Investigations on Chinese Ink in Far Eastern 
Paintings." In Archaeological Chemistry, edited by C. W. Beck. American 
Chemical Society, Advances in Chemistry Series 138 (1974), pages 207-225. 


Garson, Inez. Willem de Kooning at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden. New York: Scala, 1974. 
Gettings, Frank. Introduction to Urban Explorations: Paintings and Drawings 

by Peter Passuntino. Exhibition catalogue. Trenton: New Jersey State 

Museum, March 15-April 27, 1975. 
McCabe, Cynthia J. Henry Moore at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden. New York: Scala, 1974. 
. Sculptors and Their Drawings: Selections from the Hirshhorn Museum 

and Sculpture Garden. Exhibition catalogue, 15 pages, 24 illustrations. 

Austin, Texas: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, October 4, 1974-January 5, 

Millard, Charles W., Ill "Baron Gros' Portrait of Lieutenant Legrand." Los 

Angeles Museum of Art Bulletin, volume 20, number 2 (1974), pages 36-45. 
. "A Chronology for Van Gogh's Drawings of 1888." Master Drawings, 

Summer 1974, pages 156-165. 

. "Jules Olitski." Hudson Review, Autumn 1974, pages 401-408. 

-. "Los Angeles Seen by Reyner Banham. "Art International, December 

15, 1974, pages 36-37. 

-. "Photography's Problems." Hudson Rexnew, Winter 1974-75, pages 

Rosenzweig, Phyllis. Thomas Eakins at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden. New York: Scala, 1974. 
Ultan, Roslye B. "Women in the Hirshhorn." Womansphere, volume 1, 

number 1 (April-May 1975). 
Zilczer, Judith K. "The Aesthetic Struggle in America, 1910-1925: Abstract 

Art and Theory in the Stieglitz Circle." Ph.D. dissertation. University of 

Delaware, 1975. 
. "Modern Art and Its Sources: Exhibitions in New York, 1910-1925. 

A Selective Checklist," In Avant-Garde Painting and Sculpture in America 

1910-1925. Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum, 1975. 


Aldrich, Michele L. "John Strong Newberry," Dictionary of Scientific Biogra- 
phy, edited by Charles Gillispie, volume 10, page 32-33. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1974. 

. "United States: Bibliographical Essay," The Comparative Reception 

of Darwinism, edited by Thomas Glick, pages 207-226. Austin, Texas: 
University of Texas Press, 1974. 

416 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Bermingham, Peter. American Art in the Barbizon Mood. Washington, D. C. : 
Smithsonian Institution Press. January 1975, 192 pages, 166 black and 
white illustrations, 4 color plates. 

Fink, Lois M. and Joshua C. Taylor. Acaderny. The Academic Tradition in 
American Art. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian Institution Press. June 1975, 
272 pages, 214 black and white illustrations, 1 color plate. 

Taylor, Joshua C. To See is to Think: Looking at American Art. Washington, 
D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press. June 1975, 117 pages, 94 illustrations. 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. Introduction to checklist Ilya Bolotowsky. Exhibition 

pamphlet. December 1974. 
. Introduction to Ilya Bolotowsky. Exhibition catalogue. The Solomon 

R. Guggenheim Foundation. December 1974. 

Foreword to Pennsylvania Academy Moderns. 1910-1940. Exhibition 

catalogue. May 1975. 

Fisher, Fred. Essay in A Future for Our Past: The Conservation of Art. Ex- 
hibition catalogue. June 1974. 

Hentzschel, Lois. Essay in A Future for Our Past: The Conservation of Art. 
Exhibition catalogue. June 1974. 

Herman, Lloyd. A Modern Consciousness: D. J. De Pree and Florence Knoll. 
Exhibition Catalogue. June 1975, 48 pages, 30 illustrations. 

Lewton, Val E. "Museum Security: Now You See It Now You Don't." Wash- 
ington Review of the Arts. Volume 1, number 1 (May-June 1975). 

McClelland, Donald. Introduction to Lithographs by Emil Weddige. Exhibition 
Catalogue. Birmingham, Michigan: Birmingham Gallery, March 1975. 

Murray, Richard. Art for Architecture: Washington, D. C, 1895-1925. Ex- 
hibition publication. June 1975. 

Ratzenberger, Katharine. [Review] Artists USA 1974-1975: A Guide to Con- 
temporary American Art, and Canadian Artists in Exhibition 1973-1974. 
Art Libraries Society of North Arnerica Newsletter, volume 3, number 3 
(April 1975). 

Taylor, Joshua C. "The Art Museum In The United States." In On Under- 
standing Art Museums. American Assembly, November 1974. 

Foreword to Boxes and Bowls: Decorated Containers by Nineteenth- 
Century Haida, Tlingit, Bella Bella, and Tsimshian Indian Artists. Exhibition 
catalogue. November 1974. 

Foreword to Chaim Cross: Sculpture and Drawings. Exhibition 

catalogue. September 1974. 

Foreword to Made in Chicago. Exhibition catalogue. October 1974. 

Essay in Pennsylvania Academy Moderns. Exhibition catalogue. May 

Taylor, Joshua C, and John G. Lorenz. Foreword to Catalogue of the 24th 

National Exhibition of Prints. Washington, D. C. : Library of Congress, May 

Truettner, William H. Introduction to Horatio Shaw (1847-1918) Exhibition 

catalogue. August 1974. 
. Essay in Frontier America: The Far West. Exhibition catalogue. Boston 

Museum of Fine Arts, January 1975. 
Walker, William B. "Art Books and Periodicals: Dewey and LC." Library 

Trends. Special issue on "Music and Fine Arts in the General Library" 

(January 1975). 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 417 

Zabel, Barbara, Editorial Advisor. Modern Sculpture; The New Old Masters, 
by H. C. Merillat. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1974. 

. "Louis Lozowick and Urban Optimisim of the 1920s." Archives of 

American Art Journal, Spring 1975. 



Ahlborn, Richard Eighme. The Sculpted Saints of A Borderland Mission: Los 
Bultos de San Xavier del Sac. Tucson, Arizona: Southwestern Mission Re- 
search Center, Inc., 1974, 124 pages, 150 illustrations. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira, and Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli. The Beauty and Lore 
of Coins, Medals and Paper Money. New York: Riverwood Publishers, 1974, 
256 pages. 

Fesperman, John T. Two Essays on Organ Design. Raleigh: Sunbury Press, 
1975, 125 pages. 

Gardner, Paul V., Paul N. Perrot and James S. Plant. Steuben, Seventy Years 
of American Glassmaking. New York: Praeger Publishers Inc., 1974, 172 

Hindle, Brooke. Introduction to Benjamin Henry Latrobe & Moncure Robinson: 
The Engineer as Agent of Technological Transfer, 5 pages. Wilmington, 
Delaware: Eleutherian Mills Historical Library, 1975. 

Mollis, Helen R. The Piano: A Pictorial Account of Its Ancestry and Develop- 
ment. England: David & Charles, Ltd., 1975, 120 pages, 101 illustrations. 

Hoover, Cynthia A., editor. A Checklist of Keyboard Instruments at the 
Smithsonian Institution, second edition. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1975, 87 pages. 

. Contribution in A Survey of Musical Instrument Collections in the 

United States and Canada. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Music Library Association, 

Kidwell, Claudia B., and Margaret C. Christman. Suiting Everyone: The 
Democratization of Clothing in America. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1974, 208 pages, 338 figures. 

Klapthor, Margaret B. Official White House China: 1789 to Present. Wash- 
ington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975. 283 pages, 90 color plates, 
78 black and white illustrations. 

, Herbert R. Collins, Edith P. Mayo, and Peggy M. Sawyer. We the 

People. Exhibition guide. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1975, 162 pages. 

Langley, Harold D. Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Corres- 
pondence. New York: Saturday Review Press-Dutton, 1975, 805 pages. 

. To Utah With the Dragoons, and Glimpses of Life in Arizona and 

California, 1858-1859. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 1975, 
230 pages. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. Samuel Colt's Submarine Battery: The Secret and the 
Enigma. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974, 90 pages. 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II. English Yellow Glazed Earthenware. London: Barrie & 
Jenkins; Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974. 125 pages, 
64 color plates, 74 black and white illustrations. 

Schlebecker, John T. Whereby We Thrive: A History of American Farming, 
1607-1972. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1975. 350 pages, 51 

Watkins, C. Malcolm "Homeland and Handwork." Chapter 1 in The Crafts- 
man in America, pages 8-27. Washington, D. C. : The National Geographic 
Society, 1975. 

418 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Battison, Edwin A. "Phase Two of the Industrial Revolution: Interchangeable 
Manufacture of Arms." Proceedings of the XIII International Congress for 
the History of Science, Section XI, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 1974, pages 11-15. 

Bedini, Silvio A., and L. Reti. "Horology." In The Unknown Leonardo, pages 
240-263. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1974. 

Boorstin, Daniel J. Foreword to Technology and the Frontiers of Knowledge, 
pages vii-ix. The Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures, 1972-73. Garden City, 
New York: Doubleday & Co., 1975. 

. "Political Revolutions and Revolutions in Science and Technology." 

In America's Continuing Revolution: an Act of Conservation, pages 161- 
180. Washington, D. C. : American Enterprise Institute for Public Research, 

-. "Democratizing the American Diet." America Illustrated, (Russian 

language periodical published by U. S. Information Agency, Washington, 
D. C), number 214 (August 1974), pages 33-35. 

-. "Overcommunication: Are We Talking Too Much?" New York Times, 

July 7, 1974, pages 1-6. 
Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "A Rainbow World." Pictorial Treasury of U.S. Stai^tps, 

pages 22-25. Collectors Institute. 
. Stamp (and coin) weekly syndicated columns, July 7, 1974-June 28, 

1975, in the Washington Post, Washington, D.C.; Inquirer, Philadelphia, 

Pa.; Post, Denver, Colo.; Times, St. Petersburg, Fla.; Democrat-Chronicle, 

Rochester, N.Y.; Post-Standard, Syracuse, N.Y.; Times-Union, Albany, N.Y.; 

Star-Ledger, Newark, N.J.; and Patriot-News, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Collins, Herbert R. "Brief History of Caroline County." Fredericksburg Times, 

volume 1 (September 1974), pages 23-25. 
. "The Candidate Can Target: Attempts on the Lives of Presidential 

Hopefuls." The Standard, Summer 1974, page 15. 

-. "A Defeated Candidate, A Lost Symbol." The Standard, Autumn and 

Winter 1974-1975, pages 12-16. 

"George Armistead At Fort McHenry, 1814." Caroline Historical 

Society Newsletter, Bowling Green, Virginia, page 4. 

-. "Men of The Revolution." Caroline Historical Society Bulletin, volume 

4 (1974), pages 5-8. 

Cooper, Grace R. "American Textiles in the Nineteenth Century." The En- 
cyclopaedia of Victoriana, London: George Rainbird Limited, 1975, 2,000 
words, illustrated. 

Davis, Audrey B. "The Dentist and His Tools." Washington, D. C. : Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1974, pages 1-12. 

. "The Emergence of American Dental Medicine: The Relation of the 

Maxillary Antrum to Focal Infection." Texas Reports on Biology and 
Medicine, volume 32 (Spring 1974), pages 141-156. 

Forman, Paul. "Industrial Support and Political Alignments of the German 
Physicists in the Weimar Republic," In Industrielles System und politische 
Entwicklung in der Weimar er Republic, pages 716-731. Dusseldorf: Droste, 

. "Ornstein, Leonard Salomon." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 10, pages 235-236. New York: Scribners, 1975. 

"Paschen, Friedrich." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 10, 

pages 345-350. New York: Scribners, 1975. 
Golovin, Anne C. "Cabinetmakers and Chairmakers of Washington, D. C, 

1791-1840." Antiques, volume 107, number 5 (May, 1975), pages 898- 

Harris, Elizabeth M. Etching as a Painter's Medium in the 1880's. Exhibition 

guide. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974, 4 pages. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 419 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "Information Retrieval within Museums." The Pro- 
ceedings of the First International Congress of Maritime Museums, 1972, 
London: National Maritime Museum, 1974, pages 79-84. 

. "The Museum Perspective." Military Affairs, volume 38 (1974), pages 

114-116, 159-160. 

"Sea Mines in the Defense of Kiel, 1848-1849." In Seemacht und 

Geschichte: Festschrift . . . Friedrich Ruge. Bonn: Deutsches Marine Institut, 

Marzio, Peter C. Mr. Audubon and Mr. Bien: An Early Phase in the History 

of American Chromolithography. Exhibition guide, Washington, D. C. : 

Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, 16 pages. 
Klapthor, Margaret B. "Inauguration of a President." In Dictionary of Ameri- 
can History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 
Merzbach, Uta C. "La Macchina di Scheutz a le Sue Vicende in Europa." In 

Scheutz: La Macchina alle Differenze, ed. M. G. Losano. Milan: Etas Libri, 

Murray, Anne W. "Dress: Colonial America." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 

fifteenth edition. 1974, pages 1029-1030. 
. "From Breeches to Sherryvallies." Waffenund Kostumkunde. Zeit- 

schrift der Gesellschaft fur historische Waffen-und Kostumkunde. Pages 

87-106. Jahrgang 1974/Sonderdruck. (Printed in English.) 
Norby, Reidar. "Denmark's Mail from 1624 — Year by Year." Scandinavian 

Scribe, volume 11, number 3 (March 1975), pages 35-38, 44-46. Translation 

and arrangement from Danish original. 
. "Denmark's 350-Year Postal Service." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 11, 

number 2 (February 1975), pages 19-21, 28-30. Translation and arrangement 

from Danish original. 

"Norge: Vapenutgaven 1863/66 — Bare en originaltegning for alle 

verdier!" Frimerke Forum (Oslo, Norway), volume 5 (1974), number 2, 
pages 27-42; number 3, pages 31-38; number 4, pages 36-45; volume 6 
(1975), number 1, pages 38-43. 

'The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon". Scandinavian Scribe, volume 10, 

numbers 7-11 (1974), pages 103-06, 119-22, 135-38, 149-52, 165 68; volume 
11, numbers 1-5 (1975), pages 7-10, 23-26, 39-42, 53-54, 59-60, 71-74. 

-. "Scandinavian Varieties" Scandinavian Scribe, volume 10 (1974), pages 

110, 126, 142, 164; volume 11 (1975), pages 12, 31, 47, 63, 78. 
Odell, J. Scott, and Sheridan Germann, "An Andreas Ruckers Quint Virginal 

of 1620" Full-sized technical drawing available in paper or mylar print from 

National Museum of History and Technology, Division of Musical 

Odell, J. Scott, and Norman Sohl, "An Anonymous Fretless Banjo from 

North Carolina" Full-sized technical drawing available in paper or mylar 

print from the National Museum of History and Technology, Division of 

Musical Instruments. 
. "An Appalachian Dulcimer by John Richmond of Hinton, West 

Virginia, c. 1850" Full-sized technical drawing available in paper or mylar 

print from the National Museum of History and Technology, Division of 

Musical Instruments. 
Ostroff, Eugene. "Conserving and Restoring Photographic Collections: The 

Effects of Residual Chemicals." Museum News, September 1974, pages 

40-42, 48. 
. "Conserving and Restoring Photographic Collections: Restoration." 

Museum News, November 1974, pages 42-45. 

"Conserving and Restoring Photographic Collections: Storage." 

Museum News, December 1974, pages 34-36. 
Pogue, Forrest D. "George C. Marshall." In Encyclopedia of American Bi- 
ography, edited by John A. Garraty. New York, 1974. 

420 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "George C. Marshall," Encyclopedia Britannica, fifteenth edition. 1974. 

. "Revolutionary Transformation of the Art of War" (revised version 

of lecture by the same title). In America's Continuing Revolution, An Act 
of Conservation, Washington. American Enterprise Institute for Public 
Policy Research, 1975. 

Post, Robert C. "'Carriages Propelled by Steam on Level Rail-Roads': Benja- 
min Dearborn's Congressional Memorial of 1819." Railroad History, number 
132 (Spring 1975), pages 84-85. 

. "Physics, Patents, and Politics: The Washington Career of Charles 

Grafton Page, 1838-1868." Dissertation Abstracts International, volume 35, 
number 3 (1974). 

-, and Robert M. Vogel. Formal Instruction in Industrial Archeology, 

History of Technology, and Related Fields in North American Colleges and 

Universities. Washington, D. C. : Society for Industrial Archeology, 1975, 

4 pages. 
Scheele, Carl H. "U. S. Postal History." Pictorial Treasury of U.S. Stamps, 

pages 1-3, illustrated. 
Schlebecker, John T. "Keeping the Records: Historical Objects." Agricultural 

History, volume 49 (January 1975), pages 108-110. 
. "Stockmen and Drovers During the Revolution." in Proceedings of the 

Pioneer America Society, volume 2, pages 4-15. Falls Church, Virginia: 

August 1974. 
Turner, Craig J. "The Isthmus of Panama Mail Route." In 40th American 

Philatelic Congress Book, October 1974. Pages 153-165. 
. "Asher Brown Durand — Premier Engraver." S.P.A. Journal, volume 37, 

number 1 (September 1974), pages 27-38. 

"Cyrus Durand — Inventive Genius." Paper Money, volume 13, number 

6, Whole Number 54 (November 1974), pages 243-251, [reprinted from 
S.P.A. Journal (June 1974), volume 36, number 10, pages 593-605.] 

"Early Engravings of Andrew Jackson — Part I." S.P.A. Journal, 

volume 37, number 7 (March 1975), pages 421-434. 

-. "Early Engravings of Andrew Jackson — Part II." S.P.A. Journal, 

volume 37, number 8 (April 1975), pages 497-509. 
Vogel, Robert M. Some Industrial Archeology of the Monumental City & 

Environs. Washington, D. C. : Society for Industrial Archeology, April 1975. 
19 pages. 
Walker, Paul E. "An Isma'ili Answer to the Problems of Worshiping the 

Unknowable, Neoplatonic God." The American Journal of Arabic Studies, 

volume 2 (1974), pages 7-21. 
. "The Ismaili Vocabulary of Creation." Studia Islamica, volume 15 

(1974), pages 75-85. 
Warner, Deborah J. "C. H. F. Peters." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 10, page 543. 
. "Edward Walter Maunder." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 9, pages 183-185. 
. "Reginald Outhier." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 10, 

pages 255-256. 

-. "Seth Barnes Nicholson." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

10, page 107. 

White, John H., Jr. "The Provisional Railway." Proceedings of Xlllth Inter- 
national Congress of the History of Science, Moscow, 1974. Pages 156-161. 

. "Wood to Burn." American Heritage, Vol. 26, No. 1 (December 1974), 

page 78. 

. "The Steam Railroad Comes to Cincinnati." Cincinnati Historical 

Society Bulletin, volume 32 (Winter 1974), number 4, pages 177-183. 

, editor. Railroad History, Number 131 (Autumn 1974), 144 pages. 

, editor. Railroad History, Number 132 (Spring 1974), 128 pages. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 421 


Washburn, Wilcomb E. The Assault on Indian Tribalism: The General 
Allotment Law (Dawes Act) of 1887. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975, pages 
viii + 79. 

. The Indian in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1975, pages xix + 


-. "The Writing of American Indian History," in The American Indian, 

pages 3-26. (Revision and expansion of article first appearing in Pacific 
Historical Review, volume 40 (1971), pages 261-281.) Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia: ABC Clio Press, 1974. 



Moreland, Grover, Richard Johnson, and Martha Goodway. "An Improved 
Technique for the Preparation of Polished Metallurgical Sections." Metal- 
lography, volume 8 (June 1975), pages 253-255. 

Olin, J. S., (Staff) and E. V. Sayre. (non-staff). "Neutron Activation Analytical 
Survey of Some Intact Medieval Glass Panels and Related Specimens." In 
Archaeological Chemistry, edited by Curt W. Beck, pages 100-123. Advances 
in Chemistry Series 138 (1974). 


Richard H. Lytle, issue editor. "Management of Archives and Manuscript 
Collections for Librarians." Drexel Library Quarterly, issue 11. 


Goodwin, Jack, editor. Special Libraries Association: Museums, Arts and 
Humanities Division, Bulletin, new series, volume 4, number 1 (Fall, 1974); 
new series, volume 4, number 2 (Spring 1975). 

Ratzenberger, Katharine. [Review] Artists USA 1974-1975: a Guide to Con- 
temporary American Art and Canadian Artists in Exhibition 1973-1974. 
ARLIS/NA Newsletter, volume 3, number 3 (April 1975), pages S-2-S-3. 

Shank, Russell. "CATV and Libraries: Issues and Challenges." In CATV and 
Its Implications for Libraries, pages 81-90. Urbana, Illinois: Graduate 
School of Library Science, 1974. 

. "Emerging Programs of Cooperation." Library Trends, volume 23, 

issue 2 (October, 1974), pages 287-304. 

Walker, William B. "Art Books and Periodicals: Dewey and LC" Library 
Trends, volume 23, number 3 (January, 1975), pages 451-470. 



Barnett-Aden Collection. Catalogue of the Collection, Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum, January 1975. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 
190 pages, 15 color and 136 black-and-white illustrations. 
District of Columbia Art Association: Exhibition 1974-75. Catalogue of tne 
exhibition, Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, November 1974. Washington, 
D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 46 pages, 75 black-and-white illustrations. 

422 / Smithsonian Year 1975 


Cox, Suzanne, "The Use of Speech at Two Auctions." Pennsylvania Folklife, 

volume 24, number 1 (Fall 1974). 
McCarl, Robert (Research Associate). "The Production Welder: Product, 

Process and the Industrial Craftsman." New York Folklore Quarterly, 

Volume 30, number 4, pages 243-253. 
McNeil, William, "An Annotated Bibliography of Indiana Folklore." Indiana 

Folklore, number 1, 1973. 
. [Review] The Art of Ragtime, by William J. Schafter and Johannes 

Riedel. Folklore Forum. 

-. [Review] John Cordon McCurry: The Social Harp, edited by John 

Garst and Daniel Patterson. Journal of American Folklore. 
Proschan, Frank (Research Associate). "Walter Vinson, 1901-1975," Living 

Blues, number 21 (May-June, 1975). 
Rinzler, Ralph, "Bill Monroe," In Stars of Country Music, edited by Bill 

Malone and Judith McCulloch. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 

Taylor, J. R. [Eleven articles on jazz.] Village Voice. 

. [Jazz record reviews] University Review, September 1974. 

. [Two reviews of jazz performances] Zoo World. 

Vennum, Thomas (Research Associate). 'Ojibwa Origin Migration Songs of 

the Mitewiwin," Sixth Annual Algonquian Conference, Ottawa, Canada. 
Williams, Martin. "And What Might a Jazz Composer Do?" Music Educators 

Journal, volume 61, number 5 (January 1975). 
. "Jazz Music, A Brief History." USA (published by the Institute of 

U.S. Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.), October 1974. 

"Scott Joplin, the Ragtime King, Rules Once More." Smithsonian 

Magazine, volume 15, number 7 (October 1974). 


Dillon, Wilton S. "Latent and Manifest Messages of Ceremony." In The Nature 
of Scientific Discovery: a Symposium Commemorating the 500th Anni- 
versary of the Birth of Nicolaus Copernicus, pages 76-81. Washington, 
D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975. 

. "Margaret Mead: President-Elect 1974," Science 26 April 1974, volume 

184, number 4135 (26 April 1974), pages 490-493. 

"On Cutting Culture Down to Size," (essay review of The Interpreta- 

tion of Cultures: Selected Essays, by Clifford Geertz. Teachers College 
Record, volume 76, (September 1974). 

"History As Comparative Symbology," [Essay Review] Dramas, 

Fields and Metaphors, by Victor Turner. American Scholar, volume 44, 
(Summer 1975). 

-, editor. The Cultural Drama: Modern Identities and Social Ferment. 

Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974, 328 pages. 


Lee, Margaret V. (Resident Associate), art director, and Janet W. Solinger 
(Resident Associate), producer, "Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Commemorative Poster Set." Original serigraphs by Larry Rivers and 
Robert Indiana; poster reproductions of works in the collection by Willem 
de Kooning and Kenneth Noland. October 1974. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 423 


Blanchard, Jeffrey (Summer Intern). "Theater." In Jacques Callot: Prints and 
Related Drawings, exhibition catalogue, pages 57-151. Washington: National 
Gallery of Art, 1975. 

Bohlin, Diane DeGrazia. "Some Unpublished Drawings by Bertoia." Master 
Drawings, volume 12, number 4 (Winter, 1974), pages 359-367. 

Brown, David A. "Further Observations on the Project for a Standard by 
Verrocchio and Leonardo." Master Drawings, volume 12, number 2, 1974, 
pages 127-133. 

Cain, J. Fred. Introduction to James Davis, exhibition catalogue. Washington: 
Middendorf Gallery, 1975. 

Carmean, E. A., Jr. "Modernist Art 1960-1970." Studio International, volume 
188 (July-August 1974), pages 9-13. 

. Friedel Dzubas, exhibition catalogue. Houston: The Museum of Fine 

Arts, 1974. 

Collins, Jane. "Cataloguing and Classifying the Exhibition Catalogue." Special 
Libraries, volume 66, number 7 (July 1975), pages 313-320. 

Feller, Robert L. (Senior Fellow), Rutherford J. Gettens and Elisabeth West 
FitzHugh. "Calcium Carbonate Whites." Studies in Conservation, volume 19 
(1974), pages 157-184. 

Ferguson, Carra (Fellow), Compiler (under the direction of Carl Nordenfalk). 
Medieval & Renaissance Miniatures from the National Gallery of Art, 
exhibition catalogue. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1975. 

Keisch, Bernard (Senior Fellow). "Mossbauer Effect Spectrometry Without 
Sampling: Applications to Art and Archaeology." In Archaeological Chem- 
istry, edited by Curt Beck, Advances in Chemistry Series Number 138. 
Washington, D. C. : American Chemical Society, 1974, pages 186-206. 

. "Mossbauer Effect Studies of Fine Arts." Colloque Number 6, Supple- 
ment to. Journal de Physique, volume 35, Number 12 (1974), pages C6-151. 

Krill, John "Condition and Watermarks." In Jacques Callot: Prints and Related 
Drawings, exhibition catalogue, pages 314-339. Washington: National 
Gallery of Art, 1975. 

Lehrer, Ruth. Fine "The Janus Press." The Private Library (quarterly journal 
of the Private Libraries Association), second series, volume 7, number 3 
(Autumn 1974), pages 91-121. 

Lewis, C. Douglas. "Disegni Autograft del Palladio non Pubblicati: Le Piante 
per Caldogno e Maser (1548-1549)." Bollettino del Centro Internazionale di 
Studi di Architettura volume 15, (1973; published 1975), pages 209-215. 

. "A vindication of Vasari: the Rediscovery of Sanmicheli's Palace for 

Girolamo Corner at Piombino." Architectura, 1975, number 1. 

Nordenfalk, Carl (Kress Professor in Residence, 1972 73), Director of com- 
pilation. Medieval & Renaissance Miniatures from the National Gallery of 
Art, exhibition catalogue. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1975. 

Parkhurst, Charles. "An Appreciation." In Frasconi Against the Grain, The 
Woodcuts of Antonio Frasconi, pages 143-147. New York: Macmillan 
Publishing Co., 1975. 

. "Art Museums: Kinds, Organization, Procedures, and Financing." In 

On Understanding Art Museums, edited by Sherman E. Lee, pages 3-97, 
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975. 

Robinson, Andrew. "Religious Experience." In The Logic of God: Theology and 
Verification, edited by Malcolm Diamond and Thomas Litzenburg, pages 
409-432. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975. 

. [Review] The Etchings of the Tiepolos: Complete Edition by Aldo 

Rizzi. The Art Bulletin, volume 56, number 2, pages 295-298. 

. [Ten short reviews] Nouvelles de I'estampe and Library Journal. 

424 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Russell. H. Diane lac.ues CalloU Vrinis ani KeMDra^in.s. exhibition 
alogiie. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1975. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Staff I 425 

APPENDIX 8. Selected Contributions of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Staff in Fiscal Year 1975 



Goode, James M. "The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C." Radio 
Smithsonian, August 19, 1975; Dimock Art Gallery of George Washington 
University, September 30, 1974; Smithsonian Associates, September 16, 
1974; Radio WAMU-FM of American University, September 20, 1974; 
Colonial Dames Chapter of Northern Virginia, October 14, 1974; Rotary 
Club, Alexandria, Virginia, November 5, 1974; Colonial Dames Chapter of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution, December 3, 1974; and The 
Victorian Society in America, New York City Chapter, April 21, 1975. 

. "The Architectural History of Society Hill, Washington Square, and 

Independence Square, Philadelphia, Pa." Smithsonian Associates, November 
22, 1974, February 15, 21, 1975, March 22, 1975, April 5, 1975, and May 3, 

-. "Great Country Houses of Shropshire, Derbyshire, Yorkshire and 

Somerset, England." Smithsonian Associates, January 9, 16, and 23, 1975. 

"The Architectural History of Charlottesville, Virginia." Smithsonian 

Associates, April 26, 1975, May 2, and 10, 1975. 

-. "The History of the Smithsonian Building," Princeton Club, May 28, 

1975; Phi Beta Kappa chapter of Washington, D.C, March 29, 1975; White 
House Fellows, June 12, 1975. 
Lehman, Susan N. "The History of the Smithsonian Building." District of 
Columbia Chapter of the American Women's Business Association, July 8, 
1975; Princeton Club of Washington, D. C, May 28, 1975; Smithsonian 
Associates, June 10, 14, 17, 21, and 24, 1975. 




Stanley, Sam. "History and Progress of Population Project," Seminar on The 
Cultural Consequences of Population Change, Bucharest, Romania, August 
14, 1974. 

. "Some Recent Research on American Indian Economic Development." 

Yale University, Department of Anthropology Seminar, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, November 1, 1973. 

"The Smithsonian Institution's Urgent Anthropology Small Grants 

Program." International Meeting on Urgent Anthropology organized jointly 
by the Canadian National Committee for ICOM, the Canadian Commission 
for UNESCO and the Canadian National Museum of Man, Ottawa, Canada, 
December 3, 1974. 

426 I Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "The Impact of Economic Development on American Indian Com- 
munities." Century Club of Harvard University School of Business, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, February 24, 1975. 

National Anthropological Film Center 

Sorenson, E. Richard. "Social Organization in the Facial Expression of 
Emotion." Conference on Culture and Communication, Temple University, 
March 1975. 

. "Growing Up As A Fore" (film presentation and lecture) National 

Museum of Natural History, April 1975. 

Sorenson, E. Richard and Kalman Muller. "Huichol Enculturation, A Pre- 
liminary Report." American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, 
Mexico City, November 1974. 


Falk, John H. "Science Education — The Near Future. Turning Classrooms 
Inside Out." AAAS Conference on Science Curricula and Teaching in 
Elementary and Junior High Schools, College Park, Maryland. April 1975. 


Young, David K. "Indian River Study." Audubon Society, St. Lucie County, 
January 2, 1975. 

. "Indian River Study." National Museum of Natural History, Smith- 
sonian Institution, January 9, 1975. 

"Animal-Sediment Relationships." Chesapeake Bay Institute, Johns 

Hopkins University, March 20, 1975. 

-. "Seagrass-associated Benthos of the Indian River Estuary, Florida." 

Bermuda Biological Station, May 16, 1975. 

-. "Seagrass-associated Benthos of the Indian River Estuary, Florida." 

Marine Science Department, University of South Florida, May 23, 1975. 

"Seagrass-associated Benthos of the Indian River Estuary, Florida." 

Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc. May 30, 1975. 

Rice, M. E. "Sipuncula Associated with Coral Communities." International 
Symposium on Indo-Pacific Tropical Reef Biology. Guam and Palau. June 
23-July 5, 1974. 

. Some Aspects of Larval Development and Metamorphosis in the Sipun- 
cula." American Society of Zoologists, Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 
December 27-30, 1974. 

-, moderator. (Contributed paper session) Division of Invertebrate 

Zoology, American Society of Zoologists, Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 
December 27-30, 1974. 

Rice, M. E., and Douglas S. Putnam. "Sipunculan Fauna of a Coral Reef 
Community off the Belizean Coast, Caribbean Sea." International Sym- 
posium on Indo-Pacific Tropical Reef Biology. Guam and Palau. June 23- 
July 5, 1974. 

Young, D. K. and M. W. Young. "Community Structure of the Benthos 
Associated with Sea Grasses of the Indian River Estuary, Florida." Sym- 
posium on Ecology of Marine Benthos, Baruch Institute, University of 
South Carolina, May 7-10, 1975. 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 427 



Bondurant, Russell Lynn. "The Planetarium — Artistically Speaking." Annual 

Meeting of the International Society of Planetarium Educators, Atlanta, 

Georgia, October 10, 1974. 
Boyne, Walter J. (Principal speaker) Northern Virginia Flight, Air Force 

Association Meeting, Boiling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., May 20, 

Casey, Louis S. "Conquering the Air." Smithsonian Associates, Technology 

History Series, June 11, 1975. 
Chamberlain, Von Del. "The World's Finest Sky Theaters/Astronomy in 

Parks." 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, 

New York, August 22, 1974. 
. "Sky Interpretation." Meeting of the Rocky Mountain and High 

Plains Regions of the Association of Interpretative Naturalists, September 

27, 1974. 

"Planetarians: Interpreters of the Sky." Second Annual Meeting of 

the International Society of Planetarium Educators, Atlanta, Georgia, 
October 10, 1974. 

"Interpreting the Sky," Horace M. Albright Training Center, Grand 

Canyon, Arizona, October 19, 1974. 

"Beholders and Expounders of the Sky." Armand N. Spitz Lecture, 

Annual Meeting of the Great Lakes Planetarium Association, Terre Haute, 
Indiana, October 25, 1974. 

"The Sky as an Interpretive Resource." Interpreters Institute, Texas 

A and M University, November 18, 1974. 

"The Stars in Our Lives." NASM Holiday Lecture Series, Washington, 

D. C, December 26, 1974. 

"Man: Beholder and Expounder of Heaven." Keynote address. 

Astronomy Workshop, Alexandria, Virginia, January 25, 1975. 

"Man Beholds The Sky." Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Associa- 

tion of Interpretative Naturalists, April 9, 1975. 

"Introduction To Sky Interpretation." Seminars presented at the 

following National Park Service locations: 
Chaco Canyon National Monument, August 12, 1974 
*Canyon de Chelly National Monument, August 13, 1974 
*Navajo National Monument, August 14, 1974 
*Canyonlands/Arches National Park, August 15-16, 1974 
Everglades National Park, December 16, 1974 
Rock Creek Park, Washington, D. C, March 12, 1975 
Gateway National Recreation Area, May 20, 1975 
*Cape Hatteras National Seashore, May 24, 1975 
*Shenandoah National Park, June 7, 1975 
Cape Cod National Seashore, June 10, 1975 
*Assateague Island National Seashore, June 26, 1975 

Garber, Paul E. "The International History of Flight." (To a group of avia- 
tion cadets from thirty-six nations) Washington, D.C., August 5, 1974. 

. "The Role of Kites in the Development of the Airplane." Goddard 

Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, December 9, 1974. 

Knight, Eugene M. "The New National Air and Space Museum." 

, "Lets Go Tours." Montgomery County Public Schools Adult Educa- 
tion, Silver Spring, Maryland, March 6, 1975. 

, Mens Club, Calvary Methodist Church, Arlington Virginia, April 23, 

Lopez, Donald S. (Principal speaker) Winter Formal Banquet of the Order of 

428 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Daedalians, Boiling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., December 4, 1974. 
(Principal speaker) Teterboro Aviation Hall of Fame Dedication 

Banquet, Teterboro, New Jersey, April 30, 1975. 
Winter, Frank H., "Origins and Development of the Rocket in India." 14th 

Congress of the History of Science, Tokyo, Japan, August 1974. 
Zisfein, M. B. "The National Air and Space Museum." History Teachers 

Association of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1974. 
. "The National Air and Space Museum." Museum of History and 

Technology Curators' Association, Washington, D. C, March 1975. 
. "Life in the Universe." American Institute of Aeronautics and 

Astronautics/Blue Ridge Section, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 1975. 

"Life in the Universe." Explorers Club Annual Dinner, Washington, 

D. C, March 1975. 

-. "A National Air and Space Museum Progress Report." American 

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/National Capital Section, Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 1975. 

Department of Anthropology 


Angel, J. Lawrence. Medical-Legal Workshop at Winchester Memorial Hos- 
pital, Winchester, Virginia, October 17, 1974. 
. Annual Course in Forensic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of 

Pathology, Washington, D.C., November 11, 1974. 

Seminar in Forensic Osteology, National Museum of Natural History, 

Washington, D.C., December 2-13, 1974. 

AAPA Annual Meetings, Denver, Colorado, April 10-12, 1975. Paper 

on Middle-class Skeletal Differences. 

Evans, Clifford. (Organized two symposia based upon Smithsonian-sponsored 
research programs in which Research Associate Meggers and Curator 
Clifford Evans were involved.) XLI International Congress of Americanists, 
Mexico City, September 2-7, 1974. 

Ewers, John C. "Indian Views of the White Man Prior to 1850: An Interpreta- 
tion." Viewpoints in Indian History, Colorado State College, Fort Collins, 
Colorado, August 1974. 

Fitzhugh, William W. "Ice Age Mammals and the Emergence of Man." Radio 
Smithsonian, October 1974. 

. "Prehistoric Burial Traditions in Northeastern North America." 

Northern Virginia Archeological Society. 

"Museum Anthropology." Bryn Mawr College field trip to Washing- 

ton, April 1975. 

"Pre-Columbian European Contacts in the Northwestern Atlantic." 

Washington Philosophical Society. 

"Curatorial Responsibilities." George Washington University course in 

Museum Studies, February 1975. 

-. "Arctic Archeology and Anthropology." School of Arts and Sciences, 

Berkeley, California, April 1975. 
Gibson, Gordon. (Informal discussion meetings with groups of students.) Hall 

of the Cultures of Africa, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 

. (Illustrated lecture on the Himba of Angola) Baird Auditorium, 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C, May 7, 1975. 
Knez, Eugene I. (Guided lecture tour for docents through the permanent 

Asian exhibits of the National Museum of Natural History) 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 429 

, Chairman. (Session for traditional culture of Sindhi people) in "Sind 

Through the Centuries," International Seminar, Karachi, Pakistan. 

-, Interlocutor. (Seminar for the control of national resources) Industrial 

College for the Armed Forces, Fort McNair. 
Laughlin, Robert M. "El lenguaje como vehiculo a la cultura." First seminar 

of the Instituto de Asesoria Antropologica para la Region Maya, A.C., San 

Cristobal las Casas, November 18-21, 1974. 
. "6Por que no?" Harvard Chiapas symposium "La civilizacion indigena 

de Chiapas en el mundo contemporaneo," in commemoration of the 500th 

anniversary of the birth of Fray Bartolome de las Casas, San Cristobal las 

Casas, August 19-21, 1974. 

-, commentator. "Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism in the Chiapas Highlands: 

Reports on Recent Field Research of the Harvard Chiapas Project." 8th Spe- 
cial Session, History and Ethnohistory, Mexico City, XLI International 
Congress of Americanists, September 2-7, 1974. 

-, moderator. "La civilizacion indigena de Chiapas en el mundo con- 

temporaneo," Harvard Chiapas symposium in commemoration of the 500th 
anniversary of the birth of Fray Bartolome de las Casas, San Cristobal las 
Casas, August 19-21, 1974. 

Ortner, Donald J. (Paper on differentiation between diseases based on dif- 
ferences in the nature of lesions seen in Museum specimens.) Annual 
meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, April 

Riesenberg, Saul. "Ponapean Kinship." American Anthropological Association 
Meeting, Mexico City, November 20-24, 1974; and Association for Social 
Anthropology Meeting, Stuart, Florida, March 26-30, 1975. 

, session chairman. Association for Social Anthropology, Stuart, Florida, 

March 26-30, 1975. 

-. Conducted tour of the Pacific Hall, National Museum of Natural 

History, Smithsonian Associates. 
St. Hoyme, Lucille E. Talks to groups of Docents, school classes, and other 

groups visiting the laboratory. 
. Introductory Physical Anthropology Course for graduate Orthodontic 

students, Georgetown University Dental School. 

. "The Human Skeleton." Classes for the Smithsonian Associates. 

. Lectures, Northern Virginia Dental Society. 

-, co-ordinator. Series of 10 lectures on physical anthropology for 

Smithsonian Associates, January— March 1975. 
Stanford, Dennis. "A Paleo-Indian Site of the High Plains of Eastern Colorado, 

U.S." XLI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, September 1974. 
. "The Jones-Miller Site, Yuma Co., Colorado." Denver Archeological 

Society, September 1974. 

"The Jones-Miller Site: An Example of Hell Gap Bison Hunting and 

Processing Strategies." Plains Conference, November 1974. 

-. "The Jones-Miller Hell Gap Site." Maryland Archeological Society, 

April 1975. 

Stanford, Dennis J., and John Albanese. "El Reparto Site, Tegucigalpa, Hon- 
duras: Preliminary Geological and Archeological Report." (Ms. on file) 
Instituto Nacional de Antropolgia e Historia de Honduras, Tegucigalpa. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Museums Acquisition Policies." Council for Museum 
Anthropology, American Anthropological Association annual meetings, 
Mexico City, November 21, 1974. 

Trousdale, William. Lecture on the work of the Helmand-Sistan Project at 
Harvard University, April 1975. 

, Maude I. Kerns Distinguished Visiting Professor of Oriental Art. 

430 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Seminar on the Islamic architecture of East Iran, Soviet Central Asia, and 
Afghanistan. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, May 1975. 

-. Lecture on the results of the University of Michigan-Harvard Univer- 

sity excavations at Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi (Syria) 1964-1971, of which he 
was Assistant Director. Oregon, May 1975. 

Lecture on recent archaeological and other scientific discoveries in 

Afghanistan. Oregon, May 1975. 
Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Prehistoric Demography on the Coast of Ecuador." 

Universidad Catolica, Guayaquil, Ecuador, July 1974. 
. "Current Research on the Prehistoric Demography of Coastal Ecuador" 

and "Microscopic Methods of Determining Age at Death in Human 

Skeletons." XLI Congresso Internacional de Amercanistas, Mexico City, 

September 1974. 

'Archeological Inferences from Human Skeletal Remains." Virgin 

Islands Archeological Society, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, November 

"The Significance of Human Skeletons, Recently Recovered from St. 

Thomas." Rotary Club, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. 

-. "Human Skeletons in Archeological Research." St. Croix Archeological 

Society, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, November 1974. 

"Prehistoric Demography: TLchniques and Problems." Department of 

Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, November 1974. 

"New World Prehistoric Demography." Smithsonian Associates, 

Washington, D.C., December 1974. 

-. "Prehistoric Population and Demography: An Appraisal." Department 

of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, March 1975. 
"Current Research on the Coast of Ecuador." Northern Virginia 

Archeological Society, Falls Church, Virginia, May 1975. 
Van Beek, Gus. "The Origin and Development of Near Eastern Architecture," 

(course of ten lectures) Smithsonian Associates, winter term, 1975. 
. Seminar on Archaeological Methodology at Tell Jemmeh. Smithsonian 

Associates, December 1974. 

-. Paper on Tell Jemmeh. Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute 

of America, Chicago, late 1974. 

Lecture on Tell Jemmeh. Senate of Scientists, National Museum of 

Natural History, February 1975. 
Department of Botany 


Ayensu, Edward S. "Plant and Animal Relations in West Africa — with Special 
Reference to Plants and Fruit Bats." Oxford University, October 1974. 

. "Biology of Orchids." Oxford University, November 1974. 

. "Ten Percent of Our Plant Species May Not Survive." International 

Leadership Seminar, Smithsonian Institution, April 1975. 

-. "The Endangered Plant Species Program at the Smithsonian." Annual 

Conference of the Garden Clubs of America, The National Arboretum, 
Washington, D. C, April 1975. 

Eyde, Richard H. "Foibles, Fallacies, and Famous Figures in Floral Morphol- 
ogy." Naturalists' Forum, Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, 
December 1974; and Philadelphia Botanical Club, February 1975. 

Fosberg, F. R. "Geography, Ecology and Bio-geography." "Presidents Program," 
American Association of Geographers, New York, April 1975. 

Nowicke, Joan W. "Pollen Morphology as a Tool in Plant Classification." 
Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania, February 1975. 

. "Pollen Morphology as a Tool in Higher Order Systematics." Uni- 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 431 

versity of Maryland, and Botanical Society of Washington, D. C, March 

-. "Pollen studies in the Centrospermae." Missouri Botanical Garden, St. 

Louis, March 1975. 
Read, Robert W. "Spring Flower Botany," ten-week course. Smithsonian 

Associates, spring 1975. 
. "Current Research on Bromeliads at the Smithsonian." Sacramento 

Bromeliad group, California, June 1975. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Summer Botany: Summer Wildflowers," four field 

sessions. Smithsonian Associates, August 1974. 

. "A General Overview of the Flora of the United States," seminar on 

"Eastern Hardwood Forest" for interpretive personnel of the National Capital 

Parks, October 1974. 
. "Greenspace." Jaycees of Sugarland Run Community, Sterling, 

Virginia, October 1974. 

"The Flora North America Generalized System for Describing the 

Morphology of Organisms." Museum Data Bank Committee, Margaret 
Woodbury Strong Museum, Rochester, N.Y., November 1974. 

"Plant Exploration in Alaska," free film and lecture series. Baird 

Auditorium, National Museum of Natural History, March 1975. 

"Pawpaws and Pitcher-Plants: The Pageant of Spring Wildflowers in 

the Potomac Valley." The Cornell Club of Washington, D.C., April 1975. 
-. "The Landscape in the Ecosystem." guest lecture in course "Introduc- 

tion to Landscape Architecture." Continuing Education for Women Center, 
George Washington University, Washington, D.C., May 1975. 

-. "Gardening for Wildlife." Sugarland Run Garden Club, Sterling, 

Virginia, May 1975. 

-. "Pawpaws and Pitcher-Plants: The Pageant of Spring Wildflowers in 

the Potomac Valley." Rose Hill Garden Club, Alexandria, Virginia, May 

"Careers in Botany," Class for high school students. Smithsonian 

Associates, May 1975, 
Simpson, Beryl B. "Desert Scrub Flowers as a Faunal Resource." American 

Institute of Biological Sciences meeting, Tempe, Arizona, August 1974. 
. "Breeding Syndromes of Desert Scrub Perennials." University of 

Maryland, November 1974. 

'Convergence of Breeding Systems of Warm Desert Plants." Uni- 

versity of Massachusetts, December 1975, and University of Georgia, 
January 1975. 

Skog, Laurence E. "Angiosperm Evolution" [in response to animal pollinators.] 
Plant Morphology Class, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, May 

Stern, William L. "The Bond Between Botany and Medicine" (Belk Award 
recipient lecture for 1974). Miami University, Ohio, October 1974; and to 
Members of the Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden, Honolulu, March 1975. 

Tangerini, Alice. "Halftone and Line Techniques on Nylar" and "Methods of 
Construction from Herbarium Specimens." "Nuplementation '74," a com- 
bined meeting of the Guild of Natural Science Illustrators and the Associa- 
tion of Medical Illustrators, New Orleans, October 1974; and Guild of 
Natural Science Illustrators of Washington, D. C, November 1975. 

Wurdack, John J. "Endangered and Threatened Plant Species of the United 
States." American Rock Garden Society in White Plains, New York, January 

. "South American Plant Geography and Ecology," Science Division 

Colloquium, St. Mary's College of Maryland, April 1975. 

Botany Seminars, 1974-1975, in which various members of the Department of 
Botany participated: 

432 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

October 2, 1974. "Relationships in Madagascar Bignoniaceae." Dr. Alwyn H. 
Gentry, Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis. 

October 7, 1974. "Field Observations on Bromeliaceae and other Succulents." 
Professor Werner Rauh, University of Heidelberg, Germany. 

December 16, 1974. "Remote Sensing of Vegetation for Environmental Manage- 
ment." Charles A. Dorigan, Biogeographer and Staff Scientist, Earth Satellite 
Corporation, Washington, D. C. 

February 10, 1975. "Biosystematic Studies in the Basidiomycete Genus Pho- 
liota." Ellen Farr, Bibliographer, Index Nominum Genericorum, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

March 19, 1975. "Dynamics of Epiphyte Populations in Western Oregon." Dr. 
Lawrence H. Pike, Assistant Professor of Biology, George Mason University, 
Fairfax, Virginia. 

April 15, 1975. "Are There Vascular Plants Older Than Late Silurian (Pri- 
dolian)?" Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Professor of Botany, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

May 7, 1975. "Contemplating Coca." Dr. James A. Duke, Supervisory Botanist 
and Chief, Plant Taxonomy Laboratory, Plant Genetics and Germplasm In- 
stitute, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland. 

May 14, 1975. "Botany in Malaysia." Dr. Benjamin C. Stone, Department of 
Botany, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

May 21, 1975. "Variations in Types of Branching in the Palms." Dr. Jack B. 
Fisher, Plant Morphologist, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida. 

June 3, 1975. "Meristems, Mobilities and Ecological Strategies." Dr. P. B. Tom- 
linson. Professor of Botany, Maria Moors Cabot Foundation for Botanical 
Research of Harvard University at Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massa- 

Department of Entomology 


Erwin, Terry L. "The Role of Ground Beetles in the Tropical Arboreal Eco- 
system." Thomas Hunt School of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 
spring 1973. 

. "The Role of Women in Biological Sciences." National Cathedral 

School for Girls, Washington, D. C, spring 1973. 

"The Role of Carabid Beetles in the Arboreal Ecosystem in Middle 

America." California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, December 20, 

-. "The Role of Arboreal Ground Beetles in the Tropical Ecosystem." 

University of Florida, January 8, 1975. 

"The Role of Ground Beetles in the Tropical Arboreal Ecosystem." 

University of Arkansas, December 9, 1974. 
. "Where Have All the Ground Beetles Gone? or The Phenomenon of 

Checkerboard Distribution in Tropical Lowland Forests." Senate of Scientists 
Sherry Seminar, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C, 
April 30, 1975. 
. "The Role of NMNH in Smithsonian Science." First Smithsonian 

Inter-Science Conference, February 6-8, 1975. 

"The Need for Monitoring and Long Range Planning of Personnel 

Resources in Systematic Biology." Panel discussion, 4th Annual Meeting of 
Association of Systematics Collections, Ithaca, New York, May 10, 1975. 
-, Leader "Beginning Hennig — A Workshop Dealing with the Funda- 

mentals of Hennigian Systematics Principles," informal workshop series. 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Entomology, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, fall 1974. 
Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Studies on Neotropical Trichoptera: A Preliminary Report." 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 433 

First International Symposium on Trichoptera, Lunz am See, Austria, 
September 16, 1974. 

-. "A Survey of the Caddisflies of Argentina." Entomological Society of 

Washington, November 7, 1974. 

-. "Habitats of the Andes from Chile to the Antarctic Circle." University 

of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, January 22, 1975. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr. (Lecture) "Users of Taxonomic Research and Services: The 
National Plan for Systematics Resources in Entomology and its Meaning to 
the User Community," Symposium, Entomological Society of America 
Eastern Branch Meeting, Hershey, Pennsylvania, September 25, 1974. 

. (Lecture) "Systematics Resources in Entomology," Symposium, Ento- 
mological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
December 4, 1974. 

Sirivanakarn, Sunthorn. "The Systematics of Culex vishnui Complex in South- 
east Asia." Annual Meeting, American Mosquito Control Association, March 
13, 1975. 

Ward, Ronald A. "The Medical Entomology Project at the Smithsonian In- 
stitution." Biology Seminar, Notre Dame University, August 7, 1974. 

. "African Trypanosomiasis," Taped lecture. Entomological Society of 

America and Brigham Young University, 1974. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 


Barnard, J. L. "Evolution in Tropical Amphipoda." Symposium on Coral Reefs, 

Palau and Guam, July 1974. 
. "Evolution in Amphipoda," public lecture. University of Arizona, 

Tucson. 1974. 

"Evolution in Amphipoda." Symposium honoring John S. Garth, 

Southern California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles, May 1975. 
Bowman, T. E. "Discovery of the First Alaskan Water-Slater and Its Zoogeo- 

graphical Implications." Department of Invertebrate Zoology seminar series, 

. "Marine plankton." Smithsonian Associates course in marine biology, 

April 1975. 
Cressey, R. F. "Marine Biology — Past, Present and Future," course of lectures. 

Smithsonian Associates, January to April, 1975. 
Hope, W. D. "Marine Nematology — Past, Present and Future." Annual meeting 

of Society of Nematologists, Riverside, California, August, 1974. 
Jones, M. L. "The Invertebrates Fauna of the Locks of the Panama Canal." 

Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, St. Croix, 

Virgin Islands, May, 1975. 
Pawson, D. L. "Echinoderms of Oceanic Islands." University of Western 

Australia, Perth, Western Australia, July 1974. 
. "Oceanic Islands, Dispersal Mechanisms and Endemism; Studies on 

Echinoderms of Bermuda and Ascension Islands." University of North 

Carolina, Chapel Hill, February 1975. 

"Life in the Deep Sea." Smithsonian Associates course in marine 

biology. February 1975. 

"Oceanic Islands, Dispersal Mechanisms and Endemism." Fort Pierce 

Bureau, Smithsonian Institution, March 1975. 

"Swimming Sea Cucumbers." Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

seminar series. May 1975. 
. "Echinoderms." Smithsonian Associates course in marine biology. 

June 1975. 

434 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Rice, M. E. "Some Aspects of Metamorphosis and Larval Development of the 
Sipuncula." American Society of Zoologists, annual meeting. December 1974. 

Roper, C. F. E. "Introduction to the Biology of the Cephalopoda," two lectures. 
Smithsonian Associates Adult Science Class, July 1974. 

. "The Shell in Cephalopod Phylogeny." American Malacological Union, 

Springfield, Massachusetts, August 1974. 

-. "Catches of Cephalopods by Various Midwater Trawls." Workshop 

on problems of assessing populations of nekton, Santa Barbara, California, 
February 1975. 

-. "A Survey of the Biology and Diversity of Cephalopods." Smithsonian 

Associates Adult Science Class, Marine Life, May 1975. 

"Studies of Cephalopod Radulae." American Malacological Union 

Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, June 1975. 

"The Distribution of the Epipelagic Octopod Ocythoe tuberculata 

Rafinesque." American Malacological Union Annual Meeting, San Diego, 

California, June 1975. 
Rosewater, J. "The Natural History and Classification of Mollusks," two 

lectures. Smithsonian Associates course on mollusks. July 1974. 
. "Mollusks of Gatun Locks, Panama Canal." American Malacological 

Union Annual Meeting, Springfield, Massachusetts, August 1974. 

"An Expedition to the Moluccas Islands, Indonesia." National Capital 

Shell Club, February 1975. 

"Panamanian Mollusks." Department of Invertebrate Zoology seminar 

series. May 1975. 

"William Healey Dall — the Legacy He Left for Malacology." American 

Malacological Union Annual Meeting, San Diego, California. June 1975. 

-. "Some Results of the National Museum of Natural History — Smith- 

sonian Research Institute Survey of Panama, 1971-1975." American Malaco- 
logical Union Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, June 1975. 

Ruetzler, K. "Smithsonian Studies of Coral Reefs." International Leadership 
Seminars, National Museum of Natural History, Foreign Student Service 
Council, Washington, D.C., April 1975. 

Williams, A. B. "Biological Research at the Smithsonian Institution, with 
Special Remarks on Crustacean Studies." McPherson College, Biology class, 
February 1975. 

. "Swimming Crabs of the Genus Callinectes." Woods Hole Ocean- 

ographic Institution, noon seminar, April 1975. 

-. "Systematic Studies on the Genus Callinectes." Chesapeake Biological 

Laboratories, Solomons, Maryland, June 1975. 
Department of Mitieral Sciences 


Appleman, Daniel E. "X-Ray Crystallography and Polytypism of Naturally 
Occurring Tridymite, Si02," lecture. American Crystallographic Association 
Annual Meeting, Penn State, August 1974. 

. "The Crystal Structures of Synthetic Lautarite, Ca(IO:i)L>, Bruggerite, 

Ca(IO.0-''H-O and Ca(I03)2"6H20," lecture. American Crystallographic As- 
sociation Annual Meeting, Penn State, August 1974. 

"Crystal Structure Research," seminar. Smithsonian Front Royal 

Banks, Harold H., Jr. "Rocks and Their Stories," lecture. Cresthaven Elementary 

School, Silver Spring, Maryland, September, 1974. 
. "Rocks and Their Stories," 5 Class lectures. Chevy Chase Elementary 

School, Chevy Chase, Maryland, October, 1974. 
Clarke, Roy S. Jr. "The Allende Mexico Meteorite Shower," lecture. Philadel- 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 435 

phia Mineralogical Society, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

December 5, 1974. 
Desautels, Paul E. Two lectures. California Federation of Gem and Mineral 

Societies, San Mateo, California, July 1974. 
. Two lectures. Northwest Federation of Gem and Mineral Societies, 

Forest Grove, Oregon, August 1974. 

Three lectures. Smithsonian Associates, University of Houston, Texas, 

January 1975. 

Lecture. Pacific Micromount Conference, Santa Monica, California, 

February 1975. 

Two lectures. Tucson Gem and Mineral Society Annual Meeting, 

Tucson, Arizona, February 1975. 
. Two lectures. Boston Mineral Society, Boston, Massachusetts, March 


-. Two lectures. Second Annual Mineral Conference, Rochester Academy 

of Sciences, Rochester, New York, April 1975. 

Banquet Address. Baltimore Mineral Society Annual Banquet, Spar- 

row's Point, Maryland, June 1975. 

Two lectures. Denver Council of Gem and Mineral Societies, Annual 

Meeting, Denver, Colorado, June 1975. 

Two lectures. Gem and Mineral Show, Spruce Pine, North Carolina, 

July 1975. 
. Lecture. Honolulu Gem and Mineral Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 

Dunn, Pete J. "Precautions in Gemstone Purchasing," lecture. General's Wives 

Association, Fort Myer, Virginia, July 1974. 
. "New Acquisitions at the Smithsonian Institution," lecture. Capitol 

Mineral Club, Concord, New Hampshire, October 1974. 

"On Royal Jewelry," lecture. Northshore Rock and Mineral Club of 

Massachusetts, October 1974. 

"On Gems and Gem Materials," lecture. Nashoba Valley Mineral 

Society of Massachusetts, October 1974. 

"On Gems and Jewelry Design," lecture. Rossmoor Women's Club, 

Wheaton, Maryland, January 1975. 

"The Role of Gems and Jewelry," lecture. Annual Meeting of Sigma 

Chi, Wilmington, Delaware, February 1975. 

"On Royal Jewelry," lecture. Baltimore Mineral Society, Baltimore, 

Maryland, February 1975. 

"On Recent Acquisitions at the Smithsonian," lecture. Frederick 

County Mineral Club, Maryland, March 1975. 

-. "On Factors in the Choice of Fine Jewelry," lecture. The College Club 

of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, May 1975. 

-. "On Mineral Specimen Classics," lecture. The New England Gem and 

Mineral Show, Topsfield, Massachusetts, June 1975. 

"New England Gem Materials," lecture. The Eastern Federation of 

Gem and Mineral Societies, Annual Meeting, Portland, Maine, June 1975. 
-. Four lectures on Gemstones. Michigan Geology and Gemcraft Society, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 1975. 
Fredriksson, Kurt "Petrology and Origin of Chondrites," lecture. Bonn 

University, Germany, November 1974. 
. "Chondrite Petrology and Some Terrestrial and Lunar Analogues," 

lecture. Oxford University, England, February 1975. 

"Chondrite Petrology and Some Terrestrial and Lunar Analogues," 

lecture. Manchester University, England, February 1975. 

"Chondrite Petrology and Some Terrestrial and Lunar Analogues," 

lecture. St. Andrews University, Scotland, February 1975. 

436 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "Chemical and Petrological Effects of Hypervelacity Impacts," lecture. 

Max Planck Institute, Mainz, Germany, May 1975. 

-. "The Bhola Stone — A Trus Polymict Breccia?" presented paper. 

Meteoritical Society Meeting, Los Angeles, August 1974. 
Fudali, Robert F. "Meteorite Impact Cratering is a Random Process — Or is it? 

Some Examples from Northern Africa," lecture. Geological Society of Wash- 
ington, April 1975. 
Jarosewich, Eugene, A. F. Noonan, and A. DeGasparis. "The Isna Meteorite — 

A C3 Find from Egypt," presented paper. 37th Annual Meeting of the 

Meteoritical Society, UCLA, July 1974. 
Jarosewich, Eugene, and R. T. Dodd. "H Group Xenolith in St. Mesmin 

Meteorite," presented paper. 37th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical 

Society, UCLA, July 1974. 
Jarosewich, Eugene and C. Obermeyer and J. Nelen. "Simultaneous Micro- 
probe Analysis of Silicates for Nine Elements Using Wavelength Dispersive 

System," presented paper. Microprobe Society Meetings, Ottawa, Canada, 

July 1974. 
Jarosewich, Eugene, R. H. Gibbs, Jr., and H. L. Windom. "Heavy Metal 

Concentration in Museum Fish Specimens: Effects of Preservation and 

Time," presented paper. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 

Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, August 1974. 
Mason, Brian H. "The Allende Meteorite — Cosmochemistry's Rosetta Stone?" 

lecture. Chemistry Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 

Virginia, February 1975. 
. "The Allende Meteorite — Cosmochemistry's Rosetta Stone?" lecture. 

National Museum of Natural History Lecture Series, March 1975. 
Melson, William G. "Petrology of Oceanic Crust," series of three lectures. 

Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, New York, October 

. "Petrology of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Spreading Center," lecture. 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, September 1974. 

"Petrology of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Spreading Center," lecture. 

California Institute of Technology, September 1974. 

"Scientific Returns of the Deep Sea Drilling Project," lecture. Smith- 

sonian Senate of Scientists Dinner Forum, February 1974. 

"Scientific Returns of the Deep Sea Drilling Project," lecture. National 

Museum of Natural History. Public Lecture Series, January 1975. 

-. "Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Geological Society of Washington, October 1974. 

"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, December 1974. 
"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Geological Society of America Meetings, Miami, September 1974. 

"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Geology Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
December 1974. 

"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 
November 1974. 

"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 
November 1974. 

"Results of Basement Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," lecture. 

Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, 
November 1974. 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 437 

. "Continents in Motion," series of ten lectures. Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates, Spring 1975. 

Simkin, Thomas. "Glacial Geology and the Ice Ages — Hall 6," lecture. Smith- 
sonian Institution Docents, September 1974. 

. "Man and Biosphere Conference," conference. Roland Center, Virginia, 

October 1974. 

-. "Oceanic Volcanism," lecture and two films. National Museum of 

Natural History Public Lecture Series, December 1974. 

-. "Galapagos Islands Volcanism," lecture. National Museum of Natural 

History Public Lecture Series, January 1975. 

"Galapagos Islands Volcanism," lecture. Princeton University, Prince- 

ton, New Jersey, February 1975. 

"Physical Geology — Hall 20," Smithsonian Institution Docents, March 

White, John S., Jr. "Mineral Names," lecture. The Greater Detroit International 

Gem and Mineral Show, Detroit, Michigan, October 1974. 
. "An Insight into Editing a Mineral Magazine," lecture. Baltimore 

Mineral Society, Baltimore, Maryland, November 1974. 

. "Mineralogy," lecture. Kiwanis Club, Hilo, Hawaii, January 1975. 

-. "The Mineral and Gem Collections of the Smithsonian," lecture. 

Polynesian Gem Collection of Honolulu, Honululu, Hawaii, February 1975. 
"Visiting Some Contemporary Mineral Localities," lecture. Cincinnati 

Mineral Society Annual Show, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1975. 

"The Minerals of Mexico," lecture. National Gem and Mineral Show, 

Denver, Colorado, June 1975. 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 


Ash, John S. "Autumn Migration in Eastern Ethiopia," 16th International 
Ornithological Congress, Canberra, Australia, August 12-17, 1974. 

Divoky, George J., and George E. Watson. "The Pelagic and Near Shore Birds 
of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas." International Symposium on Conserva- 
tion of Marine Birds in Northern North America, Seattle, Washington, May 
13-15, 1975. 

Olson, Storrs L. "New Fossil Evidence of the Origin of Frigatebirds." 16th 
International Ornithological Congress, Canberra, Australia, August 15, 1974. 

Watson, George E. "Studies and Control of Crop Damage by Wild Birds." 
Academy of Technical and Scientific Research, Egyptian Zoological Gardens, 
Gizah, Egypt, August 6, 1974. 

Watson, George E., George M. Jonkel, and F. Graham Cooch. "Dispersal and 
Migratory Movements." International Symposium on Conservation of 
Marine Birds in Northern North America, Seattle, Washington, May 13-15, 

Zug, George R. "Reptiles and Amphibians of New Guinea." Washington 
Herpetological Society, April 1975. 

Office of Animal Management 


Egoscue, Harold. "Care & Management of the Utah Prairie Dog in Captivity." 
Seminar sponsored by National Capitol area branch of the American 
Association for Laboratory Animal Science, September 12, 1974. 

Marcellini, Dale. "Acoustic Behavior of Lizards." Symposium on the Behavior 
and Neurology of Lizards, Front Royal Conservation Center, May 1975. 

438 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

. "Some Aspects of the Thermal Ecology of Hemidactylus frenatus." 

American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists meetings, June 1975. 

Roberts, Miles, and Larry Collins. "Arboreal Folivores in Captivity: Main- 
tenance of a Delicate Minority." Arboreal Folivore Conference, Front Royal, 



Aksnes, K. "Properties of Satellite Orbits: Ephemerides, Dynamical Constants, 

and Satellite Phenomena." International Astronomical Union Colloquium 

No. 28, Planetary Satellites, Ithaca, New York, August 1974. 
. "Short-Period and Long-Period Perturbations of a Spherical Satellite 

due to Direct Solar Radiation." Dynamical Astronomy Division Meeting of 

the American Astronomical Society, Tampa, Florida, December 1974. 

[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 

page 341. 
Aksnes, K., and F. A. Franklin: "Results of 1973 Occultations of Europa by 

lo." International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 28, Planetary 

Satellites, Ithaca, New York, August 1974. 
Aksnes, K., and B. G. Marsden. "The Orbit of Jupiter XIII." Dynamical 

Astronomy Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Tampa, 

Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 

Society, volume 7 (1975), page 342. 
Avrett, E. H. "Formation of the Solar EUV Spectrum." Solar Physics Division 

Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 

1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 

(1975), page 360. 
Black, J. H. "X9 cm CH Emission in Comet Kohoutek (1973f)." National 

Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center Comet 

Kohoutek Workshop, Huntsville, Alabama, June 1975. 
Cameron, A. G. W. "Formation of the Outer Planets and Satellites." The 

International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 28, Planetary Satel- 
lites, Ithaca, New York, August 1974. 
Cameron, A. G. W., and J. B. Pollack. "On the Origin of the Solar System and 

of Jupiter and Its Satellites." Jupiter Conference, Tucson, Arizona, May 

Chaffee, F. H. "Interstellar CH and CH* in Ophiuchus." Spring Meeting of 

the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, May 1975. 
. "Application of Electrography to Astronomical Spectroscopy." Spring 

Meeting of the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts, June 1975. 
Chaisson, E. J. "On Nebular Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics." 1974 United 

States National Committee/International Union of Radio Science Meeting, 

Boulder, Colorado, October 1974. [Abstract] Program of Abstracts, page 73. 
. "Microwave Observations of Rho Ophiuchi." 144th Meeting of the 

American Astronomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. 

[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 

page 436. 
Chaisson, E. J., and C. A. Beichman. "Magnetism in Dense Interstellar Clouds." 

143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, New York, 

August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 

volume 6 (1974), page 336. 
Chang, H. T., and M. D. Grossi. "Long Range ULF Propagation in the Earth 

Lithosphere." International Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/ 

American Physical Society Symposium and United States National Com- 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 439 

mittee/International Union of Radio Science Meeting, Urbana, Illinois, 
June 1975. 

Chase, R. C, L. Golub, A. Krieger, J. K. Silk, G. S. Vaiana, M. Zombeck, and 
A. F. Timothy. "Temperature and Density Measurements of Coronal 
Loops." Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 346. 

Chetin, T., C. J. Forman, and W. Liller. "Optical Characteristics of Candidate 
Stars for X-Ray Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud." 143rd Meeting of 
the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 
page 304. 

Colombo, C, E. M. Gaposchkin, M. D. Grossi, and G. C. Weiffenbach. "Long- 
Tethered Satellites for the Shuttle Orbiter." International Conference on 
Technology of Scientific Space Experiments, Paris, France, May 1975. 

Cook, A. F., and F. A. Franklin. Saturn's Rings — A Survey." International 
Astronomical Union Colloquium number 28, Planetary Satellites, Ithaca, 
New York, August 1974. 

Dalgarno, A. "Model and Pseudopotential Calculations." Fourth International 
Conference on Atomic Physics, Heidelberg, Germany, July 1974. 

. "Fluorescence Processes in Molecular Hydrogen." Perspectives in 

Spectroscopy, a Symposium in honor of Dr. Gerhard Herzberg, Montreal, 
Canada, September 1974. 

"Molecular Processes in Astrophysics." Summer Research Conference 

on Theoretical Chemistry, Boulder, Colorado, June 1975. 

Dickinson, D. F. "Water Vapor in Infrared Stars." 143rd Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 340. 

Docken, K. K. "Recent Theoretical Developments in Calculations of Hl> 
Photoionization." Division of Electron and Atomic Physics of the American 
Physical Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 1974. 

Dupree, A. K. "Ultraviolet Observations of Chromospheric Emission Lines in 
G Stars." 144th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Gainesville, 
Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 6 (1974), page 446. 

. "Ultraviolet Observations of Capella from Copernicus." Solar Physics 

Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, 
January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), page 359. 

Dupree, A. K., and P. V. Foukal. "Plasma Diagnostics from Solar EUV 
Spectra. "International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 27, UV and 
X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, September 1974. 

Dupree, A. K., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, 

E. J. Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, J. E Vernazza, and G. L. VVithbroe. "Extreme 
Ultraviolet Solar Spectra from Skylab-Apollo Telescope Mount." 143rd 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, New York, 
August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 6 (1974), page 349. 

Epstein, R. "Production of the Light Elements in Supernovae." Presented at 
the High Energy Astrophysics Division Meeting of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. 

Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinmann, R. W. Noyes, E. L. Wright, M. Zeilik II, and 

F. J. Low. "High Resolution Maps of the Orion Nebula Region and W3 at 
Far Infrared Wavelengths." 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. 

440 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Field, G. B. "Heating and Ionization of the Interstellar Medium: Star Forma- 
tion." 1974 les Houches Summer School in Theoretical Physics, Paris, 

. "Hot Gas in and between Galaxies." International Astronomical Union 

Colloquium number 27, UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and 
Laboratory Plasmas, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1974. 

"Heating of the Universe by Quasars." Symposium on the Early Evolu- 

tion of the Universe, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North 

Carolina, March 1975. 
Fireman, E. L., J. D'Amico, and J. DeFelice. "The Tritium Content of Solar 

Wind from Surveyor 3 Material." [Abstract] American Chemical Society 

Meeting, Atlantic City, New Jersey, September 1974. 
Foukal, P. V. "The Pressure Balance and Electric Currents of Active Region 

Loop Structures." High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, Colorado, December 

. "The Pressure Balance and Currents in Active Region Loop Structures." 

Solar Physics Division Meeting, American Astronomical Society, Boulder, 

Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 

Society, volume 7 (1975), page 346. 
Frogel, J. A., S. E. Persson, M. Aaronson, E. E. Becklin, K. Matthews, and G. 

Neugebauer. "Stellar Content of Elliptical Galaxy Nuclei." 144th Meeting 

of the American Astronomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 

1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 
(1974), page 441. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "LAGEOS." 18th International COSPAR Meeting, Varna, 
Bulgaria, June 1975. 

Gaposchkin, E. M., J. Latimer, and G. Mendes. "Station Coordinates in the 
Standard Earth III System Derived by Using Camera Data from ISAGEX." 
INTERCOSMOS Symposium on Results of Satellite Observations, Buda- 
pest, Hungary, October 1974. 

Gerassimenko, M., J. M. Davis, R. C. Chase, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, and G. S. 
Vaiana. "Simultaneous X-Ray Spectra and X-Ray Images of an Active 
Region." Presented at the Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin 
of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 347. 

Giacconi, R. "Her X-1 and Cen X-3 Revisited." Seventh Texas Symposium on 
Relativistic Astrophysics, Dallas, Texas, December 1974. 

. "Progress in X-Ray Astronomy." Thirty-Fourth Richtmyer Memorial 

Lecture of the American Association of Physics Teachers, Anaheim, 
California, January 1975. 

Golub, L., A. Krieger, R. Simon, G. Vaiana, and A. F. Timothy. "Temporal 
and Spatial Properties of Coronal Bright Points." Solar Physics Division 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 

1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 
(1975), page 350. 

Gorenstein, P., H. Helmken, and H. Gursky. "Localization of Gamma-Ray 
Bursts with Wide Field Multiple Pinhole Camera System in Near Earth 
Orbit." COSPAR/International Astronomical Union Symposium on Fast 
Transients in X- and Gamma-Rays, Varna, Bulgaria, May 1975. 

Grossi, M. D., editor. Selected Papers on OV4-1 Satellite-to-Satellite Long- 
Range HF Propagation Experiment. Report ER74-4372, Raytheon Company, 
Sudbury, Massachusetts, November 1974. 

. "Spacecraft-to-Spacecraft Ionospheric Measurements on Occasion of 

the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP)." COSPAR Symposium on Beacon 
Satellite Investigations of the Ionosphere Structure and ATSF Data, Moscow, 
USSR, November 1974. 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 441 

Gursky, H., H. Schnopper, E. Schreier, and D. Parsignault. "Preliminary X-Ray 
Results from the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS)." 144th Meeting 
of the American Astronomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), 
page 444. 

Gursky, H., and E. Schreier. "The Binary X-Ray Stars — The Observational 
Picture." International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 67, Variables 
in Relation to the Evolution of Stars and Stellar Systems, Moscow, USSR, 
August 1974. 

Harvey, J. W., A. S. Krieger, J. M. Davis, A. F. Timothy, and G. S. Vaiana. 
"Comparison of Skylab X-Ray and Ground-Based Helium Observations." 
Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 358. 

Hoegy, W. R., H. G. Mayr, L. H. Brace, G. A. Victor, S. Robertson, and 
E. Fontheim. "Local and Non-Local Ionospheric Electron Heating." American 
Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, Washington, D. C, June 1975. 

Jacchia, L. G., J. W. Slowey, and U. von Zahn. "Latitudinal Changes of Com- 
position in the Disturbed Thermosphere from ESRO 4 Measurements." 17th 
International COSPAR Meeting, Varna, Bulgaria, June 1975. 

Jordan, C. "The Intensities of Helium Lines in the Solar EUV Spectrum." 
International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 27, UV and X-Ray 
Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, September 1974. 

Kahler, S. W., A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "General Properties of Soft 
X-Ray Flare Images." Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin 
of the Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 355. 

Kalkofen, W., and P. Ulmschneider. "The Theoretical Temperature Minimum." 
Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 363. 

Kellogg, E. M. "X-Ray Astronomy in the Uhuru Epoch and Beyond," Newton 
Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture. 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 321. 

Kohl, J. "Rocket-Spectrometer Observations of the Center and Limb Spectra 
of the Sun." International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 27, UV 
and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, September 1974. 

Kohl, J. L., W. H. Parkinson, and E. M. Reeves. "Measurements of Solar Line 
Profiles Between 1175 and 3200 A." Solar Physics Division of the American 
Astronomical Society Meeting, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 360. 

Kojoian, G., D. Dickson, R. A. Sramek, and H. M. Tovmassian. "Flux Density 
Measurements of Markarian Objects at Centimeter Wavelengths." 143rd 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, New York, 
August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 6 (1974), page 342. 

Kozai, Y. "Hybrid Systems Used in Dynamics for Artificial Satellites." Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Colloquium number 26, Reference Coordinate 
Systems for Earth Dynamics, Torun, Poland, August 1974. 

Kurucz, R. L. "A Progress Report on Theoretical Four-Dimensional Photometry 
of F, A, and B Stars." Conference on Multicolor Photometry and the 
Theoretical HR Diagram, State University of New York at Albany, October 

442 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Lada, C ]., T. R. Gull, C. A. Gottlieb, and E. W. Gottlieb. "Radio CO and 
Optical Ionization Structure of M8." 144th Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 426. 

. "Advances in Instrumentation for Stellar Photometry." Conference on 

Multicolor Photometry and the Theoretical H-R Diagram, Albany, New 
York, October 1974. 

Latham, D. W. "Conversion for Specular Density to ASA Diffuse Density." 
American Astronomical Society Working Group on Photographic Materials, 
Rochester, New York, August 1974. 

. "Inexpensive Computer Control of a Microphotometer." American 

Astronomical Society Working Group on Photographic Materials, Rochester, 
New York, August 1974. 

"Recent Information on the DQE of Kodak Spectroscopic Plates." 

Topical Meeting on Imaging in Astronomy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 

Lautman, D. A. "Perturbations of a Close Earth Satellite Due to Sunlight 
Reflected from the Earth." Dynamical Astronomy Division Meeting, Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, Tampa, Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 341. 

Lecar, M. "Dynamical Friction in the Coma Cluster." International Astro- 
nomical Union Symposium number 69, Dynamics of Stellar Systems, 
Besancjion, France, September 1974. 

Liller, W., E. W. Gottlieb, and E. L. Wright. "A Possible Period for Scorpio 
X-1." 143rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, New 
York, August 1974. 

Lo, K. Y., R. C. Walker, B. F. Burke, J. M. Moran, K. J. Johnson, and M. S. 
Ewing. "Evidence for Zeeman Splitting in 1720-MHz OH Line Emission." 
145th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Bloomington, 
Indiana, March 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 261. 

Mader, G. L., K. J. Johnston, J. M. Moran, S. H. Knowles, S. A. Mango, and 
P. R. Schwartz. "The Relative Positions of the H^O and OH Masers in W49 
and W30H." 144th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Gaines- 
ville, Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 6 (1974), pages 442-443. 

Mariska, J. T., and G. L. Withbroe. "Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Limb Brighten- 
ing Observations of Lithium-Like Ions." Solar Physics Division Meeting of 
the American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 354. 

Mather, J. C, and M. M. Litvak. "Vibrationally Excited Silicon Monoxide 
Masers with Radiation Trapping." 143rd Meeting of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), pages 487-488. 

Mazurek, T. J. "Chemical Potential Effects on Neutrino Diffusion in Super- 
novae." 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, 
New York, August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 6 (1974), page 314. 

Mertz L. "Heterographic Techniques for Astronomy." Topical Meeting on 
Imaging in Astronomy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1975. 

Mohr, P. A. "New Data on Evolution of the Ethiopian Rift." 56th Annual 
Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C, June 1975. 

Mohr, P. A., A. Girnius, J. R. Cherniack, E. M. Gaposchkin, and J. Latimer. 
"Recent Crustal Deformation in the Ethiopian Rift Valley." International 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 443 

Symposium on Recent Crustal Movements, Zurich, Switzerland, August 

Moran, J. M., K. Y. Lo, R. C. Walker, B. F. Burke, K. J. Johnston, G. L. Mader, 
S. H. Knowles, E. O. Hulburt, and G. D. Papadopoulos. "VLBI Studies of 
H2O Maser Sources." 144th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), pages 436-437. 

Nolle, J., A. S. Krieger, D. Webb, G. S. Vaiana, A. J. Lazarus, J. Sullivan, and 
A. F. Timothy. "The Coronal Source of Recurrent, High Speed Solar Wind 
Streams." Solar Physics Division Meeting, American Astonomical Society, 
Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 358. 

Noyes, R. W. "A New View of the Sun from Skylab." Maria Mitchell Ob- 
servatory, Nantucket, Massachusetts, July 1974. 

. "The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sunspots." International Astro- 
nomical Union Colloquium number 27, UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of As- 
trophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 

"Implications of Recent Data for Theoretical Solar Physics." Solar 

Theoretical Workshop, Tucson, Arizona, October 1974. 

"The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sunspots." 144th Meeting of 

the American Astronomical Society, Gainesville, Florida, December 1974. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 428. 

"Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Sun's Atmosphere from 

Skylab." Meeting of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, New England 
Section, Lexington, Massachusetts, January 1975. 

"EUV Emission from Sunspots." Solar Physics Division Meeting, 

American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. 

-. "EUV and X-Ray Observations from Out-of-the Ecliptic." Symposium 

on Scientific Goals and Objectives, National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration Office of Space Science, Columbia, Maryland, April 1975. 

"The Solar Maximum Mission." Presented at the Symposium on the 

Study of the Sun and Interplanetary Medium in Three Dimensions, Green- 
belt, Maryland, May 1975. 

Oppenheimer, M. "Gas Phase Chemistry in Comets." International Astro- 
nomical Union Colloquium number 25, Study of Comets, Greenbelt, Mary- 
land, October 1974. 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, K. K. Docken, and G. A. Victor. "Molecular 
Densities on the Basis of Atmospheric Explorer Composition Measure- 
ments." American Geophysical Union Winter Meeting, San Francisco, 
California, December 1974. 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, and H. Doyle. "Bound State Method in 
Scattering." 4th International Conference on Atomic Physics, Heidelberg, 
Germany, July 1974. 

Oppenheimer, M., H. Doyle, and A. Dalgarno. "A Bound State Method for 
Phase Shifts in Elastic Scattering of Electrons from Atoms and Ions." 4th 
International Conference on Atomic Collisions, Heidelberg, Germany, July 

Perrenod, S. C, and G. A. Shields. "X-Ray Heating and the Optical Light 
Curve of HZ Herculis." 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Rochester, New York, August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 304. 

Petrasso, R. D., S. W. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, and G. S. Vaiana. "The 
Location of the Site of Energy Release in an X-Ray Sub-Flare." Presented 
at the Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 

444 / Smithsonian Year 1975 

Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 352. 

Reeves, E. M. "A Solar Observatory in Space: Initial Results and Mission 
Assessment." American Astronautical Society Meeting, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, August 1974. 

. "ATM Observations: UV Results." International Astronomical Union 

Colloquium number 27, UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and 
Laboratory Plasmas, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1974. 

"Solar EUV Observations from the Harvard ATM Spectrometer." 

Royal Society British National Committee on Space Research Meeting, 
London, England, January 1975. 

-. "A Review of the Harvard Results from Skylab." Special Colloquium 

Series on Skylab Experiments, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, 
March 1975. 

Reeves, E. M., J. G. Timothy, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, 
E. J. Schmahl, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Initial Results from the 
EUV Spectroheliometer on ATM." American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics/American Geophysical Union Conference on the Scientific 
Experiments on Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974. 

Reeves, E. M., J. Vernazza, and G. Withbroe. "The Quiet Sun in the Extreme 
Ultraviolet." Royal Astronomical Society, British National Committee on 
Space Research Meeting, London, England, January 1975. 

Rybicki, G., and P. Harrison. "Wiener Filtering of Sampled Astronomical 
Spectra." 143rd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Rochester, 
New York, August 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 6 (1974), page 306. 

Schmahl, E. J. "Eruptive Prominences in the EUV: Observations with the 
Harvard Spectrometer on ATM." Solar Physics Division Meeting, Amer- 
ican Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 348. 

Schmahl, E. J., J. T. Grasling, J. D. Bohlin, A. S. Krieger, and E. Tandberg- 
Hanssen. "A Review of Skylab/ATM Observations and Analyses of Coronal 
Transients." 18th International COSPAR Meeting, Varna, Bulgaria, June 

Schnopper, H. W. "Radiative Electron Capture and Bremsstrahlung." Inter- 
national Conference on X-Ray Processes in Matter, Helsinki, Finland, July 

. "Radiative Electron Capture and Bremsstrahlung." Seminar of the 

FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Amsterdam, The Nether- 
lands, November 1974. 

-. "Laboratory Aspects of X-Ray Astronomy." Centre National de la 

Recherche Scientifique Colloquium, University of Paris, Orsay, France, 
November 1974. 

-. "Radiative Electron Capture and Bremsstrahlung." Colloquium, In- 

stitute Marie and Pierre Curie, University of Paris, Paris, France, November 

'The ANS Hard X-Ray Experiment." Netherlands Astronomical 

Association, Groningen, Holland, January 1975. 

Schreier, E. J. "The Binary X-Ray Sources." Seminar at the University of 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, January 1975. 

Sekanina, Z. "Progress in Our Understanding of Cometary Dust Tails." 
International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 25, Study of Comets, 
Greenbelt, Maryland, October 1974. 

. "A Continuing Controversy: Has the Cometary Nucleus been Re- 
solved?" International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 25, Study 
of Comets, Greenbelt, Maryland, October 1974. 

. "Modeling of Motions of Vaporizing Dust Particles in the Solar 

Appendix 8. Selected Contributions of the Staff I 445 

System." International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 31, Inter- 
planetary Dust and Zodiacal Light, Heidelberg, Germany, June 1975. 

"Predicted Favorable Visibility Conditions for Anomalous Tails of 

Comets." International Astronomical Union Colloquium number 31, Inter- 
planetary Dust and Zodiacal Light, Heidelberg, Germany, June 1975. 

Silk, J. K., S. W. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Time Changes in 
the Structure and Spectrum of an X-Ray Flare." Solar Physics Division 
Meeting, American Astronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 355. 

Smith, B. A., A. F. Cook II, W. A. Feibelman, and R. F. Beebe. "On a Suspected 
Ring External to the Visible Rings of Saturn." International Astronomical 
Union Colloquium number 28, Planetary Satellites, Ithaca, New York, 
August 1974. 

Tananbaum, H. D., and J. B. Hutchings. "Parameters of X-Ray Binaries." 
Seventh Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, Dallas, Texas, 
December 1974. 

Timothy, J. G. "The Relationship between Coronal Bright Points and the 
Chromospheric Network." Solar Physics Division Meeting, American As- 
tronomical Society, Boulder, Colorado, January 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 350. 

. "Photon-Counting Detector Arrays Based on Micro-Channel Array 

Plates." International Conference on Image Processing Techniques in 
Astronomy, Utrecht, The Netherlands, March 1975. 

Timothy, J. G., and E. M. Reeves. "Preliminary Results from the Harvard 
ATM Calibration Rocket Program." American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics/American Geophysical Union Conference on the Scientific 
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